|Publication number||US3480911 A|
|Publication date||Nov 25, 1969|
|Filing date||Oct 20, 1965|
|Priority date||Oct 20, 1965|
|Publication number||US 3480911 A, US 3480911A, US-A-3480911, US3480911 A, US3480911A|
|Inventors||Danna Salvatore R|
|Original Assignee||Conetta Mfg Co Inc|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (7), Referenced by (20), Classifications (9)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
Nov. 25, 1969 s. R. DANNA 3,480,911
SIGNATURE IDENTIFICATION INSTRUMENT Filed Oct. 20, 1965 2 sheets-sheet 2 mPurr PRESSURE PRESSURE. SE N S (T! V E;
TRANSDUCER 1o scibacw'ok 55 (mma COUNTER) NPUT SIGNAL.
(Pu 1. A Tl N a COUNT'LTQ wU$TE INVENTOR.
EIIBAYLVATUREJ R. HANNA AT T0 NE Y5.
United States Patent US. Cl. 340-146.3 9 Claims ABSTRACT OF THE DISCLOSURE A signature identification instrument in which the pressure exerted by a persons handwriting produces signals which are a function of the number of times pre determined writing pressure is applied and the duration of the application of each writing pressure.
This invention relates to identification systems and more particularly to systems for identifying writings, such as handwritten signatures.
Banks, stores, and similar organizations, which deal in commercial paper such as checks, require means for immediately determining that an individual signing his name in the presence of one of their employees is actually the person having an account. Further, many industrial and military facilities require that an individual be cleared for security purposes before being permitted to enter the premises. Today, in cashing checks of individuals, banks still rely primarily on a visual inspection of an individuals signature. As for organizations which require security clearances, they rely primarily upon the use of an identification badge with a photo insert, which is shown to a guard prior to entering the premises. In both of these cases, forgery and misrepresentation are still possible.
Accordingly, a new and improved system for identifying an individuals signature was required, Not only must this system be capable of supplanting or complementing visual inspections, but it must also be capable of functioning such that an identification of the individual is completed soon after the individual has written his signature.
In view of the foregoing considerations, the present invention provides for means for determining that an individual signing his name is actually the person he purports to be.
Furthermore, this system provides a means for easily detecting a forger, as well as someone misrepresenting himself as another.
Accordingly, an object of this invention is to provide a new and improved writing identification system.
Another object of this invention is to provide a new and improved writing identification device wherein the output signal from the device is related to certain characteristics of the individual to be identified.
A further object of this invention is to provide a new and improved signature identification device wherein the output signal is related to both the number of times an individual contacts a surface in writing his signature as well as the amount of time it actually takes one to write his signature every time he contacts the surface.
Still other objects and advantages of the invention will in part be obvious and will in part appear hereinafter.
In accordance with this invention, an identification device is provided which includes means for detecting that a force greater than a predetermined force is being ap-' plied by an individual during the time he writes his signature and second means responsive to said first means for providing an output signal indicative of both time and break characteristics of an individual while writing his signature. In a preferred embodmient of this invention, the handwrtten signature is identified by providing a surface means for writing thereon, a first means responsive to writing on the surface for providing a first signal indicating that a force greater than a predetermined amount of force is being applied to said surface during the writing, and the second means responsive to said first means providing an output signal related to both the number of times the person writes on the surface with a suflicient force and the time intervals the sufiicient force is applied while the person Writes.
The invention accordingly comprises the apparatus possessing the features, properties and relation of elements Which will be exemplified in the apparatus hereinafter described and the scope of the invention will be indicated in the claims.
For a fuller understanding of the nature and objects of the invention, reference should be had to the following detailed description, taken in conjunction with the ac companying drawings, in which the same reference numerals designate like or corresponding parts in the several views and, in which FIG. 1 is a block diagram of the identification device according to the preferred embodiment of this invention;
FIG. 2 is a schematic wiring diagram partially in block form, of an electrical circuit suitable for use as the device shown in FIG. 1;
FIG. 3 is a perspective view of the device embodying this invention;
FIG. 4 is a top plan view with the cover of the device removed, showing the working parts and the writing surface according to this invention;
FIG. 5 is a side elevational view of FIG. 4, with certain parts omitted;
FIG. 6 is a diagram of the card which may be substituted for a paper roll, according to this invention; and
FIG. 7 is a block diagram of an alternate embodiment of this invention.
Referring now to FIGS. 1-5, there is disclosed a pressure sensitive transducer 10 which provides an output signal indicating that a force or pressure of a certain amount has been applied. In accordance with the preferred embodiment of this invention, the force is detected by utilizing a surface 11 (see FIGS. 4 and 5) over which there flows paper 12 from a plurality of rolls 13 and 14 driven by a motor 15. The plate 11 is connected to side members 16a and 16b which are pivotally supported from members 17 and 18 and is balanced by the use of plates 19 and 20. Extending from the plate or writing surface 11 is a member 21 which abuts contacts 23 and 24 mounted in a supporting block 25'. The transducer, including the surface 11, is positioned within a device casing 30 as shown in FIG. 3, so that :an individual may write his name in a cut-out portion 31. The individual writes his name with any usual type of Writing implement, such as a ball point pen, in the space provided in the top cover of the device. Upon initiation of the writing of the individuals signature, plate 11 will be depressed to close contacts 23 and 24 when a suflicient force is applied. Although in the preferred embodiment the use of contacts are shown because of their simplicity, it is to be understood that strain transducers, strain gages, strain-sensitive diodes and transistors and more sophisticated semi-conductor devices may be utilized in place of the contacts 23 and 24, as long as a signal is provided which indicates that an individual is supplying sufficient force during the writing of his name on the surface 11. The transducer 10 is coupled to a pair of selectors, shown at 40 and 41, which are in turn coupled to a pluraility of pulse counters 44-47 in a predetermined manner, as
.shown in FIG. 1. The manner in which the counters are coupled to the selectors as shown in the preferred embodiment are only illustrative and are not to be considered limiting, inasmuch as many combinations of connections are possible to produce the desired results. At the same time, an input pulsating signal is applied to each of the selectors from a pulsating signal source 48. In operation, the application of a force of a magnitude sufficient to close contacts 23 and 24 will permit a signal to be provided to the selectors and 41 such that they will direct the input pulsating signal to each of the counters 44-47 in a predetermined sequence. Thus, the writing of an individuals signature by the use of the pen 32 on the paper 12 which is positionable on the top of the surface 11, will provide a count which is a function of both the number of times a person writes on the surface with a sufiicient force and the time intervals the sufficient force is applied while the person writes. This output count is provided as shown in the presentation 49 in FIG. 3.
The theory underlying this invention is that when an individual writes his name he does not, ordinarily, write it in one complete movement but, rather, writes certain letters and then breaks before writing the next few letters of his name, by lifting the pen from the paper. Depending on the length and the type of letters in his signature, a particular pattern will develop, much the same as the pattern of ones fingerprint. This pattern is then detectable by counting the number of times the individual uses more than a predetermined force in writing his signature as well as determining the time intervals that the individual is applying the force while writing his signature.
Referring now to FIG. 2, there is shown a schematic diagram partially in block form of a circuit for implementing the block diagram of FIG. 1. As shown in FIG. 2, the selectors 40 and 41 comprise stepping switches, shown at 50 and 60. Each of these switches have a plurality of contacts shown as dots and a wiper arm 51 and 61, respectively. The wiper arms are stepped about the contacts by signals applied to stepping coils 52 and 62 respectively. To reset the selectors to the initial posir tion, a pair of reset coils 53 and 63 respectively controlled by a manual reset switch 70 are provided. Since the counters 44-47 of the FIG. 2 embodiment are preferably of the DC pulse-counting type, a rectifying circuit comprising a diode 72 and a capacitor 73 are provided for rectifying the input signal prior to applying it to the counters 44-47. To reset the counters 44-47 prior to an individual signing his name, a reset switch 75 is provided which may be ganged with switch 70, if desired.
In the preferred implementation shown in FIG. 2, instead of using an input signal source such as 48 which is a part of the apparatus itself, the cycle 110 v. AC signal from any ordinary power outlet is utilized. In this manner, the costs of the device are held to a competitive level although it is to be understood that, depending on the type of counters and transducer utilized, substantially any frequency pulsating signal may be used, whether it is AC, DC or any particular type of irregular wave shape.
Considering now the operation of the system described in FIG. 2, an individual will be asked to write his name in the slot portion 31 of the device 30 shown in FIG. 3. The individual may use an ordinary writing implement, such as a ball point pen, to write his name. When the individual begins to write his name, the plate 11 will be depressed such that contact 23 will close on contact 24, thereby permitting a 60 cycle signal to be provided to the half wave rectifier circuit comprising diode 72 and capacitor 73. Simultaneously, the 60 cycle signal will be applied to the stepping coils 52 and 62 respectively, to begin stepping the wiper arms 51 and 61 respectively, to select the particular counters in a predetermined sequence. While the stepping of the switch takes place, the cycles or pulse of the rectified signal will be counted in each of the counters as they are selected. When the individual breaks in writing a signature, such as by lifting the pen from the paper, to open the contacts 23 and 24, the
selector switches 50 and 60 will cease stepping and the counters will cease counting. As the individual once again applies pressure to the plate 11 to again close the contacts 23 and 24, the stepping of switches 50 and 60 will again take place and counters 44-47 as selected will again count the pulses during the time the individuals hand is writing on the paper 12.
As may be noted from the diagram of FIG. 1, the counter 46 is coupled to both of the selector switches 50 and 60 so as to provide the predetermined sequence of operation which depends on the action of both the selector switches. Since there are an infinite number of combinations of interconnections between a plurality of selector switches or between a selector switch and a plurality of counters, as the case may be, the example shown in FIG. 2 is meant to be illustrative only and not limiting. Thus, the device of FIG. 2 will not only be responsive to the making and breaking of the contacts by the individual writing his name on the surface 11, but will also provide an output signal which is a function of the time that the contacts 23 and 24 are electrically connected. In this manner the characteristics of an individuals signature may be interpreted in numerical form and provide a definite pattern or representation which is extremely difficult for a forger to attempt to copy. Although a forger might, with practice, be able to prepare a signature which is visually acceptable, a forger will not be able to copy the making and breaking routine and the time intervals between makes and breaks of an individual while writing his name. This is a function of the nervous system of the individual writing his name and is most difficult to be copied and observed.
Referring now to FIG. 6, there is disclosed a card which may be utilized in substitution for the paper rolls 13 and 14 and the paper 12. The paper card may be placed on top of the surface 11 and held by retaining pins fitting the holes in the card. It is to be noted that constraining lines, shown at and 81, are preferable in utilizing the invention since this provides means for preventing a person from writing his signature in an abnormally distorted manner, which often occurs when an individual signs his name on a blank sheet of paper. It has been determined that more accurate results are obtained when such constraining lines are utilized. These cards, upon completion of use, may then be filed for storage purposes.
Referring now to FIG. 7, there is shown an alternate embodiment for implementing the block diagram of FIG. 1. In this figure a single selector is utilized. The single selector is preferably a ring-type counter which provides output gating signals in a predetermined sequence as a result of the counting of input pulses. To implement the circuit as shown in FIG. 7, a plurality of AND devices are shown at 86-90. In operation, the application of input pressure on the pressure sensitive transducer 10 by the individual writing his name, will produce a signal at the AND circuit 86 such that an input pulsating signal will be gated to the selector ring counter 85. The input pulsating signal will simultaneously be applied to each of the AND circuits 8790, respectively, through the AND circuit 86. As the selector ring counter counts each of the pulses, gating pulses will be applied from the ring counter 85 to each of the AND circuits 8790, thereby gating the input pulsating signal to each of the counters 44-47 in a predetermined sequence. Thus, again, an indication of both the number of times an individual contacts a surface while writing his name, as well as the duration he contacts the surface while writing his name, will be determined.
It will thus be seen that the objects set forth above, among those made apparent from the preceding description, are efirciently attained and since certain changes may be made in the above construction without departing from the scope of the invention, it is intended that all matter contained in the above description or shown in the accompanying drawings shall be interpreted as illustrative and not in a limiting sense.
It is also to be understood that the following claims are intended to cover all of the generic and specific features of the invention herein described and all statements of the scope of the invention which as a matter of language might be said to fall therebetween.
What is claimed is:
1. A writing identification device comprising in combination, a surface to .permit an individual to write thereon, pressure responsive means coupled to said surface for detecting that an individual is writing on said surface and applying a force normal thereto, and means responsive to said pressure responsive means for providing an output signal when a force greater than a predetermined amount is applied to said surface and means responsive to said output signal for indicating the number of times and the duration of each time an individual applies a force greater than a predetermined amount of force while writing on said surface.
2. A writing identification device comprising in combination, a surface to permit an individual to write thereon, pressure transducer means coupled to said surface for detecting that an individual is applying a force to said surface normal thereto and greater than a predetermined force, and means responsive to said pressure transducer means for providing an output signal indicative of both the number of times an individual writes on the surface with a force greater than a predetermined force and the time interval the force is applied each time the individual applies a force greater than said predetermined force to said surface.
3. A writing identification device comprising in combination, a surface means for writing thereon, first means responsive to Writing on the surface for providing a first signal indicating that a force greater than a predetermined amotmt of force is being applied to said surface normal to said surface during writing thereon, a plurality of counters, means providing a pulsating signal and selector means responsive to said first signal for directing the pulsating signal to said counters in a predetermined sequence so long as said first means detects a force on said surface greater than a predetermined force, said selector means applying said pulsating signal to said counters in said predetermined sequence each time said first signal is provided.
4. A device in accordance with claim 3, wherein said first means includes electrical contacts coupled to said surface, and means for moving at least one of the contacts in response to writing taking place on said surface.
5. A device in accordance with claim 3, wherein said selector means includes at least two stepping switches having a plurality of contacts and wiper arms arranged to sequentially close a circuit with one of said contacts,
said wiper arms being actuated in response to the initiation of writing taking place on said surface means, and wherein each of said stepping switches has at least one contact which is coupled to the same one of said plurality of counters.
6. A signature identification device comprising in combination, terminal means for receiving a pulsating signal, a writing surface for permitting an individual to write his signature thereon, a gating device, a plurality of signal counting means, and transducer means responsive to pressure on said surface normal to said surface due to writing taking place thereon for permitting the pulsating signal to actuate the gating device said gating device being constructed and arranged to direct the pulsating signal to the counting means in a predetermined sequence, each of said counting means being effective to determine the number of cycles of the pulsating signals gated thereto when said pressure transducer detects writing pressure on said surface.
7. A signature identification device in accordance with claim 6, wherein said writing surface includes a plate movable in response to a force applied to it while an individual is writing thereon, means for detecting predetermined movement of the plate, and paper adapted to be positioned such that it overlies said plate.
8. A signature identification device in accordance with claim 6, wherein said gating device includes a plurality of stepping switches, each of said stepping switches including a plurality of contacts and a movable contact arm, selected ones of said contacts coupled to at least some of said counting means.
9, A signature identification device in accordance with claim 6, wherein said gating device includes counting means for receiving said pulsating signal and providing timed gating signals for selectively directing the pulsating signal to said counters.
References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 2,301,197 11/1942 Bradford 23592 3,112,362 11/1963 Pecker 17818 3,145,367 8/1964 Crane 340146.3 3,262,054 7/ 1966 Lefkowitz 324-68 3,275,808 9/1966 Knudson 23592 3,284,790 11/1966 Nobles 23592 3,199,078 8/1965 Gaffney et al 340146.3
MAYNARD R. WILBUR, Primary Examiner R. F. GNUSE, Assistant Examiner US. Cl. X.R. 178-18;235-92; 340-149
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|U.S. Classification||382/121, 340/5.81, 178/18.1, 73/865.4, 377/19, 73/862.541|