US 3486249 A
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Dec. 30, 1969 l.. E. BERNIER ET Al. 3,486,249
SHOE WITH CLEATS Filed March 6, 1968 United States Patent O 3,486,249 SHOE WITH CLEATS lLouis lE. Bernier, Rockland, and .lames P. Giblin, Milton,
Mass., assignors to E. T. Wright & Co., lne., Rockland,
Mass., a corporation of Massachusetts Filed Mar. 6, 1968, Ser. No. 710,973 Int. Cl. A43b 5 02 US. Cl. 36-67 9 Claims ABSTRACT 0F THE DISCLOSURE A golf shoe or the like having a bottom comprised of an elastomer provided with a plurality of cleats also comprised of an elastomer; inserts for making shoes with bottoms comprised of elastomer and provided with cleats also comprised of elastomer; and a method of incorporating the inserts in the shoe bottom by injection molding.
BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION United States Patent No. 1,659,215, shows a shoe provided with a bottom which is comprised of rubber with a plurality of integrally formed rubber cleats at the forepart and heel, and United States Patent Nos. 3,328,901 and 3,127,682, disclose outsoles comprised of plastic with cleats integral therewith which are adapted to be attached to the insole of a shoe by stitching or the like. United States Patent No. 2,986,825, suggests embedding cleats in the bottom of a shoe by molding but does not disclose in what manner the molding is carried out. The objects of this invention are to provide a shoe of improved construction having a bottom and cleats comprised of elastomer; to provide a method of making shoes of the foregoing kind wherein usefulness of the shoe does not extend substantially beyond that of the cleats; and to provide inserts for use in making shoes according to the improved method. Other objects are to provide shoes of lighter weight than those having leather soles and steel cleats or rubber soles and steel cleats; to provide cleats which will provide the bite or traction of steel cleats and which are superior to the currently available commercial types of leather or composition rubber soles having tractive sur faces; to provide cleats which are substantially integral with the botttom and Will not break or fall out thus eliminating the nuisance of replacement; to provide cleats of longer wearing and more resilient material than -steel cleats that will offset any advantage there may be in providing replaceable cleats; and to provide a bottom structure for golf shoes which is comprised of a material which is less dense and softer than the material of which the inserts and cleats are made.
SUMMARY As herein illustrated, the shoe has a bottom comprised of an elastomer in which is embedded between its inner and outer faces flat plates, to one side of which are fixed cleats which extend therefrom through the outer face. There are two such plates situated substantially midway between the inner and outer faces, one at the forepart and the other at the heel. Each cleat is comprised of a at circular head secured to one of the plates and a frustoconical shank at the center and at right angles thereto, the larger end of which stems from the head and is buried, together with the head, in the bottom.
The insert comprises a stiff plate comparable in area and shape to the portion of the bottom to which it is to be incorporated, said plate having a thickness substantially less than the bottom and a plurality of cleats fixed to one side of the plate, said cleats being greater in length n than half the thickness of the bottom and said plate and cleats being comprised of an elastomer compatable with 3,486,249 Patented Dec. 30, 1969 ice the elastomer of the bottom in which they are to be incorporated.
In accordance with the method of making the shoe, stiff plates, which are comparable in area and shape to the forepart and heel ends of the bottom to be formed and having a thickness substantially less than the bottom with the cleats extending therefrom, are incorporated in the bottom by supporting the plates in the mold cavity of an open-top bottom-forming mold adjacent to but spaced from the bottom of the upper to which the bottom is to be attached, with the cleats extending therefrom into holes in the bottom of the mold and then injecting a bottom-forming composition into the mold cavity to form a bottom about the plates. An elastomer, for example, polyurethane, may be used for making the bottom, plates and cleats.
The invention will now be described in greater detail with reference to the accompanying drawings, wherein:
FIG. 1 is an elevation of forepart and heel inserts mounting cleats for incorporation in the forepart and heel ends of the bottom of a shoe;
FIG. 2 is a plan view of the forepart and heel inserts shown in FIG. 1 when looking in the direction of the arrows 2 2 of FIG. 1;
FIG. 3 is an elevation looking toward the tip end of a shoe provided with cleats according to the invention;
FIG. 4 is an enlarged transverse section of FIG. 3 showing the insert at the forepart in section;
FIG. 5 is a vertical section through a single cleat;
FIG. 6 is a vertical section of a single cleat wherein the shank is provided with a metal tip;
FIG. 7 shows a shoe bottom made independently of the upper to which it is to be attached embodying inserts such as shown in FIGS. 1 and 2; and
FIG. 8 is a transverse section through an open-top bottom mold showing in elevation a lasted upper held against the open top of the mold and the forepart insert supported between the bottom of the lasted upper and the bottom of the mold cavity with the cleats seated in holes in the sole plate.
The invention as related above is concerned with shoes provided with cleats and especially to a method of manufacturing shoes embodying cleats at the bottom which are characterized in that the useful life of the upper is not substantially greater than the life of the cleats so that the shoe and cleats wear out at approximately the same time and hence shoes made in this fashion may be thrown away without substantial loss. A golf shoe is shown by way of example but without limitation comprising an upper u, a -bottom b attached to the upper, and cleats 10. The cleats 10 are attached to inserts 12 in the form of rigid plates 14 and 16 which are embedded in the bottom at the forepart and heel. The plates 14a11d 16 correspond substantially in shape to the forepart and heel ends of the shoe bottom in which they are to be incorporated, are thinner than the bottom and contain a plurality of holes 18. The forepart plate 14 has three such holes along each side, one at the tip substantially on the median line and one spaced rearwardly from the hole at the tip which is also on the median line. The heel plate 16 has four such holes, two at each side. The holes 18 may extend part-way or all the way through the plate.
Each cleat 10, as shown in FIG. 5, has a flat circular head 22 from one side of `which projects a pin 24 corresponding in diameter to the diameters of the holes 18 in the plates and from the other side of which projects a shank 26 of frusto-conical shape, the larger end of which stems from the head. The side of the head 22 from which the shank 26 projects contains an annular groove 28 concentric with the axis of the shank and at the base of the shank there is a fillet 30. The cleats 10 are secured to the plates 14 and 16 by inserting the pins 24 into the holes 18 in the plates while the plates and cleats are partially vulcanized and then completing vulcanization to effect integration.
It is, of course, within the scope of the invention to form the plates 14, 16 without holes and the cleats 10 without pins and vulcanize or otherwise attach the heads 22 to the plates. Optionally the plates and cleats may be formed integral by a suitable molding process. It is also within the scope of the invention to provide a greater or lesser number of cleats, to have them only on the fo-repart exclusively of the heel or vice versa, and to arrange them in any pattern found beneficial to the particular sport for which the shoe is especially manufactured.
The inserts 12 are incorporated in the bottom of the shoe at the forepart and heel by an injection molding process using an open top mold 32, as shown in FIG. 8, comprising a ring 34 and a movable sole plate 36. The ring 34 has a peripheral lip 38 against which the -bottom of the lasted upper u is held, the latter being mounted on a last L. The sole plate 36 contains a plurality of frusto-conical holes 42 corresponding in number, size and shape to the distal ends of the shanks 26. The inserts 12 are placed in the mold cavity upon the sole plate with the distal ends of the shanks 26 fitted into the holes 42 and are held thereby substantially midway between the bottom of the lasted upper and the upper surface of the sole plate. The ring 34 contains an injection opening 44 shown at the side for the purpose of illustration only since it is conventionally located at one end through which the bottomforming composition may be injected to till the mold cavity between the bottom of the lasted upper and the upper surface of the sole plate to form the bottom b about the inserts. As will be seen by reference to FIG. 8 the inserts 12 are narrower than the width of the mold cavity so that the bottom-forming composition flows freely around the inserts above the below them so as to completely envelop them, the heads 22 and the portions of the shanks 26 above the bottom of the mold cavity in the substance of the bottom-forming composition.
If it is desirable to make a `bottom with cleats independently of the shoe upper and later attach it to the bottom of a shoe, for example, by cementing or sewing, or to provide such bottoms for attachment to shoes not originally intended to be golf shoes for conversion to golf shoes, a naked last may be placed on the lip 38 at the top of the ring 34 and the bottom-forming composition injected into the mold cavity about the inserts supported therein on the sole plate. Such a bottom unit embodying a forepart, shank and heel, provided with cleats at the forepart and heel is shown in FIG. 7. Optionally the bottom and cleats may be formed by compression molding.
The bottom b, as illustrated in elevation in FIG. 3 and section in FIG. 4, is single-ply, being attached directly to the bottom of the upper u by ,the injection molding process. It is within the scope of the invention, however, to first form an inner layer of elastomer directly against the upper and thereafter to form an outer layer against the inner layer and to incorporate the inserts in the outer layer during its formation.
In the description of the invention the term bottom is employed to broadly cover the sole of a shoe whether it is made up on a single layer or several layers.
The bottom b, whether single or multi-ply, is comprised of an elastomer, for example, polyurethane, and may be dense to provide for maximum wear-resistance or eX- panded to provide for light-weight, flexibility and comfort. The inserts 12 are also comprised of polyurethane and preferably of a composition to provide for greater stiffness and strength so that there will be no danger of the cleats being broken out. The cleats 14 in turn are comprised of polyurethane similar to that of which the plates are made comprising a composition which makes them more wear-resistant to abrasion. It is to be understood that elastomers equivalent to and compatible with polyurethane may be used in place thereof or in combination therewith.
It is also within the scope of the invention to make the inserts of other non-metallic lmoldable materials such as Bakelite, berboard, Fiberglas, laminates, and the like. to which the cleats may be mechanically attached or adhered by vulcanizing and/or molding, and` make the cleats of non-metallic materials other than elastomers. It is also contemplated that each cleat may embody more than one prong.
As shown in FIG. 6 the distal ends of the Shanks 26 of the cleats may contain metal pins 46 which have rounded heads 48 of a suitable hard wear-resistant material which will afford greater wear-resistance than the unclad elastomer.
By properly choosing the materials for making the shoes and the cleats, the shoes may be made so that they wear out substantially at the same time that the cleats wear out and hence may be discarded without loss.
1. A shoe having a bottom comprised of an elastomer. said bottom embodying intermediate its inner and outer surfaces stiff plates, one at the forepart and one at the heel, and cleats extending from the plate through the outer surface of the bottom, said plates and cleats being integral and comprised of an elastomer.
2. A shoe having a bottom comprised of an elastomer. said bottom embodying intermediate its inner and outer surfaces stiff plates, one at the forepart and one at the heel, and cleats xed to said plates and extending therefrom through said outer surface of the bottom, said plates and cleats being comprised of an elastomer compatable with that of the bottom.
3. A shoe bottom comprised of an elastomer embodying at the forepart between its inner and outer surfaces and substantially midway therebetween a stiff plate and a plurality of wear-resistant cleats fixed at one end to the plate, said cleats extending from the plate through the outer surface of the bottom and said plate and cleats being comprised of an elastomer compatable with that of the bottom.
4. A shoe bottom according to claim 1, wherein each cleat has a circular head of relatively large diameter joined to the plate nad embedded in the bottom, and a frusto-conical shank extending therefrom, the larger end of which stems from the head.
5. A shoe having a bottom comprised of an elastomer, a rigid plate comprised of an elastomer of greater density and rigidity than that of the bottom embedded in the bottom between its inner and outer surfaces, and cleats xed to the side of the plate next to the outer surface of the bottom and extending therefrom through said outer surface, said cleats being comprised of an elastomer of greater wear-resistance than either the bottom or the plate.
6. An insert for incorporation in the bottom of a shoe of the kind wherein the bottom is formed by injection molding of an elastomer, comprising a stiff plate comparable in area and shape to the portion of the bottom in which it is to be incorporated, said plate having a thickness substantially less than the bottom and a plurality of cleats fixed to one side of the plate, said cleats being greater in length than half the thickness of the bottom and said plate and cleats being comprised of an elastomer compatable with the elastomer of the bottom in which they are to be incorporated.
7. An insert according to claim 6 wherein the plates and cleats are integrally formed.
8. An insert for incorporation in the bottom of a shoe of the kind in which a bottom comprised of elastomer is formed to the lasting margin of a lasted upper by injection molding, comprising a thin, at rigid plate, cleats attached to and extending from one side of the plate, each cleat comprising a flat circular head xed to the plate and a shank at its center and perpendicular thereto, said shank being truste-conical with its larger end stemming from the head and of an axial length greater than the' combined thickness of the plate and head, said plate being comprised of an elastomer compatable with the elastomer of which the bottom is comprised, and said cleats being comprised of an elastomer which is more Wear-resistant than the elastomer of the bottom.
9. An insert according to claim 8, wherein each head contains at the face from which the shank projects a groove concentric with the groove.
References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 4/1912 7/1954 1l/l96l 2/l967 9/1967 Hart 36-67 Phillips 36--59 Snitzer 36-2.5
Beute 12-142 Kowal 36-67 PATRICK D. LAWSON, Primary Examiner