US 3488287 A
Abstract available in
Claims available in
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Jan. 6, 1970 SEGLIN ETAL 3,438,287
METHOD OF PRODUCING WARM LATHER Filed Sept. 17, 1965 3 Sheets-Sheet 1 PEROXIOE RESERVOIR SOAP RESERVOIR FIG. 2.
PEROXIDE DECOMPOSITION CHAMBER SOAP RESERVOIR PEROXIDE RESERVOIR INVENTOR. LEONARD SEGLIN BY BORIVOJ R. FRANKO- FILIPASIC Jan. 6, 1970 L. SEGLIN ETAL 3,488,287
METHOD OF PRODUCINGWARM LATHER Filed Sept. 17, 1965 3 Sheets-Sheet 2 PEROXIDE DECOMPOSITION CHAMBER 42 PEROXIDE-SOAP 4O RESERVOIR C ATA LYST- SOAP PEROXIDE RESERVOIR RESERVOIR 1N VENTOR. LEONARD SEGLIN BORIVOJ R. FRANKO-FILIPASIC 1970 L. SEGLIN ETAL METHOD OF PRODUCING WARM LATHER 3 Sheets-Sheet 3 Filed Sept. 17. 1965 EFFECT OF HYDROGEN PEROXIDE USAGE ON LATHER TEMPERATURE 5 m F 6. l m 0 L l .9 0 N v E v 1 w (v h 0 w 1 e 0 Q E l M 9 0 v kv 0 W l x C \v I M Q F 0 m m w w m o wmaazmmmzwk muxkj PEROXIDE T0 SOAP FORMULATION RATIO EFFECT OF HYDROGEN PEROXIDE USAGE ON LATHER DENSITY F IG. 6.
CURVE B( TYPICAL FORMULATION) 6 mwIP 4 2 cunvs Amo OXYGEN L055) PEROXIDE T0 SOAP FORMULATION RATIO INVENTOR. LEONARD SEGLEN BY BORIVOJ R. FRANKO-FIL1PASIC United States Patent Int. C]. (11111 9/42, 17/06 US. Cl. 252-96 11 Claims ABSTRACT OF THE DISCLGSURE Warm lather is produced by contacting a soap formulation with the water, oxygen and heat formed from the catalytic decomposition of hydrogen peroxide.
This is a continuation-in-part of applications Ser. No. 410,959, now abandoned filed Nov. 13, 1964 and Ser. No. 442,063, now abandoned filed Mar. 23, 1965.
This invention relates to a method of producing warm lather, and more particularly to a method of producing Warm lather in which the expanding gas and the heat are provided by the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide. The invention also relates to dispensers and to peroxide-soap compositions which are used to produce warm lather.
Mechanical and electrical devices for dispensing lathers have been available for many years. However, these devices are relatively expensive and thus have not found widespread use; their use being largely limited to shaving lather dispensers in barbershops. The most successful of these lathering devices have been the electrically operated ones which are capable of dispensing a warm shaving lather.
In recent years the need for an inexpensive and convenient lather dispensing device for home use has been supplied by the aerosol-type dispenser. These dispensers operate by use of a liquefied gaseous propellant which foams a soap formulation. Although these lather dispensers have been widely accepted for home use, complete acceptance has been limited because of two inherent adverse factors, namely, the low temperature of the lather produced and the dangerous nature of the pressurized dispenser. Since these dispensers rely upon vaporization of the liquefied propellant to produce the lather, the resulting lather is cooled below room temperature by the loss of heat of vaporization. This cool lather has an uncomfortable feel to the face and does not soften the heard as in the case of a warm lather. Also, much publicity has been given to the potential danger of explosion resulting from heating or puncturing aerosol-type dispensers. Accordingly, there is a real need for an inexpensive lather dispenser for home use which produces a warm lather and does not necessarily require the use of a high pressure system.
It is an object of this invention to provide an inexpensive method of producing warm lather. Another object is to provide a method of producing warm lather in which it is not essential that a high pressure system be used. Still another object is to provide an inexpensive dispenser for producing warm lather. A further object is to provide peroxide-soap compositions useful in the production of warm lather. These and other objects will become apparent from the following description of this invention.
We have now developed a method of producing warm lather which comprises rapidly decomposing hydrogen peroxide thereby generating water and oxygen with considerable heat of decomposition, and allowing the resulting hot decomposition products to contact a soap formula- 3,488,287 Patented Jan. 6, 1970 tion thereby forming a warm lather. The decomposition of hydrogen peroxide provides a suitable ratio of oxygen gas and heat of decomposition for producing warm lathers. By foaming soap formulations with hydrogen peroxide decomposition products, warm lathers having temperatures in the range of about -140" F. and preferably about 125 F. are produced. We have also developed dispensers for producing these warm lathers. Additionally, we have developed peroxide-soap compositions which are useful in one embodiment of the method, and dispensers for producing these warm lathers. Although the warm lathering method of this invention is especially suitable for producing warm shaving lathers, it is contemplated that it could also be used to provide other types of warm lathers such as warm shampoo lathers.
FIGURE 1 is a sectional view of a dispenser for the batch-wise production of warm lath-er by decomposing hydrogen peroxide in the absence of the soap component.
FIGURE 2 is a sectional view of a dispenser for continuously producing Warm lather by decomposing hydrogen peroxide in the absence of the soap component.
FIGURE 3 is a sectional view of a dispenser for continuously producing warm lather by decomposing the hydrogen peroxide contained in a preformed peroxidesoap composition.
FIGURE 4 is a sectional view of a dispenser for continuously producing warm lather by contacting hydrogen peroxide with a composition containing the soap formulation and a decomposition catalyst for hydrogen peroxide.
FIGURE 5 is a graphic illustration of the effect of the ratio of hydrogen peroxide to soap formulation on the temperature of the lather.
FIGURE 6 is a graphic illustration of the effect of the ratio of hydrogen peroxide to soap formulation on the density of the lather.
In operation of the dispenser illustrated in FIGURE 1, dispensing container 1 is first inverted thereby opening gravity-operated check valves 2 and 3 and closing gravityoperated check valves 4 and 5. A portion of the hydrogen peroxide from peroxide storage reservoir 6 passes into peroxide measuring chamber 7 through connecting tube 8. Simultaneously the soap component from soap storage reservoir 9 passes to soap measuring chamber 10 through connecting tube 11. Container 1 is then uprighted thereby closing check valves 2 and 3 and opening check valves 4 and 5. Excess hydrogen peroxide from measuring chamber 7 returns to peroxide reservoir 6 through overflow tube 12, while excess soap from measuring chamber 10 returns to soap reservoir 9 through overflow tube 13.
Warm lather is produced by holding down plunger 14 thereby introducing valve stem 15, which is coated with a peroxide decomposition catalyst into the body of hydrogen peroxide. The hydrogen peroxide in peroxide measuring chamber 7 then decomposes thereby producing oxygen gas and steam. The decomposition products containing essentially all of the heat of decomposition pass through open valve 4 via tube 116 into the bottom of soap measuring chamber 10. The soap component in measuring chamber 10 is heated and foamed by the sparging action of the hot decomposition products emanating from tube 16 thereby producing a warm lather. The increase in pressure resulting from the generation of oxygen during decomposition of the hydrogen peroxide forces the warm lather in soap measuring chamber 10 through open valve 5 into tube 17 from which it is discharged from the container. Leakproof vent 18 is a safety device which prevents build-up of pressures greater than those normally encountered in proper operation of this dispenser. Peroxide storage reservoir 6, peroxide measuring chamber 7 and other parts of the dispenser which are in contact with hydrogen peroxide should be constructed of materials which do not cause decomposition of hydrogen peroxide. Suitable materials include plastic, plastic coated metal, stainless steel and aluminum.
Conventional soap formulations used in aerosol-type lather dispensing devices of the prior art may be used in practice of the present invention except that hydrogen peroxide is substituted for the propellant of the prior art. The following is a typical soap formulation useful in the two-component system described in FIGURE 1.
Soap component: Parts by weight Stearic acid Lauric acid 3 Lanolin 3 Glycerine Triethanolamine '7 Sodium carboxymethylcellulose 1 Water 125 Peroxide component:
Hydrogen peroxide 10 Water 2 It is desirable that the hydrogen peroxide component of the above formulation have a peroxide concentration of at least about 65%. At this concentration sufficient heat of decomposition is generated, assuming no heat losses, to ensure complete vaporization of all of the water to steam, including that formed during decomposition of the hydrogen peroxide. Preferably the hydrogen peroxide concentration is at least about 83% which ensures complete vaporization of all water allowing for normal heat losses. Peroxide concentrations insuflicient to cause complete vaporization will result in residual water in the peroxide measuring chamber with successive dilution of subsequent peroxide batches by this residual water. Such dilution would adversely affect the efiicient use of the heat of decomposition to warm the lather. Approximately 62.5 B.t.u.s would be lost for lather warming purposes for each ounce of water not vaporized.
Using the batch-wise dispenser illustrated in FIGURE 1, the rate of peroxide decomposition increases as the peroxide batch temperature increases. This increase in decomposition rate causes a corresponding increase in the rate and temperature of lather delivered during each batch. Except for this nonuniform delivery, which is inherent in batch-wise operation, the characteristics of the lather produced in this dispenser are excellent.
The continuous dispenser of FIGURE 2 is designed to overcome the deficiencies of the batch dispenser. Operation of this dispenser is somewhat simplified as compared with the batch dispenser in that it is not necessary to invert the container. The dispenser illustrated in FIG- URE 2 is operated by depressing plunger at the top of container 21 thereby raising jack 22. Obvious mechanical means for connecting plunger 20 to jack 22 to accomplish this result will occur to those practicing this invention. Depressing plunger 20 causes piston 23 to increase the pressure in hydrogen peroxide reservoir 24. Peroxide is thereby forced out of reservoir 24 via tube 25 through pressure valve 26 into peroxide decomposition chamber 27. The decomposition products from chamber 27 then pass into lathering zone 28. Simultaneously piston 29 increases the pressure in soap reservoir 30 thereby forcing soap component via tube 31 through pressure valve 32 into lathering zone 28. The warm lather resulting from mixing the soap component and hot decomposition products in lathering zone 28 is discharged from the dispenser through the open end of lathering zone 28. Peroxide reservoir 24 is equipped with leakproof vent 33 as a safety device. This dispenser continuously discharged lather of uniform volume and temperature as long as pressure is exerted on plunger 20.
Other mechanical means could be employed to transfer pressure from plunger 20 to pistons 23 and 29. For example, the pistons could be arranged so as to exert pressure downward from the top of reservoirs 24 and 30.
In this case tubes 25 and 31 would extend from the bottom of reservoirs 24 and 30 respectively, rather than from the top. Other arrangements for exerting pressure on reservoirs 24 and 30 could also be employed. For example, rather than the piston arrangement illustrated, an aerosol-type dispenser in which plunger 20 activates suitable pressure release valves could be employed. In this case the peroxide and soap components will contain a nominal amount of a low boiling inert propellant such as a chlorofluorocarbon.
Using the continuous two-component dispenser of FIGURE 2, it is not necessary to completely vaporize all of the water in the decomposition chamber since transfer of the heat of decomposition to the soap component during lathering can be accomplished just as satisfactorily in this case by hot water as by steam. Thus, the hydrogen peroxide component may have any convenient peroxide concentration such as about 10-90% and preferably about 25-50%.
FIGURE 3 illustrates the preferred method of dispensing warm lather in accordance with this invention. This dispenser is considerably simplified as compared with the previously illustrated dispensers in that it requires only one reservoir which is also the outer container. This reservoir contains both the hydrogen peroxide and soap components as a mixture. Peroxide-soap reservoir 40 can be a squeeze bottle made from any suitable plastic ma terial such as polypropylene or polyethylene. It could also be an aerosol-type container having a pressure release valve, if desired. In this case the peroxide-soap formulation would additionally contain a nominal amount of a low boiling inert propellant such as a chlorofluorocarbon. When the plastic bottle is squeezed, or in the case of an aerosol-type dispenser the pressure release valve is de pressed, peroxide-soap formulation passes out of reservoir 40 via tube 41 through pressure valve 42 into peroxide decomposition chamber 43 where the peroxide is decomposed. The resulting hot peroxide decomposition products contact the soap formulation as they are formed thereby producing warm lather which is discharged from the dispenser through tube 44. Reservoir 40 is equipped with a leakproof vent 45 as a safety device.
Since the hydrogen peroxide and soap formulations used in FIGURE 3 are stored as a premixed peroxidesoap composition in reservoir 40 and this composition is present in decomposition chamber 43 during decomposition of the hydrogen peroxide, it is necessary that the soap component of this composition have certain characteristics which are not required in the embodiments of FIGURES 1 and 2. For example, the soap component of the premixed peroxide-soap composition must form a homogeneous mixture with the hydrogen peroxide either as a stable emulsion or as a solution, must not cause the hydrogen peroxide to decompose over prolonged periods of storage, must not inhibit the rapid decomposition of the hydrogen peroxide in the presence of a decomposition catalyst, and must produce a lather having suitable body and stability. Conventional soap formulations do not have these characteristics since hydrogen peroxide is not stable in their presence. In order to ensure stability of the peroxide in the mixture, the soap component should not contain any metal ions or alkaline substances.
We have found that peroxide-soap compositions having the characteristics required for the embodiment of FIG- URE 3 can be prepared by using as the active ingredient in the soap component a non-ionic detergent derived from the polycondensation of ethylene oxide with a hydrophobe selected from the group consisting of higher alkyl and higher alkenyl alcohols, higher alkanoic and higher alkenoic acids, higher alkanoic and higher alkenoic amides, higher alkylphenols, fatty acid polyol esters, and polypropylene glycol. By higher we mean containing 8-22 carbon atoms. By fatty we mean straight chain alkyl, alkanoic, alkenyl or alkenoic containing 8-22 carbon atoms. Peroxide-soap compositions which are suitable for use in the embodiment of FIGURE 3 are those which comprise about 530% by weight non-ionic detergent, about 30-94% water, and about 1-25% hydrogen peroxide (100% Such compositions are homogeneous, quite stable, and rapidly foam to a good lather in the presence of a hydrogen peroxide decomposition catalyst. Preferably the peroxide-soap composition contains about 715% non-ionic detergent, about 53-88% water, and about 5-12% hydrogen peroxide.
The non-ionic detergents which are useful in the peroxide-soap compositions used in FIGURE 3 are those derived from the polycondensation of ethylene oxide with certain hydrophobes. Suitable hydrophobes include higher alkyl and alkenyl alcohols such as octyl, capryl, decyllauryl, tridecyl, myristyl, cetyl, stearyl, oleyl, linoleyl and linolenyl alcohols; higher alkanoic and higher alkenoic acids such as octanoic, caprylic, capric, lauric, tridecanoic, myristic, palmitic, stearic, oleic, linoleic, and linolenic acids; higher alkanoic and higher alkenoic amides such as octanoic, caprylic, capric, lauric, tridecanoic, myristic, palmitic, stearic, oleic, linoleic, and linolenic amides; higher alkylphenols such as isooctylphenol, dioctylphenol, nonylphenol, dinonylphenol, dodecylphenol, and higher alkyl and dialkylphenol mixtures; fatty acid polyol esters such as ethylene glycol, propylene glycol, glycerol and sorbitan laurates, myristates, palmitates, stearates, oleates, linoleates and linolenates.
The peroxide-soap compositions used in FIGURE 3 may also contain other ingredients including polyol humectants such as ethylene glycol, diethylene glycol, polyethylene glycol, propylene glycol, dipropylene glycol, glycerine, trimethylolethane, trimethylolpropane and sorbitol. These polyols do not affect the stability of the composition and are particularly beneficial in preventing the lather from forming a dry coating on the decomposition catalyst in the dispensing device during non-use. They also prevent drying out the lather on the face during shaving. Generally about 0-15% by weight of polyol is added to the peroxide-soap composition and preferably about 33-10%. Other ingredients such as thickening agents, skin soothers and perfumes may be added to the peroxide soap composition. Hydroxyethyl cellulose is particularly advantageous as a thickening agent for increasing the body of the warm lather. In general only small amounts such as about 0-l% of these additives are used.
FIGURE 4 illustrates a method for continuously dispensing warm lather in which the peroxide decomposition catalyst is dissolved in the soap component. This dispenser eliminates the necessity for having a separate peroxide decomposition chamber containing a decomposition catalyst as in FIGURES 2 and 3. The dispenser illustrated in FIG- URE 4 is operated by depressing plunger 50 at the top of container 51 thereby raising jack 52. Obvious mechanical means for connecting plunger 50 to jack 52 for accomplising this result will occur to those practicing this invention. Depressing plunger 50 causes piston 53 to increase the pressure in hydrogen peroxide reservoir 54. Peroxide is thereby forced out of reservoir 54 via tube 55 through pressure valve 56 into mixing zone 57. Simultaneously piston 58 increases the pressure in soap-catalyst reservoir 59 thereby forcing the soap-catalyst composition via tube 60 through pressure valve 61 into mixing zone 57. The peroxide contacts the decomposition catalyst in mixing zone 57 thereby causing decomposition of the peroxide. The warm lather resulting from contacting the hot decomposition products with the soap formulation in mixing zone 57 is discharged from the dispenser through the open end of mixing zone 57. Peroxide reservoir 54 is equipped with leakproof vent 63 as a safety device. This dispenser continuously discharges lather of uniform volume and temperature as long as pressure is exerted on plunger 50.
The ratio of hydrogen peroxide to soap formulation used in accordance with this invention will be a function of the desired temperature of the lather and the amount of heat lost to the contacted and surrounding parts of the dispenser. By soap formulation we mean the total foamable soap composition excluding the hydrogen peroxide. Hydrogen peroxide (100% basis) to soap formulation ratios of about 0.01-l are suitable for the method of this invention. Under normal room temperature conditions, the desired lather temperatures and densities are obtained by using a hydrogen peroxide to soap formulation ratio of about 002-01.
The temperature of the lather should be about -140 F. and preferably about -125 F. for good comfort and softening of the beard. Curve A of FIGURE 5 shows the theoretical temperature of the lather as it relates to hydrogen peroxide usage, assuming an initial temperature of 60 F. and no heat loss. This curve was derived by heat balances based on a heat of decomposition of 1190 B.t.u./lb. of hydrogen peroxide decomposing to liquid Water and gaseous oxygen. In a normally designed dispenser only about 70% of the heat of decomposition will actually be used to heat the lather, the balance being lost to heating of the surrounding parts of the system coming in contact with the decomposing hydrogen peroxide and the resulting warm lather.
Typical actual temperatures of the lather obtained from a normally designed dispenser, dependent upon the ratio of hydrogen peroxide to soap formulation, are shown by Curve B of FIGURE 5. As illustrated by this curve, a lather of 90 F. is achieved by using about 003 part by weight of hydrogen peroxide per part of soap formulation based upon a 30% heat loss. Likewise, to achieve a lather of F., about 0.06 part of hydrogen peroxide per part of soap formulation should be used. Using a normally designed dispenser each 0.01 part of hydrogen peroxide per part of soap formulation raises the temperature of the lather about 10 F. When ambient temperatures as low as 32 F. are encountered, a peroxide to soap ratio of about 0.1 is necessary to produce a lather temperature of F.
The amount of hydrogen peroxide used to achieve a lather of given temperature may be varied from that indicated by Curve B by changing the design of the system to increase or decrease the heat loss. For example, the temperatures obtained in a dispenser allowing 80% heat loss are illustrated by Curve C. Using such a dispenser a peroxide to soap ratio of about 0.35 would be necessary to produce a lather having a temperature of 140 F. starting at an ambient temperature of 32 F. When the method of this invention is used to dispense warm shampoo lather, it may be desirable to use even higher peroxide to soap ratios up to about 1.0. In this case the decomposition chamber is designed to decompose only part of the peroxide, the residual peroxide being available to bleach the hair of the user.
Another important factor to be considered in determining the amount of hydrogen peroxide used is the desired density of the lather. By increasing the amount of hydrogen peroxide used, a larger volume of oxygen gas is released thereby lowering the lather density. Curve A of FIGURE 6 shows how the theoretical density of the lather varies depending upon the ratio of hydrogen peroxide to soap formulation. This curve is based upon complete retention by the lather of all oxygen generated during decomposition. In actual practice only a portion of the oxygen is retained by the lather and the balance escapes. Typical actual lather densities for a normally designed system, dependent upon the hydrogen peroxide to soap formulation ratio are given by Curve B in FIG- URE 6,.
It was seen from FIGURE 5 that about 0.03 part of hydrogen peroxide is required per part of soap formulation in a normal dispenser to achieve a lather temperature of 90 F. starting at 60 F. At this ratio, Curve B of FIGURE 6 indicates that the density of the lather will be about 7.5 lbs./cu. ft. About 0.06 part of hydrogen peroxide per part of soap formulation is required to 7 achieve a lather temperature of 125 F. starting at 60 F.; this ratio will give a lather density of about 4 lbs/cu. ft. These lather densities compare favorably with those obtained in conventional aerosol-type shaving lather dispensers. As the peroxide to soap ratio is increased beyond 0.1, the density of the lather approaches about 2 lbs/cu. ft.
The density of the lather can be further varied in a number of ways. Various additives can be used in the soap formulation to increase or decrease the lather density. For example, additives for decreasing or increasing the surface tension of the soap can be used, thereby affecting the amount of oxygen retained by the lather. Additives which change the viscosity characteristics of the soap can also be used to alter the lather density. The density can also be altered by designing the container to give higher or lower heat losses, thereby requiring a modification of the ratio of hydrogen peroxide to soap formulation to produce a lather of desired temperature. Lather densities of about 3-16 lbs/cu. ft. are readily obtained in accordance with this invention. Preferably the density of the lather should be about 410 lbs. cut. it. The density of the lather can, of course, he further decreased by adding an inert propellant such as trichlorofluoromethane thereby increasing the volume of gases available for lathering.
It is contemplated that warm lather dispensers used in accordance with this invention may be designed to allow control of the lather temperature and density by the user. For example, changes in temperature and density of the lather can be allowed by providing a means for varying the ratio at which the peroxide and soap components are dispensed. The lather temperature can be changed without changing its density by providing a means for varying the heat losses within the dispenser. By proper variation of both the heat losses and the ratio at which the peroxide and soap components are dispensed, the lather density can be varied independent of the temperature.
As catalysts for the rapid decomposition of hydrogen peroxide metals such as silver, lead, iron, chromium, manganese, bismuth, copper, and silicon and the oxides and salts thereof can be used. In the dispenser illustrated in FIGURE 1, the catalyst is in the form of a rod made from or coated with the catalytic metal. In the dispensers of FIGURES 2 and 3 catalytic decomposition chambers are used. To permit reasonably small decomposition chambers, it is desirable to have the catalyst in a form in which a large amount of surface is available per unit of catalyst. One such method would be to pack the decomposition chamber with a finely divided supporting medium, such as activated carbon, impregnated with the catalytic metal. These supported catalysts are prepared by saturating the supporting medium with an aqueous solution of a salt of the catalytic metal followed by drying and reduction of the metal salt to the corresponding metal. Another way is to use a screen of very fine wire drawn from the catalytic metal. In FIGURE 4 decomposition catalysts which are soluble in the soap component are used. The catalyst may be a liquid such as the enzyme, catalase, or a water soluble salt such as sodium iodide, potassium iodide, cobalt acetate, ferrous ammonium sulfate, potassium permanganate and sodium dichromate. In general the concentration of the water-soluble catalyst should be in the range of about 0.01.5% by weight of the total liquid in the soap and peroxide components.
The following examples, illustrating the method of producing Warm lather, the warm lather dispensers, and the peroxide-soap compositions disclosed herein, are presented without any intention that the invention be limited thereto. All parts and percentages are by weight.
EXAMPLE 1 A dispenser similar to that illustrated in FIGURE 1 was used in this example. The soap reservoir was charged with soap component containing 9 parts of stearic acid, 3 parts of lauric acid, 3 parts of Vaseline, 10 parts of glycerine, 7 parts of triethanolamine, 1 part of sodium carboxymethylcellulose, and parts of water. The peroxide reservoir was charged with 12 parts of 83% hydrogen peroxide. The dispenser was designed so that the peroxide measuring chamber holds 0.08 part of peroxide component for each part of soap component in the soap measuring chamber when the dispenser is in an upright position. The catalyst was a silver coating on the plunger ro-d. When the plunger was pushed down, there was an almost immediate but slow discharge of cold lather from the dispenser which gradually increased in rate and temperature. The lather had a good feel and was stable for more than an hour.
EXAMPLE 2 A dispenser similar to that illustrated in FIGURE 2 was used in this example. The soap reservoir was charged with 158 parts of the soap component specified in Example 1. The peroxide reservoir was charged with 20 parts of 50% hydrogen peroxide. The dispenser was designed to discharge 0.13 part of the peroxide component for each part of soap component. The decomposition chamber was packed with finely divided lead particles. The dispenser had a heat loss of about 30%. When downward pressure was continuously exerted on the plunger, there was a pause of about 1 sec., after which a lather having a discharge temperature of about 125 F. and a density of about 4.4 lbs./ cu. ft. was continuously discharged. The lather had good feel and was stable for more than an hour.
EXAMPLE 3 This example illustrates the rapid catalytic decomposition of the hydrogen peroxide in various peroxide-soap compositions useful in the embodiment illustrated in FIG- URE 3. The peroxide-soap compositions were prepared from the following recipes which contain different amounts of non-ionic detergent.
Recipe 1: Parts Non-ionic detergent .75 Water 7.25 H 0 2.0
Non-ionic detergent 1.5 Water 6.5 H 0 2.0
Ten grams of the peroxide-soap composition were added to a 30 ml. beaker containing a thermometer and 0.1 g. of powdered litharge was added without agitation. Decomposition of hydrogen peroxide began immediately with the formation of a foam. The time which it took for the temperature to reach F. was recorded. The follow- 0 ing data were obtained.
TABLE I Time to Recipe Detergent s i Polyleothoxy sorbitan monooleate (Tween-81) ij iffii ii??? liiffiiiii iifl Tll ff 5 311": l3 Polyaethoxy sorbitan monolaurate (Tween-20 1g 12 EXAMPLE 4 This example illustrates the rapid catalytic decomposition of the hydrogen peroxide in a variety of peroxidesoap compositions containing sodium carboxymethylcellulose as a thickening agent. The peroxide-soap compositions were prepared from the following recipe.
Parts Non-ionic detergent .75 Water 7.19 Sodium carboxyrnethylcellulose .06
Ten grams of the peroxide-soap composition were added to a 30 ml. beaker containing a thermometer and 0.1 g. of powdered litharge was added without agitation. Decomposition of hydrogen peroxide began immediately with the formation of a foam. The time which it took for the temperature to reach 140 F. and the height of the form at that time were recorded. The following data were obtained.
TABLE II Time to Foam 140 F ht,
Detergent sec in Polyethoxy sorbitan monolaurate (Tween-20) 22 Polyethoxy nonylphenol (Renoir-690) 12 4 Polyethoxy isooctylphenol (Triton X-100) 12 4 Polyethoxy alkylphenol (Energetic W100) i 20 4 Polyethoxy fatty alcohol (Emulphor ON 870) 12 4 Polyethoxy polypropylene glycol (Pluronic F68) 18 4 EXAMPLE 5 This example illustrates the rapid catalytic decomposition of the hydrogen peroxide in a variety of peroxidesoap compositions. The peroxide-soap compositions were prepared from the following recipe.
Parts Non-ionic detergent 2.0 Water 6.0 H 0 2.0
Ten grams of the peroxide-soap composition were added to a 30 ml. beaker containing a thermometer and 0.1 g. of powdered litharge was added while stirring for several seconds. Decomposition of hydrogen peroxide began immediately with the formation of a foam. The maximum temperature reached during the first 45 seconds of decomposition and the time which it took for the foam to reach a height of 2 inches were recorded. The following data were obtained.
TABLE III Time Max. r temp. 2-in. within foam, 45 see, Detergent sec.
Polyethoxy sorbitan monolaurate (Tween-20) 6 138 Polyethoxy isooctylphenol (Triton X-100) 8 140 Polyethoxy isooctylphenol (Triton X-102) 1g l EXAMPLE 6 This example illustrates the rapid catalytic decomposi tion of the hydrogen peroxide in various peroxide-soap compositions containing polyol humectants and thickening agents.
Powdered litharge (0.15 g.) was added to a 30 ml. beaker containing a thermometer and 10 g. of the peroxide-soap composition was added. Decomposition of the hydrogen peroxide began immediately with the formation of a foam. The time required for the foam to reach a height of 2 inches, the maximum temperature reached during the peroxide decomposition, and the time required to reach that maximum temperature were recorded. The following data were obtained.
TABLE IV Peroxide-Soap Composition (parts):
Polyethoxy fatty alcohol (Renex 31) 0. 5 0. 45 Polyethoxy isooctylphenol (Triton X102) 1. 5 1. 35 Water 6.0 H20: 2. 0 Propylene glycol Hydroxyethyl cellulose 0. 025 0. 025 Sodium carboxymethyl cellulose 0. 005
Time for 2-in. foam, sec. 3. 5 3 3 2. 5 3 2. 5 3. 5 3. 5
Maximum temperaature, F 165 162 169 165 154 EXAMPLE 7 This example illustrates the storage stability of various peroxide-soap compositions useful in the embodiment of FIGURE 3. The following peroxide-soap compositions Were prepared.
Composition 1 A 50-g. sample of each of the compositions was added to a 100 ml. round-bottom flask and immersed in a constant temperature bath at 100 F. Samples (3-4 g.) were withdrawn periodically and analyzed for hydrogen peroxide content by the Kingzetts Iodide Method (Scott, Standard Methods of Chemical Analysis, vol. II, Fifth Edition, p. 2180, 1939, D. Van Nostrand and Co.). The following data were obtained.
TABLE V Time, Percent, hlS. H20:
EXAMPLE 8 A polypropylene squeeze bottle dispenser similar to that illustrated in FIGURE 3 was filled with a peroxidesoap composition having the following formulation.
Parts Polyethoxy sorbitan monooleate 20 Polyethoxy alkylphenol 10 Water 50 H 0 5 -A sample of this composition was stored at 100 F. for two weeks without any significant peroxide decomposition being observed. The decomposition chamber was packed with activated carbon particles impregnated with silver. The dispenser had a heat loss of about 30%. When the bottle was continuously squeezed, there was a pause of about 2 secs. after which lather having a discharge temperature of about 125 F. and a .density of about 4 lbs./ cu. ft. was continuously discharged. The lather had good feel and was stable for more than an hour.
EXAMPLE 9 This example illustrates the use of catalase as the water soluble hydrogen peroxide decomposition catalyst suitable for use in the embodiment of FIGURE 4. The pHs of catalyst-soap compositions containing .03-.25 g. of catalase, 1 g. of polyethoxy fatty alcohol (Renex 31) and sufficient distilled water to give 6.7 g. of total solution were adjusted to about 7 by the addition of small amounts of sodium hydroxide. The solutions were charged to a 100 ml. graduated cylinder containing a 20 mm. Tefloncoated magnetic stirrer and a thermocouple suspended in the middle of the cylinder at the 30 ml. level. With the magnetic stirrer revolving at about 200 r.p.m., 3.3 g. of 30% hydrogen peroxide was added to the cylinder. The data recorded were the time in seconds for the lather to reach the 100 ml. level and the time in seconds for the lather temperature to rise 77 F. The following data were obtained.
TABLE VI Amount of Time to Time to Catalesc, 100 ml., rise 77 F.
g. sec. sec.
EXAMPLE 10 This example illustrates the use of a water soluble metal salt as the hydrogen peroxide decomposition catalyst suitable for use in the embodiment of FIGURE 4. The pH's of catalyst-soap compositions containing .06.3 g. of catalyst, -1 g. of polyethoxy fatty alcohol (Renex 31) and sufficient distilled water to give 6.7 g. of total solution were adjusted to about 7 by the addition of small amounts of potassiumhydroxide. The solutions were charged to a 100ml. graduated cylinder containing a mm. Tefloncoated magnetic stirrer and a thermocouple suspended in the-middle of the cylinder at the ml. level. With the magnetic stirrer revolving at about 200 r.p.m., 3. g. of 30% hydrogen peroxide was added to the cylinder. The data recorded were the time in seconds for the lather to reach the 100 ml. level and the time in seconds for the lather temperature to rise 77 F. The following data were obtained.
As will be apparent to those skilled in the art, numerous modifications and variations of the embodiments described above may be made without departing from the spirit of the invention or the scope of the following claims.
1. The method of producing warm lather which comprises decomposing hydrogen peroxide in the presence of a decomposition catalyst thereby generating water and oxygen with heat of decomposition, and allowing the re sulting hot decomposition products to contact a soap formulation thereby forming a warm lather.
2. The method of claim 1 in which the decomposition products of 0.011 part by weight of hydrogen peroxide is allowed to contact one part by weight of soap formulation.
3. The method of dispensing warm lather which comprises providing a dispensing container containing hydrogen peroxide and soap formulation, decomposing 0.0l-1 part of weight of hydrogen peroxide in the presence of a decomposition catalyst thereby generating water and oxygen with heat of decomposition, and allowing the resulting hot decomposition products to contact one part by weight of soap formulation thereby forming a warm lather which is dispensed from the container.
4. The method of claim 3 in which the decomposition products of 002-01 part by weight of hydrogen peroxide is allowed to contact one part by weight of soap formulation.
5. The method of claim 4 in which the dispensing device contains the hydrogen peroxide and the soap formulation in separate reservoirs.
6. The method of claim 4 in which the dispensing device contains in a single reservoir, the hydrogen peroxide and the soap formulation compatible therewith.
7. The method of claim 4 in which the dispensing device contains the hydrogen peroxide and the soap formulation mixed with catalyst in separate reservoirs.
8. A dispensing container for producing warm lather which comprises reservoir means for hydrogen peroxide and for soap formulation, a decomposition chamber containing a catalystfor the rapid decomposition of hydrogen peroxide, means for passing hydrogen peroxide into said decomposition chamber, means for contacting hydrogen peroxide decomposition products with soap formulation, and means for removing warm lather from the container.
9. The dispensing container of claim 8 in which the reservoir means for hydrogen peroxide and for soap formulation comprise two separate chambers, one for hydrogen peroxide component and the other for soap component.
10. The dispensing container of claim 8 in which the reservoir means for hydrogen peroxide and for soap formulation comprise a single chamber for peroxide-soap composition.
11. A dispensing container for producing warm lather which comprises two separate reservoirs, one for hydrogen peroxide and the other for catalyst-soap component, a mixing zone, means for separately passing hydrogen peroxide and catalyst-soap component to said mixing zone, and means for removing warm lather from the container.
References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 3,341,418 9/1967 Moses et a1 282 XR MAYER WEINBLATT, Primary Examiner U.S. Cl. X.R.
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE CERTIFICATE OF CORRECTION 3.488,287 Dated Januarv 26 1971 Patent No.
Leonard Seglin and Borivoj R. Franko-Filipasic Inventor(s) It is certified that error appears in the above-identified patent t are hereby corrected as shown below:
and that said Letters Paten Column 11, line 51, "3. g." should read -3. 3 g.--
Signed and sealed this 23rd day of March 1971 (SEAL) Attest:
EDWARD M.FLETGHER,JR. WILLIAM E. SGHUYLER, JR.
Commissioner of Patents Attesting Officer USCOMM'DC 603764 69 us. savanna! nnmnc ornc: "n o-au-ul FORM PO-1050 (IO-69) 1