US 3478378 A
Abstract available in
Claims available in
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Nov. 18, 1969 P. J. GLASGOW 3,478,378
BOOKBINDING MACHINE FOR FOLDING BooK END LEAVES Filed July 31, 1968 8 SheetsSheet-l A TTORNEYS' P. J. GLASGOW 3,478,378
BOOKBINDING MACHINE FOR FOLDING BOOK END LEAVES Filed July 5l, 1968 8 Sheets-Sheet 2 .In u o s l l O I I O o o Q Nov. 1s, 1969 .m Mm l Nm o n H n mlllh l Illu.
-H Tamm mw momm .vm Il, @E N NMS Nov. 18, 1969 P. J. GLASGOW 3,478,318
BOOKBINDING MACHINE FOR FOLDING BOOK END LEAVES Filed July 31, 1968 8 Sheets-Sheet 5 PA UL J. GLASGOW BY kfw A T TORNEYJ' BOOKBINDlNG MACHINE FOR FOLDING BOOK END LEAVES Filed July 31, 1968 Nov. 18, 1969 P. J. GLASGOW 8 Sheets-Sheetl 4 J/vvsm'oa PAUL. J. ensaow By 4d TTORNEYS Nov. 18, 1969 A P. .1. GLASGOW 3,478,378
BOOKBINDING MACHINE FOR FOLDING BOOK END LEAVES Filed July 31, 1968 8 Sheets-Sheet 5 JA/VEWTUR PAUL J GZAJ'GOW Nov. 18, 1969 P. J. GLASGOW 3,478,378
BOOKBINDING MACHINE FOR FOLDING BOOK END LEAVES 8 Sheets-Sheet 6 Filed July 31, 1968 INVENTOR PAUL .I GLASGUW BY www Nov. 18, 41969 P. J. GLASGOW 3,478,378
BOOKBINDING MACHINE FOR FOLDING BOOK END LEAVES Filed July 3l, 1968 8 Sheets-Sheet '7 vRTlc/JL L OPING AND FOLDI W cyL/NDERS NG HYDRAULIC MOTOR (PUSHER) GAGING CYLINDER V- 5 A 8 V- 4 sol.. sol.. P "1' INVENTOR PAUL .L GLASGOW BY MM2@ A TTORNE'YJ' Nov. 18, 1969 Filed July 51, 1968 P. J. GLASGOW BOOKBINDING MACHINE FOR FOLD-1N@ Boox END LEAVES 8 sheets-sheet a A ATTURA/EYJ United States Patent O U.s. cl. 11-1 2z claims ABSTRACT oF THEDIsCLosURE Machine for folding end leaf assemblies on books preparatory to mounting the covers thereon, said machine performing the conventional function of folding the outer leaves upon the inner leaves, by the novel method of first looping and then pressing the outer leaves to form the folds.
BACKGROUND THE INVENTION Field of the invention In the binding and rebinding of books,"the folding of end leaves to hingedly support the covers.
ADescription of the prior art The traditional method of mounting end leaves on books is, at least in part, a manual operation. Two separate securing procedures are required: one is to attach the inner leaf to the books by gluing, sewing or other conventional means; the second is to form afold in the outer leaf 'and to secure it to the inner leaf to provide a hinged `connection between the two leaves. Even in automated operations, the folding of the outer leaf upon the inner leaf requiresmanual handling of the book, includingy opening of the end leaves and inserting them into a mechanical folder. The mechanical folding operation is not satisfactory for the reason, among others, that the fold is formed progressively along its longitudinal axis and may result in a biased positioning of the outer leaf. Furthermore, this is a relatively slow procedure which is not conducive to the requirements of automatic machinery. V
With particular reference Vto the patent art, the closest patent on a bo-okbinding machine known to, applicant is Patent No.v 3,339,718 issued to James et al. on Jiily 1l,
` SUMMARY oF THE iNvENTro The invention is of a machine for folding end leaves on books, including means for folding the outer leaf upon the inner leaf to forma hinge between the leaves. More particularly,
functions: rst, it forms a predetermined loop in the outer leaf; second, it presses the loop into a predetermined fold. The loops are formed by rotating rollers or other means which frictionally engage the outer leaves and slide them relatively to the inner leaves in the direction ofthe joint between them. Loops are thereby formed in the outer leaves and these loops are then squeezed by the same the folding means performs two successive,
rollers which formed them (exerting greater pressure than in the loop-forming process) to reduce them to folds positioned flat against thel inner leaves.
In the preferred embodiment` of this invention, a book having apair of end leaf assemblies secured thereto von opposite sides thereof, is advanced mechanically (or man- 3,478,378 Patented Nov. 18, 1969 ice and sliding them relative to the inner leaves. The same rollers (or other pressure applying elements) are then caused to squeeze or press the loops to form longitudinally extending folds disposed at Iagainst the inner leaves.
The inner faces of the folds are secured by glue, thermoplastics, solvents or other suitable means to the inner leaves of the end leaf assemblies. The adhering operation is performed, preferably, prior to the fold-forming operation, and either prior or subsequent to or concurrently with the loop-forming operation. In consequence of these looping, adhering and folding operations, the outer leaves of the end leaf assemblies are hingedly secured to the inner leaves and the bound book preparatory to the cover mounting and securing operations.
The key to this invention is the loop-forming step which precedes the fold-forming operation. As appears from my copending patent application, Ser. No. 740,407, filed May 24, 1968, this inventions requires the use of end leaf assemblies consisting of either two or three leaves interconnected along corresponding side edges. When threeleaf `assemblies are used, the frictional coefficient between the outer and intermediate leaves should be exceeded by the frictional coeicient between the intermediate and inner leaves. When two-leaf assemblies are used, the frictional coefficient between the facing sides of the outer and inner leaves should be exceeded by the frictional coefficient on the non-facing sides of the two leaves. Rollers with natural or synthetic rubber surfaces will normally provide a suiciently high frictional coefficient relative to the outer leaf surfaces which they engage, to overcome the friction between the facing surfaces of the leaves.
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWING FIGURE l is a side view of the end leaf looping and folding mechanism of the present invention.
FIGURE 2 is a top view thereof, also showing the bookadvancing mechanism.
FIFURE 3 is 'a vertical section on the line 3-3 of FIGURE 2, looking toward the back of the machine.
FIGURE 4 is a fragmentary view showing the roller suspension and transport means.
FIGURE 5 is a vertical section on the line 5-5 of FIGURE 4.
FIGURE 6 is a vertical section on the line 6-6 of FIGURE 1. y v
vFIGURE 7 is a view ofthe roller mechanism in the first 4stage of the endY leaf looping and folding operation, wherein one s ,et of rollers is shown in operative position againstone side of abook.
, FIGURE 8 is a similar View' showing the secondfstage in operation, wherein bothsets of rollers are operatively positioned against the sides of the book. V
FIGURE 9 is a view showin the third stage in the end ,leaf loopingI and foldingrv operation, i wherein, 4 without clamping pressure, therollers frictionally engage theouter leaves of the two end leaf assemblies and rotate in complementary directions to slide said outer leaves downwardly to form loops.l l FIGURE 10 is a View showing the fourth stage in the operation, wherein the rollers are caused to apply clamping pressure upon the book and tfo rotate in directions opposite theirdirections of rotation in the third stage ofthe operation', thereby squeezingtheloops and forming folds. FIGURE 1l is a View of the final stage in the operation, wherein the rollers have returned the book to its starting yposition. preparatory to transport to a subsequent processing station.
FIGURE l2 is a schematic drawing of the hydraulic system of the machine.
FIGURE 13 is the electrical circuit of the machine.
The machine which is herein disclosed and claimed may 'be connected to other bookbinding machines as one component machine in a functionally and mechanically connected series of machines, each performing one step or operation in the bookbinding process, or it may function as a separate and independent machine performing the single function of folding the outer leaves of end leaf assemblies. For the purpose of clarity and completeness, the machine will herein be described in relation to other machines in the bookbinding procedure.
FIGURE 2 shows the relationship of the present machine to other components of a multi-station bookbinding machine. Machine 10 is mounted on a frame 12 which may be connected to other machines in the bookbinding machine. The direction of movement of the books being processed is indicated by arrow 14 in FIGURE 2.
In the operations which precede those of the present machine 10, the pages or signatures of the book are bound together to form a bound book 16 which is complete except for end leaves and covers. End leaf assemblies 18 are glued or sewed or otherwise secured to opposite sides of the bound book 16, providing the result shown in FIG- URE 7. It is in this condition that book 16 arrives at the station shown in FIGURE 7.
The book moves on support rollers 20 which are rotatably mounted in channel 2. In the automated form of this invention, push bars 24 are used to advance the 'book from station to station. These push bars are mounted on parallel chain drives 26a and 2Gb, 28a and 28b, 30a and 30b and such other chain drives of like construction as may be needed. These chain drives are mounted on sprockest 32 which rotate in clockwise direction, as viewed in FIGURE 2 and as indicated by arrows 34. Sprocket shafts 36 are supported on frame members 38 which, in turn, are supported on the main frame 12. Suitable drive means shown in FIGURE 3 are connected to the sprockets to drive the chains in the directions indicated by arrows 40, 42. They comprise a variable speed hydraulic motor 44, a drive gear 46 mounted on the drive shaft 48, and driven gears 50 mounted on sprocket shafts 36.
It will be understood that push rods 24 (there being one push rod for each pair of chains) travel generally orbital paths, but always oriented with their longitudinal axis in perpendicular relation to the path of movement of the book. When moving in the direction of arrows 40 (FIG- URE 2), they are in projected position across the path of the book so as to engage and push the book in the same direction. During this portion of the cycle, a book that has been processed in the end leaf looping and folding station shown in FIGURE 2 is ejected therefrom while another book is concurrently advanced into that station. When moving in the direction of arrows 42, the pushers are in retracted position, removed from the path of the book, and removed from engagement with the book. During this portion of the cycle, the end leaf looping and folding operations take place, phased by a series of electrical switches sequentially engaged and actuated by one or more pushers.
The operation with which this invention is concerned commences when push rod 24 (not shown) on chains 26a and 26b move book 16 with its end leaves 18 into the position shown in FIGURE 7. i
In this position, lbook 16 stands upright with its back or spine resting on supporting rollers 20, one side of the book bearing against a series of rubber-surfaced rollers 50, 50a and 50h, the opposite side engaged by resilient holding means, for example, a spring biased holding and guide plate 52 which is slidably mounted on a support 54 for rectilinear movement toward and away from the path of the book. A tension spring 56 secured at one end to holding plate 52 and at its opposite end to a suitable support biases the holding plate in leftward direction, as viewed in FIGURE 7, to apply suicient pressure uponA the book 4 to hold it in upright position against rollers 50, 50a and 50b.
It will now be noted in FIGURE 2, that holding plate 52 has a curved, leading edge 52a. When the book is moved along on supporting conveyor rollers 20 into its FIGURE 7 position, it engages the curved leading edge 52a of holding plate 52 and cams the plate out of its path. This is done in opposition to the tension of spring 56, and once the book reaches its FIGURE 7 position, the same spring tension, exerted against the book through` plate 52 holds the book against rollers 50, 50a and 50b.
It will be seen in FIGURES 2 and 3 that the frame of the machine supports a pair of spaced, parallel, horizontally disposed shafts 60. Secured to and depending from said shafts is a pair of supporting plates `62.. The connecting elements between said plates and said shafts are brackets 64, fasteners '66 which attach the plates to the brackets, and fasteners 68 which attach the brackets to the shafts. See FIGURE 6.
Secured to supporting plates 62 are shaft supporting blocks 70; Rotatably supported on said blocks (see, for example, FIGURE 7), by means of suitable bearings, are shafts 74 of rollers 50, 50a and 5011, and shafts 76, 78 and 80. Sprockets 82 on shafts 74, 76, 78 and 80 support a drive chain 84. Secured to the drive chain is a bracket 86 and adjustably secured to said bracket is the piston rod 88 of hydraulic cylinder 90. The hydraulic cylinder is mounted on plate y64 and is connected through a directional control valve to a hydraulic pump. A retractable stop member 92, supported by a block 94, is operatively connected to the plunger of a solenoid '96.
At the start of a cycle, bracket 86 rests on stop member 92 and chain 84 is stationary. When the hydraulic cylinder 90 is operated in upward direction, its piston rod 88 will rise, carrying bracket 86 with it and causing chain 84 to move in clockwise direction as viewed in FIGURE 7. The yextent of chain movement will be determined by the distance between stop members 92 and 97. See FIG- URE 9. Clockwise movement of chain 84 will cause corresponding clockwise movement of rollers 50, 50a and 50b. When the hydraulic cylinder is operated in downward direction, piston rod 88 will move downwardly and cause counterclockwise movement of chain 84 and rollers 50, 50a and 50b, as viewed in FIGURE 10.
Stop member 92 will limit downward movement of the piston rod and this will also determine the extent of counterclockwise movement of the chain and rollers 50, 50a and 50h. However, solenoid 96 may be energized to retract the stop member (FIGURE l0) out of the path of piston rod 88 and bracket 86, and the piston rod will thereby be free to move downwardly to its FIGURE 10 position, where its extended limit of movement is determined by another stop member 98. Such extended downward movement of the piston rod and bracket 86 will produce a correspondingly extended counterclockwise movement of chain 84 and rollers 50, 50a and 50b.
On the opposite side of book 16 is a parallel organization of elements. See FIGURES 3, 4 and 5. A series of rubber coated rollers 100, a and 100b are rotatably mounted on blocks 102 supported on plates 104 which are themselves supported on shafts 60. However, where blocks 70 (see FIGURE 6) are ixedly secured to plates 62, blocks 102 are slidably mounted on plates 104. Where plates 62 are xedly secured to shafts 60, plates 104 are slidably supported on shafts 60. This is best seen in FIG- URES 5 and 6. Plates 104 are secured to depending flanges 106 of sleeves 108 which are slidably mounted on shafts A60.
It will be noted (FIGURE 3) that hydraulic cylinder 110 is mounted on bracket 112 attached to frame 12. Piston rod 114 of said hydraulic cylinder is connected to brackets 116, 118 and blocks 120 which are secured to plates 104. Hydraulic cylinder 110 may be operated to move plates 104 (and all they support) leftwardly, as
5. indicated by arrow 122 in FIGURE 8, or rightwardly, as indicated by arrow 124 in FIGURE 1l. y v
As seen in FIGURES 4, and 6, mounted on blocks 102 is a System of shafts, sprockets and' chain drive c'orresponding tol the system on blocks 70. Specifically, shafts 130 are rotatably mounted on"blocks"102v by means of suitable bearings, and mounted on three 'of said shafts are rollers v100,"100al and 10011 above mentioned. Secured to all six shafts are sprockets 132 and driving said sprockets is a drive chain 134. As in the case of drive chain 84,
there is a bracket 136 which is secured to drive chain 134,
and said bracket, is adjustably connected to piston rod 138 of hydraulic cylinder 140.
When hydraulic cylinder 140 is operated to retract piston rod 138, bracket 136 moves upwardly tothe same degree, causing counterclockwise movement of drive chain 134 and rollers 100, 100a and 10012. The extent of such movement is determined by distance between stop members 142 and 144.,Movement inthe opposite direction is effected by operating the hydraulic cylinder in the opposite' direction and causing downward movement of the piston rod 138. If stop member144, supported by bracket 146 and actuated by solenoid 148, is projected to its FIGURE 7 position, it will serve as a travel limiting member relative to bracketp136. If the solenoid is `ener- 'gized and stop member 144 s retracted to its FIGURE 10 position, piston rod 138 will be ableto move downwardly until bracket 136 engages still anotherv stop meniber 150. This will cause clockwise movementv of-drive chain 134 and rollers 100, 100a and 100b.
The functional significance of the foregoing movements and operations will now be discussed. In preceding operations, book 16 is formed and multi-leaf end leaves 18 are secured thereto in conventional fashion and by conventional means. As has been indicated, the book would then be pushed along a suitable conveying system, t
e.g., rollers 152, by meansl of push rod 24 (not shown) on sprocket chains 26a, 261;. s the book moves onto rollers 20,' it enters the space'between rollers 50, 50d and 50b on the one hand and rollers 100,-100:1 and 100b on the other hand. i
The book then encounters temporary supporting element 52 and, more particularly, curved'edge 52a thereof. The book thereupon'cams the' supporting elementover to the side (leftwardly as vie'wed inIFIGURE '2)' and continues its movement along rollers 20 until it is positioned and supported between the supporting ele'ment `52 and rollers '50, A50a and 50b. This is the'situation which is depicted in FIGURE 7. y'
At this time, or at any other suitable time and place, applicators 160 are Iactuated to apply and adhesive to the lower portions of the endleaves 18 as shown in FIGURE 7, or else actuate a1 previously applied adhesive. It will -be noted, that when this iirststep in. the procedure ,herein described is completed, the,book is positioned. with its back resting on thev horizontal platform which rollers 20 denne, the outer .end leaf .on one side ofthe book being disposed against the vertical set of `rollers v50, 50a and 50h, the outer leaf on .the opposite side of the book being engaged by the temporary supporting element 52. 'f
In the next step, as depicted in FIGURE 8, hydraulic cylinder, 1010 is operatedxto .move bracket 116 inthe Hdirection of arrow 122..-Since thisbracket is connected to plates 104, through vertical frame' members`117 and flanged sleeves 108, this 'movement of bracket 116 results in a corresponding movement of/.plates.104, blocks '102 and rollers 100, 100:1 and 100b. As shown in FIGURE 8, these rollers are now brought to bear againstone side of book 16, and, morey particularly, against theouter leaf of the end leaves -on thatside of the book. The bookis now held between rollers 50, a and'50b on the Aone side, and rollers 100, a and 100b on the opposite side.
What is now needed, for the next step in the process, is a controlled degree of frictionalengagement between the rollers and the outer leaves Aon the b oolv to perform the looping operation which is about to be described. This is achieved by the following means: Blocks 102 are slidably mounted on plates 104. As will be seen in FIGURE A6, horizontally extending slots 160, 162 and 164 are formed in blocks 102 and projecting through said slots are pins 166, 168 and 170 respectively, these pins being secured to plates 104. Tension springs 172 and 174 are secured at one end to blocks 102 and at their opposite end to plates 104. As viewed in FIGURE 6, springs 172 and 174 act upon blocks 102 to urge them in the direction of blocks 70.
When plates 104 and blocks 102 mounted thereon are caused to move to their FIGURE 8 positions, rollers 100, 100a and 100b will encounter the book and press it ag-ainst opposing rollers 50, 50a and 50b. Resistance to further movement of rollers 100, 10011 and 100b in the stated direction will cause blocks 102 to pause while plates 104 continue their movement in the same direction under the influence of hydraulic cylinder 110. Relative slidable movement between the plates and the blocks will result, as indicated by interrupted lines 102a and arrow 103 in FIGURE 6. It will be understood from this description, that the tension in springs 172 and 174 will determine the pressure which rollers 100, 100a and 100b will apply to the book. The tension, and hence the pressure, are predetermined, and this predetermines the friction coeicient between both sets of rollers (100, 100a, 100b and 50, 50a, 50h) and the outer leaves of the end leaves of the book. Itv is assumed that account is taken of the frictional coeicient of the materials of which the roller surfaces and outer-leaves are made.
, Switch 176 on one of the plates 104 (FIGURE 6) provides a limiting factor with respect to .the tension of springs 172 and 174 and the pressure between the rollers and the book produced thereby. As plates 104 continue to move in the direction of plates 62 and tension in the progressively stretched springs 172, 174 increases, at a predetermined point switch 176 will engage one of the blocks -brackets 86 and 136 upwardly. This results in clockwise movement of drive chain 84 and rollers 50, 50a and.50b, and counterclockwise movement of drive chain 136 and rollers 100, 100a and 10011. Since there is a sufficient frictional coefficient between the. rollers and the outer leaves vof the endleaves ofthe book, this will result in downwar-d-lysliding movement of said outer leaves to form loops 180.1This is shown` in FIGURE 9 .and` it Will there also be seen that brackets 86 and 136 abut stop members 97 .and 142 respectively. This constitutes a limitation on the vupward movement of said brackets-and consequently determines. the extent of angular movement ofthe drive chains and the rollers, and consequently it is an accurately predetermined measure of the size of theloops which are formed in ,the outer leaves, each side independently of the other. Adjustments of various kinds are provided to ad- .just the size of the loops. l The next. step vin the procedure isdepicted in FIGURE 10. Switch 176 which isthe sensing element in the preceding step, is now bypassed and the full thru-st of hydraulic cylinder is now exerted upon blocks 102 and rollers.100, 100e and 100b. Springs 172'and 174 no longer serve as a cushion between blocks 102 and plates 104. Pins 166, 168 and 170 now bear directly against the ends of slots 160, 162 and 164, as is clearly shown -in FIGURE 10. A clamping action now results between the rollers on the one hand and the book on the other hand. Stop members 92 and 144 are now retracted by their respective solenoids 96 and 148. Hydraulic cylinders `90 and 140 are now energized to move their respective tions shown in FIGURE 10, these stop positions being represented by stop elements 98 and 150 respectively. In consequence of this reverse action of hydraulic cylinders 90 and 140, drive chain 84 and its rollers 50, 50a and 50b are caused to move in counterclockwise direction, while chain 134 and rollers 100, 100a and 100b are caused to move in clockwise direction. The effect is shown in FIG- URE 10 where the book is shown moved upwardly to an elevated position above rollers 20. During the process of moving the book upwardly, loops 180 are squeezed at against the book by rollers 50 and 100, and folds 182 are thereby formed in the outer leaves of the end leaves of the book. Since glue or other adhesive was previously applied to the inner leaves of the end leaves along the back of the book, as indicated in FIGURE 7, the folded loops will now be adhesively secured to the glued portions of the inner leaves as shown in FIGURE l1.
The process is now complete and the book is ready for subsequent bookbinding operations. Elevated book 16 is returned to supporting rollers 20 by operating hydraulic cylinders 90 and 140 in upward direction. The chain drives 84 and 134 will rotate their respective `sets of rollers 50, 50a and 50b, 100, 100a and 100b, in such directions as to feed the book downwardly to its original position on said rollers 20. See FIGURE 11.
Solenoids 76 and 148 are now de-energized and their spring-loaded stop elements 92 and 144 are spring-urged forwardly into the path of brackets 86 and 136. Hydraulic cylinder 110 is now operated to move bracket 116 in the opposite direction from that shown in FIGURE 8, to wit, in the direction of arrow 124 of FIGURE 11. Rollers 100, 100a and 100b are thereby moved out of engagement with the book and the book remains standing on supporting rollers 20 by reason of the presence of rollers 50, 50a and 50h on the one side, and spring-loaded plate 52 on the opposite side. Hydraulic cylinders 90 and 140 are now operated in downward direction until brackets 86 and 136 are brought to a stop against stop elements 92 and 144.
All elements are now in their initial starting position preparatory to duplicating the sequence of operations above-described, with respect to successive books which are fed to the machine by conventional means. Pushers 24 "are now ready to move inwardly and forwardly in or to lthe hydraulic system.
As appears in the schematic drawing of this system (FIGURE 12), pump 204 is connected to communicating lines 206, 208 and 210 which are themselves connected to the operating units of the hydraulic system. Stabilization of the line pressure below a predetermined level is effected through a relief valve 212 which is connected to one of the lines, e.g., line 206. When pressure in excess of the predetermined level builds up in the hydraulic system, this valve will bleed the system and elect a return ow of the hydraulic fluid back into the reservoir.
As shown in FIGURE 13 the 220 volt current, reduced to single phase through conductors 214 and 216, energizes the primary of step-down transformer 218 which steps the voltage down to 50 volts. The 50 volt supply from the secondary is then rectified through rectifier network 220 in order to power certain relay circuitry about to be described.
High speed valve solenoid V 1 between conductors 214 and 216 is controlled by switch S-2 and relay contacts R-la and R-lb, and this valve, in turn, controls hydraulic motor 44 which powers the book pusher chain drives 26a and 26b, 28a and 28b, 30a and 30b. See FIGURES 2 and 3 and the two schematic diagrams, FIG- URES l2 and 13. Book pushers 24 are thereby operated at a relatively high speed and successive books are moved forwardly at corresponding speed into successive stations, including the end leaf looping and folding station shown in FIGURE 2 and discussed above.
On their return stroke (moving in the direction of arrows 42 in FIGURE 2), the book pushers are retracted from book engaging positions, at least one of said pushers moving into switch engaging position. Specifically, the pusher shown in FIGURE 2 will actuate a normally open microswitch S-3, thereby energizing relay R-l. This relay will remain energized by virtue of the locking circuit through normally closed switch S-17 and relay R-l normally open contacts R-la which are now in closed (energized) state. Energized relay R-1 will open normally closed relay contacts R-lb de-energizing valve solenoid V-2 closing relay contacts R-lc and energizing low speed valve solenoid V-1, thereby continuing the movementof the pushers in the direction of arrows 42, but at 10W speed.
The pusher shown in FIGURE 2 will now actuate normally open microswitch S-S and energize relay R-2. This relay will retain its energized condition by reason of the locking circuit through normally open (now closed) relay contacts R-2a. Normally open relay contacts R-2b of the same relay R-2 are now closed and valve solenoid V-3 will be energized through normally closed relay contacts R-3a of relay R-3, normally closed relay contacts R-4a of relay R-4 and presently closed contacts R-Zb of relay R-2.
Cylinder 110 is thereby actuated and the carriage (tubes 108, plates 104, rollers 100, 100a, 100b, etc., FIGURE 3) is caused to move in the direction of arrow 122 (FIGURE 8) until normally open microswitch S-6 (said switch, together with its housing, being designated 176 in FIGURE 6) is actuated by spring-urged block 102. The book is now held under spring pressure alone (springs 172, 174) between sets of rollers 50, 50a, 50b and 100, 10051, 100b. Actuation of switch S-6 results in energizing of relay R-3, opening of normally closed relay contacts R-3a, and deenergizing valve solenoid V-3, thereby stopping the carriage temporarily in its inward travel.
Contacts R-3b of relay R-S are now closed Iby reason of the energized condition of said relay, thereby energizing valve solenoid V-5 which operates hydraulic cylinders and 140 in upward direction (FIGURE 9), causing the looping rollers 50, 50a, 50b and 100, 100e, 100b to rotate, thereby forming loops 180 in the end leaves of the book.
Switch S-6 will remain in actuated condition as long as the two sets of looping rollers grip the book between them. This switch will open later in the cycle when the carriage moves in the direction of arrow 124 (FIGURE 11) to disengage rollers 100, 100a, 100b from the book.
As the pusher shown in FIGURE 2 continues its movement in the direction of arrows 42, it will encounter and close normally open switch S-7, thereby energizing relay R-8. This relay remains energized through a locking circuit controlled by normally open, now closed, relay contacts R-Sa. Relay contacts R-Sb will close the circuit to valve solenoid V-3 which is thereby re-energized, causing the carriage to continue to move in the direction of arro'w 122 (FIGURE 8) until full hydraulic clamping pressure is exerted upon the book by rollers 100, g, 100b, preparatory to the operation depicted in FIGURE l0.
The pusher shown in FIGURE 2 now actuates switch S-14, thereby energizing relay R-7. This relay locks itself in energized condition by virtue of normally open, now closed, relay contacts R-7a and normally closed switch S-15. Normally open relay contacts R-7b of relay R-7 (FIGURE s) win "9 are now closed, thereby energizing electrical Solenoids V-7 and V-S and retracting stop elements 92 and 144 from the paths of brackets 86 and 136 respectively (FIGURE 3).
The pusher shown in FIGURE 2 will now actuate normally open, single pole, single throw switch S-9, thereby energizing relay R-S and opening relay contacts R-Sa to prevent accidental or inadvertent actuation of valve solenoid V-S. Relay contacts R-Sb are now closed by virtue of the energizing of relay R-S and power is thereby supplied to valve solenoid V-6.
Energizing of valve solenoid V-6 will cause operation of hydraulic cylinders 90 and 140 in downward direction, as viewed in FIGURE 10, and rollers 50, 50a, 50b and 100, 100a, 10022, tightly gripping the book, will rotate to raise it to the level shown in said FIGURE 10. This will enable the rollers to squeeze the loops 180 in the end leaves of the book and to press them into folds. During this portion of the cycle, relay R-S is locked in energized condition -by the holding circuit through normally open, now closed, relay contacts R-Sc and normally closed switch S-11. v The pusher of FIGURE 2 will now actuate and open said switch S-11 and thereby open the holding circuit last mentioned and de-energize relay R-S. This will result in the opening of relay contacts R-Sb and the re-energizing of valve solenoid V-6, thereby shutting off the flow of hydraulic uid to hydraulic cylinders 90 and 140. The
Abook is at this moment in its elevated position shown in FIGURE 10. Since relay R-3 is still energized, relay contacts R-3b and R-Sa remain closed, and valve solenoid V-S is re-energized to operate hydraulic cylinders 90 and A140 in the opposite direction (up as viewed in FIGURE 1l). This has the effect of rotating rollers 50, 50a, 50b
and 100, 100a, 100b in such directions as to return the book to its original resting surface on rollers 20.
Pusher 24 shown in FIGURE 2 will now move into .engagement with normally closed switch S-15 to open it .and break the holding circuit controlling relay R-7. This relay will now be de-energized and relay contacts R-7b will open to de-energize solenoid coils V-7 and V,-8 of Solenoids 96 and 148. Spring-urged stop members 92 and i144 (FIGURE 3) will project forwardly into nava limiting Vpositions with respect to brackets 86 and 136. Y- Pusher 24 in FIGURE 2 .will continue its movement in lthe direction of arrows 42 and it will engage and close normally open switch S-8, thereby energizing relay R-4. A holding circuit through normally open, now closed, relay contacts R-4a and normally closed switch S-4 hold relay R-4 in energized condition, Normally closed relay contacts R-4a will open and valve solenoid V-3 will be de-energized, thereby cutting off hydraulic fluid from hydraulic cylinder 110 which, until now, was operating in the direction of arrow 122 (FIG- URE 8) to apply roller pressure upon the book. Relay contacts R-4b will close energizing Valve solenoid V-4 to operate hydraulic cylinder 110 in the opposite direction '(the direction of "move the carriage and its rollers 100, 100:1, 100b away arrow 124 in FIGURE 11) in order to from the book.
, Thisoutward movement of the carriage will continue until it actuates normally closed switch S-4 (FIGURE 3) and thereby opening its contacts and breaking the holding circuit controlling relay R-4 and de-energizing 'relay R-4. Opening contacts R4b and de-energizing valve solenoid V- 4 will result in cutting ot the supply of hydraulic uid to hydraulic cylinder 110, thereby stop-` Q ping the carriage in its outward position illustrated in FIGURE ll.
The pusher shown in FIGURE 2 will now actuate 'normally open switch S-10, thereby re-energizing relay R-S and this relay will lock itself in energized condi.y tion by virtue of its now closed relay contacts R-Sc and normally closed switch S-11. Relay contacts R-Sa will open, de-energizing valve solenoid V-5, and relay contaets R-b will close, energizing valve solenoid V-6. This will cause hydraulic cylinders 90, 140 to operate 0f these looping and folding hydraulic cylinders.
`end leaf looping and folding ,valve spool to direct the flow of v.the flow of hydraulic viluid this invention, and it will be understood 10 in downward direction until stopped by stop members 92 and 144 (FIGURE 3).
The same pusher 24 (FIGURE 2) will continue its movement in the direction of arrows 42 and trip normally closedswitch S-16. This will break the circuit to all relay circuits except relay R-1. Relays R-2, R-3, R-4, R-S, R-6 and R-7 will be de-energized, and this will cause the breaking of any relay holding circuits which may still be closed, and put the machine back in its starting position preparatory to beginning the next cycle.
The iinal switch which pusher 24 will engage in its movement in the direction of arrows 42 (FIGURE 2) is switch S-17, thereby breaking the holding circuit controlling relay R-1. This relay will now be de-energized and its contacts R-lc will open to de-ener-gize valve solenoid V-1, while its contacts R-1b will close to energize valve solenoid V-Z. Hydraulic motor 44 will now operate vat high speedv to move the pusher in the direction ot arrows 40 in FIGURE 2 to eject the book from the end leat` looping and folding station and advance it to the next station in the machine. To illustrate the bookengaging position of the pusher during its movement in the direction of arrows 40, it is shown in dotted lines in that position and designated 24a (FIGURE 2). By the same token,other pushers in the series operated by hydraulic motor 44 will advance other books to their successive stations, including one book into the now vacated station above described.
The hydraulic valvesystern schematically shown in FIGURE 12 is virtually self-explanatory. When solenoid V-l is energized, it will pull the valve spool 4leftwardly and pressure port P will be connected to port B to supply hydraulic uid through a variable restriction VO-1 which is set for high speed operation of the motor 44. When solenoid V-2 is energized, it pulls the valve spool rightwardly to channel the hydraulic fluid through another variable orifice VO-2 which provides a smaller restriction .than the first and this drives the 4motor in the same direction as before, but at a slower speed. Check valves back flow of the hydraulic fluid.
In similar manner, Solenoids V-S and V-6 control a hydraulic lluid through a variable orifice VO3 to hydraulic cylinders 90 and 140, and tocontrol the direction and speed of operation Solenoids V-3 and V-4 control a valve spool to direct through a variable orifice VO-4 'to the gaging 4hydraulic cylinder 110. These Solenoids control the stroke and speed of operation of said, hydraulic cylinder. The variable orifice VO-4 functions in this circuit only for the forward stroke ofhydraulic' cylinder 110; on the return stroke, check valve w"CV-4 serves as a bypass to allow the carriage to re- Avtract rapidly.
The foregoing is descriptive of an illustrative'form of that variations and modifications may be incorporated therein within the broad scopeofthe appended claims. Por example, the
"specific components of the electrical and hydraulic syS- tems and themanner in which they are combined and in whichv they function, may be changed in accordance with the requirements of individual machines and installations.
v What is claimed is: r'1. In a bookbinding machine, an end leaf folding mechanism, comprising:
(a) leaf looping means, and (b) loop pressing means,
(c) whereby loops are formed in the outer leaves of the end leaves of a'book and the loops are then pressed to form folds.v 2. An end leaf folding mechanism in accordance with rcla'im '1, wherein the leaf looping means comprises:
(a) means for engaging the outer leaves of theend leaves of a book, and y (b) means for causing relative movement between the 1 1 outer leaf engaging means and the book in planes parallel to the sides of the book, (c) whereby loops are formed in said outer leaves of the end leaves of the book. 3. The combination of claim 2, wherein the means for engaging the outer leaves of the end leaves of a book comprise:
y(a) a plurality of rollers spaced to receive a book between them,
(b) at least one roller on each side of the book,
(c) said rol-1ers being provided with surfaces having a relatively high frictional coeficeint,
(d) for frictionally gripping the outer leaves of the end leaves of a book disposed between the rollers.
4. The combination of claim 3, wherein:
(a) drive means are connected to the rollers on both sides of the book,
(b) whereby the rollers on each side of the book are caused to rotate in the same angular directions, and
(c) the rollers on the opposite sides of the book are caused to rotate in opposite angular directions.
5. The combination of claim 4, wherein the drive means comprise:
(a) sprockets on the rollers,
(b) a chain drive interconnecting the rollers on each side of the book, and
(c) a hydraulic drive operatively connected to both chain drives to drive them in opposite directions in synchronized relation to each other,
6. The combination of claim 5, wherein:
(a) an adjustable connection is provided between the hydraulic drive means and the chain drives (b) to control the extent of movement of the chain drives and the degree of angular movement of the rollers.
7. The combination of claim 6, wherein:
(a) stop members are provided for the connecting means between the hydraulic drive means and the chain drives (b) to impose travel limitations upon the chain drives keyed to the dimensions of the book.
8. The combination of claim r6, wherein:
(a) the hydraulic drive means is operable in opposite directions,
(b) to drive the rollers on each side of the book in one direction in connection with the leaf looping operation, and
(c) in the opposite direction in connection with the loop pressing operation.
9. The combination of claim 4, wherein:
(a) the rollers on at least one side of the book are movable relative to the rollers on the opposite side of the book in paths of movement generally perpendicular to the sides of the book,
(b) whereby the rollers are moved into and out of frictional gripping engagement with the outer leaves of the end leaves of the book.
10. The combination of claim 9, wherein: (a) the rollers on at least one side of the book are A'11. The combination of claim 10, wherein: I (a) hydraulic drive means are connected to the movable frame (b) to move it toward and away from the fixed frame, (c) said hydraulic drive means being provided with sensing means to limit movement of the movable frame toward the fixed frame,
(d) in order to adjust the rollers to the thickness of a book disposed between them,
(e) and to limit the roller pressure upon the book to a yfrictionally gripping, non-clamping pressure, independently of book thickness.
12. The combination of claim 11, wherein:
(a) a by-pass is provided for the sensing means (b) to remove the limitation on movement of the movable frame toward the fixed frame,
(c) thereby enabling the hydraulic drive means to exert sufficient pressure upon the movable frame (d) to cause the rollers on the movable frame to clamp the book against the rollers on the fixed frame.
13. The combination of claim 12, wherein:
(a) spring means are provided between the hydraulic drive means and the movable frame (b) to cushion the pressure of the rollers upon the book.
14. The combination of claim 13, wherein:
(a) the rollers on the fixed and movable frames are arranged in spaced, opposed, parallel, vertical planes,
(b) a horizontal book platform being provided between and below both sets of rollers,
(c) whereby a book, having outer and inner end leaves secured to its sides along its back, may be supported between the two sets of rollers,
(d) the back of the book resting upon the platform,
(e) the outer leaf of the end leaves on one side of the book facing the rollers on the fixed frame,
(f) the outer leaf of the end leaves on the opposite side of the book facing the rollers on the movable frame.
15. The combination of claim 14, wherein:
(a) a temporary book-supporting element is provided opposite the rollers on the fixed frame (b) to provide temporary support for a book disposed on the horizontal platform,
(e) to hold the book against the rollers on the fixed frame when the rollers on the movable frame are not in engagement with the book.
16. The combination of claim 15, wherein:
(a) the temporary book-supporting element is springurged in the direction of the rollers on the fixed frame (b) to provide non-clamping pressure upon the book,
(c) to adjust to books of different thickness.
17. The combination of claim 16, wherein:
(a) the temporary book-supporting element is provided with a camming portion (b) for engagement with a book being moved onto the platform,
(c) whereby said book-supporting element is cammed out of the way of the book by the book itself, while remaining in contact therewith (d) in order to support the book against the rollers of the fixed frame when the book reaches an operative position on the platform between the two sets of rollers.
18. The combination of claim 17, wherein: l
(a) hydraulic drive control means is provided for the hydraulic drive connected with the movable frame,
(b) said hydraulic drive control means being operable in one direction to move said movable frame toward the fixed frame, and
f (c) thereby bring the rollers on the movable frame into engagement with the book on the platform and to press the book against the rollers on the fixed frame,
(d) such movement of the movable frame being controlled by the sensing means (e) to limit pressure upon the book between the two sets of rollers (f) so that the rollers will frictionally engage the outer leaves of the end leaves of the book without clamping the beek between. them.
19. The combination of claim 18, wherein:
(a) second hydraulic drive control means is provided for the hydraulic chain drives,
(b) said second hydraulic drive control means being operable in one direction to move the chain drives in such direction (c) as to cause the two sets of rollers to exert downward forces upon the outer leaves of the end leaves of the book while being held in frictional engagement therewith,
(d) thereby causing loops to form in said outer leaves along and coextensive with the back of the book.
20. The combination of claim 19, wherein:
(a) the first mentioned hydraulic drive control means is further operable in the same direction,
(b) bypassing the sensing means, l
(c) to continue movement of the movable frame toward the xed frame (d) in order to provide a clamping action upon the book between the two sets of rollers,
(e) said second mentioned hydraulic drive control means being operable in the opposite direction (f) to reverse the direction of rotation of the rollers while in clamping engagement with the book (g) thereby causing the book to move upwardly away 2 from its supporting platform (h) while pressing the loops in the outer leaves to form flat folds therein.
21. The combination of claim 20, wherein:
(a) the second mentioned hydraulic drive control means is operable in the lirst mentioned direction (b) to cause rotation of the rollers in the first mentioned direction,
(c) thereby causing the book to move downwardly to its supporting platform.
22. The combination of claim 21, wherein:
(a) the rst mentioned hydraulic drive control means is operable in the opposite direction (b) to retract the movable frame, and
(c) thereby to release the book from the clamping action of the rollers.
References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 3,330,718 7/1967 James et al 156-554 LAWRENCE CHARLES, Primary Examiner U.S. Cl. XR.