US 3482333 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
De.9,1969 GTRAGEMR 3,482,333
PACK OF CARDS FOR SENTENGE BUILDING GAME Filed oct. 2e, 1967 2 sheets-sheet 1 i KX x 33* l 1 -l I J] l v 3 LO 3m L@ Qa 93g @segg w3 wg. LL Z J O lr m (D LL n z LL Egg Ll. L L1 E..- 8 La tt, r
\ ATTORNEYS Dec. 9, 1
Filed Oct. 26, 1967 PRONOUN YOU,THEY
PRoNouN You, HER,H|M,
CONAIUNCTION PRONOUN AND l VERE SEEN, HIDDEN FIC-3.25
Knows VERE DO, DON'T F IGSI ARTICLE A,AN THE J. G.`TRAGER, JR
OF CARDS FOR SENTENCE BUILDING GAME F|G.l|
PRoNouN |T,ANvoNE, SOMETHING,
-F|G.|4 coNTRAcTloN lvE, You'vE F |G.|7 PRoNouN ouRs,vouRs,
FIGZO A Y VERB |S,LETS, HAS,
FIGZB vERB HAD,LosT
vERB ARE,wERE, AREHT ADJECTWES FIGBZ ADVERB 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 FIGJZ coHTRAc'rloN F|G.|8 CONJUNCTION- PRONOUN AND ME K|ss,BEAT, EHvT, wANT VERB wAs, wAswT F IGSO AovERB ALWAYS, THEN,ETc.
INVENTOR. v JAMES s. TRAGER,JR.
ATTORNEYS United States Patent C) 3,482,333 PACK OF CARDS FOR SENTENCE BUILDING GAME James G. Trager, Jr., 509 Madison Ave., New York, N.Y. 10022 Filed Oct. 26, 1967, Ser. No. 678,410 Int. Cl. G09b 19/00; A63f 1/04; A6311 33/04 U.S. Cl. 35-35 6 Claims ABSTRACT F THE DISCLOSURE Each card has a part of speech such as a noun, verb, adjective, adverb, etc. The left and/or right portions of each card are coded to match with an adjacent card which is appropriate to build a grammatically correct sentence. There are a large number of such cards to make possible a large number of different sentences all of which will be grammatically correct, but some of which may be amusingly nonsensical in content. The codlng may be by color or by symbol, and preferably by both. The symbols may be printed or may be formed by notches in the edge of the card. The coding is dilerent for a singular noun compared to a plural noun, or for a singular pronoun compared to a plural pronoun, andthe cards have verbs with appropriate variations to provide grammatically correct usage.
Faulty use of English grammar and syntax in speaking and writing presents a common social and economlc handicap to many, particularly those of foreign birth, or certain ethnic groups, or those having an underprivileged background. Conventional methods of teaching correct usage are generally tedious, and often ineffective.
The card game of the present invention serves to entertain children and adults, and at the same time to teach and reinforce certain basic rules and prohibitions of English grammar. A large number, say two hundred or more cards, may be provided for playing the game. In the illustrated example there may be two, three or four players, but there could be more. Each card carries a part of speech such as a noun, iverb, adjective or adverb, etc., and the left and right portions of each card are coded to match with an adjacent card which is appropriate to build a grammatically correct sentence. The large number of cards makes possible a large number of sentences which will be grammatically correct, but many of which may be amusingly nonsensical.
The code for matching the cards may use color or symbols, and preferably both. Proper matching of cards preferably requires location of a symbol on a particular color, and also preferably requires proper location of a symbol along the edge of the card, thus providing a very large number of possible combinations.
A player matches a color and symbol on the right edge of one card to a color and symbol on the left edge of the next card, and this creates sentences which are grammatically correct. The intricate coding of the cards prevents a player from committing such common errors as he dont or I seen. The nonsense arrangement of the cards frequently is amusing and entertaining.
If desired some cards may be made first cards by putting code marks on only the right edge, and some may be made last cards by putting code marks on only the left edge.
The foregoing and additional features are described in the following detailed specification, which is accompanied by drawings in which:
FIG. 1 shows four cards arranged to form a sentence;
FIG. 2 shows the sentence expanded by the insertion of an additional matching card;
FIG. 3 shows four cards like those in FIG. 1, but using notched symbols instead of printed symbols;
FIG. 3A shows a modification;
FIGS. 4 through 31 show cards making up most of a particular deck of cards, with examples of color and symbol coding; and
FIG. 32 represents the back of a card used for educa tional or school purposes.
In the particular cards here illustrated, the coding makes use of six colors and seven symbols. The colors used in this example are blue, green, red, orange, brown and yellow. The symbols may be arbitrary, and those here shown are a circle, a square, a triangle, an inverted triangle, a diamond, a heart and a star. The location of the symbol along the edge of the card, that is its distance from the top and bottom of the card, is also a part of the code, and requires matching when disposing the cards side by side to build a sentence.
After a suitable number of cards, say eight, are distributed by a dealer from the pack to the players, a `first player puts down a card 12 which, in FIG. 1, has the noun popcorn The next player may put down the card 14 which has the verb tickles The left portion of card 14 is colored orange, like the right portion of card 12, and in addition, both cards have symbols, in this case a square at 16, which match.
The next player may put down the card 18 reading my. In this case the right portion of card 14 is colored green at the top and bottom, and yellow in the middle. The left portion of card 18 is green, and has a square symbol 20 which matches with. a like symbol on card 14, both matching symbols being on the Same background color, as they should be.
A fourth player may put down the card 22 carrying the word giraffes The code is satisfied because the adjacent parts of the cards are colored yellow, and have a triangle symbol 24 in matched locations.
The next player, which would be the rst player when there are four players, may lengthen the sentence by inserting the card 26 with the adjective naked between the cards 18 and 22. The code is satised because the triangle 28 on a yellow background matches the triangle 3), which is also on a yellow background at the right portion of card 18. Similarly the triangle 32 on a yellow background at the right edge of card 26 matches the triangle 34 on a yellow background at the left edge of card 22. If no further word can be added by another player, the sentence is Won by the addition of card 26, this being the last word. The resulting sentence Popcorn tickles my naked giraffes is grammatically correct, and nonsensical enough to be highly amusing.
The symbols may be notched in the edges of the cards, instead of being printed on the cards. Such an arrangement is shown in FIG. 3, in which the cards 40, 42, 44 and 46 correspond to the cards shown in FIG. l, and are similarly coded for color and symbol, but in each case the notch corresponds to half of a symbol. The adjacent card is oppositely notched, and the two notches form a complete symbol. More specifically, the left edge of card 40 is notched for a triangle and an inverted triangle; the right edge of card 40 is notched for a square and a heart; the left edge of card 42 is notched for a square; the right edge of card `42 is notched for a square and an inverted trin angle; the left edge of card 44 is notched for a square;
3 and so on. The right edge of card 46 is notched at 48 for a square; at 50 for a circle; at 52 for a diamond, and at 54 for a heart.
The game may be played in accordance with varied rules. One example of a suitable introduction and rules may be set out as follows:
The object of the game is to have the last word and thus score points by winning sentences, which players construct using nouns, pronouns, articles, verbs, adverbs, conjunctions, etc. These appear on multicolored, symbolcoded cards. By matching a color and a symbol on the right edge of one card to a color and a symbol on the left edge of another card, players create sentences which are always grammatically correct, and often amusing.
Six colors and seven symbols are employed. Most ungrammatical constructions are ruled out by the color and symbol coding. Other solecisms, and shapeless run-on sentences, are ruled out by the rule's of play.
Note: Do all sentences have subjects, verbs and objects? Some dont. And some dont illustrates a point. You might call it an answer sentence; a sentence spoken or written in answer to a question. Answer sentences are quite acceptable in this game. So are title sentences, the kind of statement which might be used as the title of a book.
I-Iow to play:
(1) Shuffle the cards thoroughly and select a dealer.
(2) Dealer deals out cards, one at a time, until each player has eight cards.
(3) Player at dealers left places a word face-up in the middle of the table.
(4) Going clockwise, next player adds a word if he can, matching a color and symbol on the right edge of a card to a color and symbol on the left edge of the rst card, or matching a card to the right edge of the first card. Note: Some cards will have two, three or even four colors on one edge. Any one of these colors may be matched. If more than one symbol appears on a color, any one symbol must also be matched.
(5) Next player, if he can, adds a third word, extending from leftor right, or inserted between the rst two words.
(6) If a player is unable to add a word, he may drop out of competition for that sentence, or he may exchange any three of his cards, turning them over to the dealer (who retires them from play for the rest of that game), and receiving three new cards in return. This costs the player ten points (a player may have a minus number of points). Having received three new cards, player adds one to the sentence on the table if he can.
(7) After each player has used one card, a player in his later turn may choose any of the following courses:
(a) He may add up to three words at one time. Or-
(b) He may substitute a card in his hand for one in the sentence on the table. This keeps the player in the game and may win him the sentence, but a word once removed from a sentence may not be put back into that sentence. It must be set aside until the sentence has been won Or l (c) He may exchange any three cards (but no less than three) as explained in Rule No. 6. Cards exchanged may not include cards removed from the sentence under the substitution rule. Or-
(d) He may challenge the sentence set up by the previous players card. He may challenge it on the ground that it isnt a true sentence, or that it is just plain gibberish. Challenged player may substitute another card which completes the sentence. Or he may add up to three cards from his own hand which complete the sentence. Or, if it is an answer sentence, he must suggest the question to which the sentence is an answer. If the challenged player meets the challenge, he receives double point credits (see below). If he fails, the challenger wins the non-sentence, including any points added by the previous players card.
4 (8) Point counts for sentences are as follows:
a two-word sentence counts 0;
a three-word sentence counts 3;
a four-word sentence counts 5;
a tive-word sentence counts 10;
a sixword sentence counts 15;
a seven-word sentence counts 20; and an eight-word sentence counts 25.
(9) No sentence may be longer than eight words. When eight words have been reached, a player may substitute but he may not add.
(10) In his turn, a player may rearrange the existing words of a sentence on the table prior to adding (or substituting a word of his own. But he may not merely rearrange without also adding or substituting, and the edge code must be satisfied.
(11) After each sentence is scored, cards are dealt out to replenish the players hands, so that each player will have eight cards when play resumes.
(l2) After a player has won a sentence by having the last word, he is the one who must start the next sentence.
(13) If play is blocked because no player can add to the' first two words, each player returns any three cards to the dealer (who retires them from play for the rest of that game), and is dealt three new cards. No penalty is incurred.
(14) Play continues until one player has scored 150 points (or other agreed amount).
(15) Each card left unused in a players hand at the end of the game counts 5 points against that player. Winner must have' 150 points after deducting penalty points for cards left in his hand.
The foregoing rules are merely one example, and may be modified or changed in other examples.
Reference is now made to FIGS. 4 through 31 of the drawing. Inasmuch as patents are not printed in color, the drawing indicates color by cross hatching, in accordance with the current rules of the Patent Oice. Horizontal lines represent blue; vertical lines represent red or pink; diagonal lines which slope downward toward the right represent green; diagonal lines which slope downward toward the left represent brown or tan; crossed broken diagonal lines represent orange; `and crossed broken vertical and horizontal lines represent yellow.
In a particular example of a pack of cards, there were sixteen cards for singular nouns, these cards being coded as shown in FIG. 4, and each card carrying one singular noun. In FIG. 4 the printed noun is omitted, it being any one of a large number of nouns, but all such cards are coded alike, and in this particular case, the left portion is yellow with a triangle symbol, and the right portion is orange with a square and heart symbol.
There were twenty nine cards each carrying a plural noun, and all coded alike and as shown in FIG. 5. The left portion is yellow with a triangle and inverted triangle symbol, andthe right portion is red with a square, a circle, a diamond and a heart symbol, as shown.
Thirteen cards were printed with proper and collective nouns, and were coded as shown in FIG. 6, in which the left portion is yellow with a triangle and inverted triangle symbol, and the right portion is orange with a square and a heart symbol.
There were two like cards for the pronoun L coded as shown in FIG. 7, in which the left portion has a circle symbol on a blue background, and the right portion has a square and circle on a red background.
There were cards for the pronouns he and she, coded as shown in FIG. 8, having a square and circle symbol on a blue background at the left, and a square and heart symbol on an orange background at the right.
There were cards for the pronouns we and others, these being coded as shown in FIG. 9 with a circle symbol on a blue background at the left, and a square, circle and diamond symbol on a red background at the right.
There were cards for the pronouns you and they, these being coded as shown in FIG. with a circle symbol on a blue background at the left, and a square, circle, diamond and heart symbol on a red background at the right.
To shorten this description, I shall rely hereafter on the drawing as showing colors lby cross hatching as above explained. The drawing also shows the symbols.
There were cards for the words or pronouns it, something, anyone, everybody and everything, coded as shown in FIG. 11.
There were two like cards for the contraction its, coded as shown in FIG. 12.
There were cards for the pronouns you, her, him and them, these being coded as shown in FIG. 13.
There were cards for the contractions Ive and youve, coded as shown in FIG. 14.
There were cards for the contractions Id and youd, coded as shown in FIG. 15.
There were cards for the pronouns my, your, its, her, coded as shown in FIG. 16.
There were cards for the pronouns ours, and mine, coded as shown in FIG. 17.
There were two like cards for the conjunction-pronoun and me, coded as shown in FIG. 18.
A card for the conjunction-pronoun and I is shown with its code in FIG. 19.
Cards having the colors and symbols shown in FIG. 20, were used for verbs, for example is, lets, ignores, tic'klesf kicks, has, smells, likes, loves, accepts, hurts, and lendsf Cards having the colors and symbols shown in FIG. 21 were used for verbs such as might, can, did, should,- won't, would, may and mustnt.
Cards having the colors and symbols shown in FIG. 22 were used for the verbs seen and hidden Cards having the colors and symbols shown in FIG. 23 were used for the verbs had, 10st, sold and kissed Cards having the colors and symbols shown in FIG. 24 were used for the verbs kiss, beat, envy and want.
Cards having the colors and symbols shown in FIG. 25 were used for the verbs says, knows and understands.
Cards havings the colors and symbols shown in FIG. 26 were used for the verbs are, were, arent, and werent.
Cards having the colors and symbols shown in FIG. 27 were used for the verbs was and wasnt.
Cards having the colors and symbols shown in FIG. 28 were used for the verbs do and dont.
Cards having the colors and symbols shown in FIG. 29 were used for adjectives, and in the present case there were eighteen such cards.
Cards having the colors and symbols shown in FIG. 30 were used for the words always, then, passionately, almost, and violently.
Cards having the colors and symbols shown in FIG. 31, were used for articles. In this particular case there were six cards for the articles a, an and thef For mere play purpose, the backs of the cards may be plain or ornamented in any desired fashion. However, for teaching or for school purposes, the back of each card may be printed to show what kind of part of speech is represented by the word on the face of the card. In the particular example having the back shown in FIG. 32, the face of the card contains an adverb, and the back of the card so indicates in FIG. 32.
The cards illustrated in the drawing do not necessarily represent a complete pack of cards, but show enough cards to teach how to design any desired pack of cards. For example, there may be additional cards for the verbs uhave, uisnat, asbeen, See teach a'ect nds yours chased, gave, threw, saw, forgot, noticed, doesnt and has There may Ibe cards for adverbs such as how, why, what, where and when There may be cards for adjectives such as all, any and some. There may be cards for pronouns me, it, who, and whose, and for the contractions Im and youre.
About half the cards are basic English, and are common to different decks of cards. The other half of the cards may contain a vocabulary differing in diiferent decks, as for example, in a game designed for a pro fession such as medicine, or for musicians, or for literary people, or for politicians, or for some specialized group such as hippies For the latter the vocabulary would be that associated with the current turned-on or psychedelic scene. Other decks may be designed for special age groups, say small children, or teenage children. The selection of words is of importance. Words have great emotional significance, and by bringing certain words out into the open, the game helps release emotions, which is desirable.
It is believed that the design and manufacture of my improved packs of cards for sentence building and teaching, as well as the benefits thereof, will be apparent from the foregoing detailed description.
In printing the cards it will be understood that the colors may be applied along the edge portions only of the cards, the center area between the left and right edges being left white or of a desired neutral color. However, in the cards here illustrated, the color has been carried all the way from the edge to the middle of the card, even though this is not at all essential. The cards are shown square but may be rectangular. They may be made of plastic instead of treated paperboard. The rules may differ from the example given above. Some cards may be made rst cards with code marks only on the right edge, and some may be made last cards with code marks only on the left edge. This is shown in FIG. 3A, in which the left side of the card is blank, so that the card must be used as a irst card.
It will therefore be apparent that while I have shown and described representative cards in a preferred form, changes may be made without departing from the scope of the invention, as sought to be dened in the following claims.
1. A pack of cards for a sentence building game, each card having a part of speech such as a noun or a verb or adjective or adverb, etc., the left and/or right portions of each card being coded to match with an adjacent card which is appropriate to build a grammatically correct sentence, there being a large number of such cards to make possible a large number of diiferent sentences, in which at least some of said cards are provided with a plurality of coded sections along said left and/or right portions of said cards, said coded sections being adapted to match with corresponding coded sections on an adjacent card, the matching of at least one and less than all of said plurality of coded sections with corresponding coded sections on an adjacent card being suicient to match proper parts of speech for a grammatically correct sentence.
2. The pack of cards as defined in claim 1, in which said plurality of coded sections comprise areas having dilferent coloration which are adapted to be matched with correspondingly colored areas on adjacent cards.
3. A pack of cards as defined in claim 1, in which said coded sections comprise a plurality of symbols located along the edge ofthe cards.
4. A pack of cards as delined in claim 3, in which each of the symbols comprising said coded sections is different than any other symbol in said coded sections.
5. A pack of cards as defined in claim 1, in which said coded sections comprise at least one area having a specific coloration and at least one symbol positioned in an area proximate the area having coloration.
7 6. A pack of cards as defined in claim 1, in which said 3,333,351 8/ 1967 Williams. coded sections comprise a plurality of notched areas in 3,389,480 6/ 1968 Holland. the edge of said cards, each notch being in the shape of a half symbol, the adjacent edge of an appropriate adjacent FOREIGN PATENTS card being oppositely notched, two notches forming a 5,539 of 1887 Great Britain. complete symbol when appropriate cards are juxtaposed in Side edge-tO-Side edge relative EUGENE R. CAPOZIO, Primary Examiner References Cited WILLIAM H. GRIEB, Assistant Examiner UNITED STATES PATENTS 10 U'S. Cl. XR. 2,310,800 2/1943 Manhart 35-35 35 71; 273 152 7 l 3,330,053 7/ 1967 Hendrix 35--72 X