US 3479810 A
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J. ESHUIS Nov. 25, 1969 PROCESS FOR THE PREPARATION OF YARNS FOR PILE FABRICS Filed Aug. 2, 1968 INVENTOR.
JANNES ESHUIS United States Patent 3,479,810 PROCESS FOR THE PREPARATION OF YARNS FOR PILE FABRICS Jannes Eshuis, Arnhem, Netherlands, assignor to American Enka Corporation, Enka, N.C., a corporation of Delaware Filed Aug. 2, 1968, Ser. No. 749,709 Claims priority, application Netherlands, Aug. 12, 1967, 6711130 Int. Cl. D03g 3/02; D04h 17/00 US. Cl. 57140 3 Claims ABSTRACT OF THE DISCLOSURE The invention relates to an improved, composite yarn to be used in the preparation of pile fabrics. The invention also is directed to a process of forming novel synthetic, continuous multifilament yarn that has an outstanding combination of functional and aesthetic properties which permits its use in pile fabrics, particularly carpets, floor coverings, home furnishings and the like.
A variety of techniques are presently employed by synthetic yarn producers for the production of colored pile fabrics, particularly fabrics intended for use as floor coverings, carpets and the like textile household furnishings. Almost without exception, however, the known techniques now practiced on a commercial basis realize pigmented or dyed yarns that are susceptible to color distortion. As a direct result thereof, the desired sharply contrasting and lively color effects when using differently colored or differently dyed component yarns is not attained. And although the resultant articles of known processes must normally provide satisfactory properties in regard to insulation, appearance, pattern arrangement and definition, pile height and the like in order to effectively compete with the natural fibers such as wool, it has also been found that a considerable amount of dirt and soil actually penetrates to the very center of the synthetic yarns produced thereby with the consequence that it is diflicult to remove and substantial losses in these necessary properties are eventually suffered during normal use.
It is an object of the invention to provide colored pile textile articles of manufacture which have an improved resistance to coloring distortion and soiling.
According to the invention, there is provided a pile fabric such as a floor covering, carpet or the like characterized by a plurality of colored basic yarns each of which is composed of a plurality of filaments that are highly entangled and interlaced. The basic yarns realized are practically free from closed, projecting loops and it is found that each constitutes essentially a tight network structure of synthetic filaments with good coherence, resulting in a yarn of high density. The uniquely colored yarn structures of the invention thus can be characterized by having a dense, compact filament network structure with colors that can be clearly distinguished and are highly resistant to soiling. Pile fabrics such as floor coverings, carpets and the like constructed therefrom will have a very lively, undistorted color and good appearance. And since the yarn has the preponderance of the filaments in a highly dense, configuration along the cross section 3,479,810 Patented Nov. 25, 1969 thereof, soiling agents such as dirt and the like have difficulty in penetrating through and to the center of the yarn. For example, when constructed into pile carpet, most of the soil will remain lying relatively loose between individual yarns thereof or it will merely adhere to the yarns surface.
According to the invention, the foregoing basic yarns are produced by bringing together two or more differently colored or dyed yarns and subjecting same to crimping. After the crimp has been set, the yarns are plied to form a composite yarn. Before plying the yarns together, according to the invention, they are separated from each other and are then individually subjected to a treatment with a compressed, turbulently flowing preferably gaseous fluid whereupon the filaments thereof are entangled and interlaced. According to the invention, treating each basic yarn with the turbulently flowing fluid is preferably carried out so that the yarns obtained are practically free from closed, projecting loops and are composed of a highly interlaced filament network which results in a very compact and dense yarn product after plying. With advantage, the highly compact and dense yarns obtained are separated from each other a short distance before they are subsequently plied.
Yarns manufactured according to the invention not only realize pile fabrics of improved color liveliness and contrast and antisoiling properties, but it is also found that they can be further processed with case on conventional tufting machines and, unexpectedly, the tufting of the yarn manufactured according to the invention is not attended with undesirable picking. Picking is the un desirable formation of yarn loops, slubs or piles on the back of pile fabrics such as carpet or other floor coverings. Such irregularities not only present difficulties when the carpet backing is being applied but also cause the tread surface or facing of the carpet to show thin or insufficiently filled spots or patches. When tufting yarn is produced by the process of the invention, picking is not encountered and yarn processability is considerably improved, as is the quality of the fabric being manufactured.
US. Patent No. 3,099,064 shows treating yarns individually with a compressed turbulent medium and thereafter crimping, and US. patent application Ser. No. 426,818, filed J an. 21, 1965, now abandoned, describes a process for the manufacture of yarn whereby one yarn is successively stuifer box crimped and tangled with the aid of a compressed turbulent fluid and is finally wound. However, it was not foreseen that the special combination of differently colored yarns according to the invention would lead to such an improved, economical route in producing an attractive pile fabric with improved color and resistance to soiling.
The principles of the invention, as well as other objects and advantages thereof will clearly appear from a description of a preferred embodiment as shown in the accompanying drawing in which:
FIGURE 1 is a schematic representation of known apparatus arranged for the purpose of carrying out the process of producing the basic yarn according to the invention.
In the drawing three differently colored basic yarns 1, 2 and 3, containing hardly any twist, are off-wound over-end from yarn packages 7, 8 and 9 by way of separate thread guides 4, 5 and 6. The basic yarns are subsequently passed through a common thread guide 10, after which they are passed one or more times around hot plate 11. Transportation of the basic yarns is effected by separately driven feed rollers 12 and 13, although it is conceivable to have another pair of driven feed rollers mounted upstream of the hot plate 11. The disadvantage of this method is that the yarn cannot be satisfactorily crimped because when the yarns are preliminarily air jet tangled the, filamentsthereof are toodense and compact.
Feed rollers 12 and 13 force the three heated yarns together into the stuffer box 14. Saw-toothed or serrated crimping is imparted by the yarn wadding (overlapping) in the stuffer box. At the yarns exit end of the box, a counterpressure is exerted on the yarn wad by the hingedly attached door 15 which is loaded with weight 16. Crimped yarn is pulled out of the stuffer box via pin 17 and a tension means 18 of conventional construction. After the three basic yarns 1, 2 and 3 have passed the tension imparting means 18,.they are separated from each other, passed over the thread guides 19 and 20 and guided through openings 21, 22 and 23 into a tangling jet 24, in which the basic yarns are individually treated, as a result of which individual filaments of each basic yarn are highly entangled and interlaced. Very few, if any, projecting, closed filament loops are found in the resulting yarn. Preferably, a gas such as air is fed to the tangling device 24 at a gauge pressure of 5 atmospheres in the direction indicated by arrow 25. Subsequently, the crimped and tangled basic yarns 1, 2 and 3 are twisted together with 35 turns per meter in an 5 direction and Wound to a package 26 on a tube 27. A conventional ring and traveler coacting with a vertical spindle (not shown) is utilized. The three basic yarns are separated just before they are twisted together owing to the top eyelet 28 being divided into three parts 29, 30 and 31, through each of which one of the basic yarns 1, 2 and 3 is passed. Winding the basic yarns and twisting them together to a composite yarn is effected in a known way with the yarn forming into a balloon 32 with the aid of ring 34, which is reciprocated in the direction indicated by arrow 33 and on which a traveler 35 revolves.
Preferably, the three basic yarns are nylon with each having 64 filaments and a denier of 1140. The use of other synthetic high polymer yarns, such as polyester, is conceivable, however.
What is claimed is:
1. A process for the manufacture of rnultifilament yarns for use in pile fabrics comprising simultaneously crimping together two or more dilferently colored or dyed yarns, separating the thus crimped yarns, individually subjecting each yarn thus separated to a compressed, turbulently flowing fluid whereby crimped yarns with the filaments thereof highly entangled and interlaced are obt ained and thereafter plying the resulting individual yarns to form one final, dense and compact strand structure.
2. A process according to claim 1 wherein yarns are separated a short distance before the yarns are plied.
3. A compact and dense strand structure produced by the process of claim 1.
References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 3,099,064 7/1963 Haynes 28-l FOREIGN PATENTS 6,400,489 7/ 1965 Netherlands.
JOHN PETRAKES, Primary Examiner US. 01. X.R. 2872; 57 157