|Publication number||US3488905 A|
|Publication date||Jan 13, 1970|
|Filing date||Dec 29, 1967|
|Priority date||Dec 29, 1967|
|Publication number||US 3488905 A, US 3488905A, US-A-3488905, US3488905 A, US3488905A|
|Inventors||Campbell William C|
|Original Assignee||Campbell William C|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (9), Referenced by (31), Classifications (12)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
Jan. 13, 1970 w. c. CAMPBELL 3,488,905
BUILDING ROOF STRUCTURE ATTORNEYS Ian. 1970 v WCMP`BELL 3,488,905
BUILDING ROOF STRUCTURE Fiied Deo. 29, 19e? 2 Smeets-.sheet 2 H6. ff
INVENTOR, y MMM/w CAA/P55 United States Patent O U.S. Cl. 52--263 1 Claim ABSTRACT OF THE DISCLOSURE A building structure in which hollow joists serve to support a deck formed of corrugated sheets or panels arranged so that the troughs of the corrugated sheets or panels extend in a direction at right angles to the 1ongitudinal extent of the joists; the joists include a loadcarrying portion and a panel-receiving portion that is provided with an elongated panel-receiving opening; when a corrugated sheet or panel is inserted into such opening, water which collects on such corrugated sheet or panel will flow into the hollow joist and be drained therefrom; the external surface of the corrugated sheets or panels may be provided with a layer of topping and the internal surface may be provided with insulation; each corrugated sheet may be formed into an integral unit by welding a sheet of corrugated material onto the edges of a rigid rectangular frame.
BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION The present invention relates to the structure of buildings and more particularly to the design of the joist and deck panel units employed in the formation of the roofs thereof.
In standard roof construction where corrugated sheet material is employed to form the decking, it is generally the practice to support such sheets upon purlin with the corrugations of the sheets disposed in parallel relation to the joists. The sheets which form the decking, consequently, lack beam strength between the joists and must be supported by purlin and bracing. Obviously, the need for purlin and bracing adds to the weight of the roof and lowers its weight-carrying capacity. The use Of purlin and bracing increases the cost of the building material which is required for a particular roof and also increases the cost of the labor which is necessary to effect its assembly and installation.
In standard roof construction, it is usually necessary to provide means, such as spouting, to carry olf water that results from rain or melting snow. Such spouting not only 'adds to the cost of constructing roofs but also increases the loading to which the roof supporting structure is subjected.
Similarly, in standard building construction, special structure must be provided for locating and supporting the vairous conduits that are required to supply utilities, such as water, elasticity and air conditioning medium, throughout the building.
Taking into consideration the foregoing deficiencies that exist in the materials now employed in the construction of roofs and the arrangement of such materials on the roof-supporting structures, it is a primary object of the present invention to overcome such deficiencies and, moreover, to bring about other advantages not heretofore possible with existing material used in roof construction and in the -arrangement of such material on the roof-supporting structure.
Another object of the invention is to provide a joist ICC construction that is hollow and, therefore, light in weight, but nevertheless, is sturdy and does not reduce the loadcarrying capacity of the roof. Such hollow joist construction also enables the joist to be employed as a duct means through which an air conditioning medium may be directed throughout the building. In fact, such duct means may be located, if desired, at the inside apex of the roof. The hollow joist may also serve as a duct means for locating and supporting utility conduits that supply water or electricity throughout the building.
The hollow joists, when properly associated with the upper surface of a roof deck, may also serve as a conduit to receive and drain away any water that may collect on such upper surface of the deck due to rain or melting snow. This is particularly so when the roof deck is made up of corrugated sheets or panel means that are supported in openings formed in the joists and so arranged that the troughs of the corrugations of such sheets or panel means extend into and terminate within the hollow joists.
Still another object of the invention is to construct the deck of corrugated sheet material and arrange the corrugated sheets or panel means so that the corrugations thereof extend at right angles to the joists. By virtue of the fact that the sheets or panel means are arranged with their corrugations extending at right angles to the joists, the deck sheets or panel means possess inherent strength and stiffness. The need for the customary purlin and bracing is, accordingly, eliminated. This, obviously, reduces the total weight required in a roof structure and gives a lower roof weight to roof load ratio then is possible with standard construction.
A further object of the invention is provided prefabricated roofing panel units that can be produced fby production methods using the latest welding techniques. Each of the panel units may be of a size previously predetermined and delivered to the building site as an integral unit. This enables the construction of a roof to be completed with the minimum of skilled labor and in the least possible time. Thus, erection costs are considerably reduced over conventional construction methods.
A still further object of the invention is to provide a roof construction in which the deck is formed of corrugated sheets or panel units and the external surface of the corrugations thereof are coated with a layer of topping material.
An additional object of the invention is to provide a roof construction in which the deck of such roof is formed of panel sheets or panel units and the internal surface of such sheets or units is provided with insulation.
Another additional object of the invention is to provide a unitary roof panel unit which utilizes an integral rigid frame to which a corrugated cover sheet of metal or plastic is secured.
A further additional object of the invention is to provide a roof construction utilizing integral rigid panel sheets or panel units that may be secured to roof supporting structures in such a manner that they provide overhangs for flat, pitched or Shed-type roofs.
A still further additional object of the invention is to provide improvements in rooting, joists and panels, according to the teachings of the present invention, that are simple in construction, durable and made of materiale of relatively low cost.
The invention will be better understood and objects other than those set forth above will become apparent,
fter reading the following detailed description thereof.
Such description refers to the annexed drawings presnting preferred and illustrative embodiments of the inention.
In the drawings:
FIGURE 1 is a perspective view, partly in section, howing -a deck mounted on a roof according to the `resent invention;
FIGURE 2 is an end elevation showing the manner if securing a sheet of corrugated material to a novel Dist construction;
FIGURE 3 is a sectional view taken along section ine 3 3 of FIGURE 2;
FIGURE 4 is a sectional view showing a modified 'orm of corrugated sheet material to which a topping naterial has been applied;
FIGURE 5 is an end view of a fabricated panel unit;
FIGURE 6 illustrates the manner in which fabricated )anel units are laid on joist structure;
FIGURE 7 shows a Imethod of applying rigid insula- :ion to the underside of a sheet of corrugated material Jr panel unit;
FIGURE 8 shows a method of supporting bat-type lnsulation on the underside of a corrugated sheet of ma- '.erial or a panel unit;
FIGURE 9 shows another method of supporting batype insulation on the underside of a corrugated sheet of material or panel unit;
FIGURE 10 shows roof panel sheets or panel units applied to a flat-type roof;
FIGURE 11 shows roof panel sheets or panel units applied to a shed-type roof; and
FIGURE 12 shows roof panel sheets or panel units applied to a pitched-type roof.
DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS Referring to the drawings, it is to be noted that FIG- URE 1 shows a plurality of conventional columns 10', 10 upon which are mounted conventional I-beams 12, 12. Corrugated panel sheets 14 of decking material (only one of which is shown in FIGURE 1) are supported upon I-beams 12, 12. The corrugated panel sheets 14 are arranged on the I-beams 12, 12 so that the troughs 16 of the corrugated panel sheets 14 extend at right angles to the longitudinal extent of the I-beams 12, 12. It should be readily apparent that this arrangement of corrugated panel sheets 14 differs materially from an arrangement of sheets as employed in a known construction wherein the corrugations thereof are disposed in parallel relation to the joists 12, 12. Consequently, the deck lacks beam strength between the joists and must be supported by purlins and bracing. On the other hand, when the deck sheets or panels are arranged with the corrugations thereof extending at right angles to the longitudinal extent of the I-beams 12, the deck sheets 14 possess inherent strength and stiffness. This allows the deck to act not only as a load-carrying member, but also as a stiffner between the joists. The deck, therefore, takes the place of the customary purlins and bracing. The total weight of material required in constructing a roof is, therefore, reduced and this gives a lower roof weight to roof load ratio than could Ibe possibly obtained in said known construction.
In FIGURE 2 of the drawings', a novel joist construction 18 is illustrated. This joist 18 is shown as supported on the flange 20 of I-beam 12. Joist 18 has a substantially rectangular load-carrying portion 22 and a corrugated sheet or panel supporting portion 24. An opening 26 is formed in the sheet or panel supporting portion 24 and this opening 26 is provided with an upper flange 28 and a lower flange 30. Corrugated sheet or panel supporting portion 24 is further provided with an end abutting surface 32 which braces the corrugated sheet or panel 14 against inward movement with respect to the joist 18.
In order to provide further strength to the corrugated sheet 14 and joist 18 assembly, the corrugated sheet 14 may be, if desired, welded to the upper flange 28 and lower flange 30.
A hollow joist 18', similar to hollow joist 18, is mounted on ange 20 of I-beam 12 in spaced, substantially parallel, relation to joist 18. Joist 18 includes a load-carrying portion 22 and a corrugated sheet or panel supporting portion 24. An opening 2-6' is provided in the corrugated sheet or panel supporting portion 24 and this opening 26' is provided with an upper flange 28 and a lower liange 30'. It also includes an end abutting surface 32 similar to end abutting surface 32. If desired, corrugated sheet 14' may be welded to upper flange 28 and lower flange 30 to provide a more rigid corrugated sheet and joist assembly. Subsequent to the mounting of the joists 18 and 18 on the ange 20 and the securing of corrugated sheets 14, 14 in openings 26, 26 respectively, an elongated cap member 34 may be secured, by welding or in any other suitable manner, about flanges 28, 28. The cap, when so welded seals against leakage between the panels'.
On reference to FIGURE l, it will be seen that the lower portion of end 36 of corrugated sheet 14 ter minates short of side wall 38. Thus, any liquid collected on corrugated sheet 14 will be discharged into joist 18 and be drained therefrom. In a similar manner, the lower portion of end 36 of corrugated sheet 14 terminates short of side wall 38. Thus, any liquid collected on corrugated sheet 14 will be discharged into joist 18 and drained therefrom.
FIGURE 3 is a view showing a section taken along the line 3-3 of FIGURE 2. It shows clearly one shape that the corrugated sheet or panel 14 may take. Specically, the corrugations are formed so as to provide in section a smooth continuous sine-like curve 40 having sides 42 and a trough portion 44. This view also shows one surface of the corrugated sheet 14 in engagement with the flange 46 and its other surface in engagement with iange 48. The relationship of the corrugated sheet 14 to the end abutting surface 32 of joist 14 is apparent from this figure. It is to be understood, that the same relationship exists between corrugated sheet 14 and joist 18' that exists between corrugated sheet 14 and joist 18.
FIGURE 4 shows a corrugated sheet or panel 50 mounted on lower flange 30 in a manner similar to that in which corrugated sheet or panel 14 is mounted on lower flange 30 of joist 18. Unlike the curved corrugations of sheet 14 as shown in FIGURES 2 and 3, the corrugations of sheet 50 are formed with straight bottoms 52 and straight sides 54. It is to be understood, however, that the corrugated sheets need not be limited to the shapes illustrated in FIGURES 3 and 4, but they take any other desired shape, so long as the bottom wall and side walls thereof form troughs. FIGURE 4 also shows the outer surface of the corrugations of FIGURE 4, that is those surfaces facing outwardly from the ange 30, covered with a layer of topping T of any Well known roof topping material.
FIGURE 5 shows a roof panel unit, indicated generally by the reference character P, which may be fabricated ata factory and shipped as a finished unit to a building site. Roof panel unit P comprises a rigid frame 56 and a cover 58 of corrugated material. The frame 56 may be formed from one or more frame members 60 welded together to form a continuous enclosure. Frame members 60 may be square or rectangular in cross-section and may be formed from any well known suitable material such as metal or plastic. When the cover 58 is securely attached to the end edge 62 of frame members 60 by any well known method, rigid unitary roof panel unit P is obtained.
FIGURE 6 shows, more or less schematically, how panel units P and joist 18, constructed in accordance with the teaching of the present invention, are mounted on a conventional column 10, 10 and I-beam 12 construction. A plurality of pairs of joists is mounted on the flange 20. Each pair of joists comprises a rst joist 18 and spaced parallel second joist 18. A panel unit P is secured to each of the joists 18, 18 forming the pair, and a side edge of a panel unit P associated with one pair of joists lies closely adjacent the end edge of a panel unit associated with an adjacent pair of joists. Longitudinally extending caps 34 seal the spaces between the frames 56 of panel units P against leakage.
In each of FIGURES 7, 8, and 9, there is shown an I-beam 12 having a -ange 20. On the flanges of each of the I-beams 12 there is mounted spaced pairs of joists 18, 18. Between an I-beam 18 of one pair of and an I-beam 1'8 of an adjacent pair, there extends a sheet or panel of corrugated material having a trough 16. The ends of these troughs are arranged to discharge any water that collects thereon into the hollow beams 18, 18', respectively. Each of the hollow joists 18, 18', may have supported, and extending longitudinally therein, utility conduits 64, 64'. Any number of these utility conduits 64, 64 may be provided and they may be employed to conduct a uid medium such as water or gas. Moreover, the joists 18, 18', themselves, may be utilized to conduct an air conditioning medium, such as refrigerated air, throughout the building.
FIGURE 7 shows sheets of insulating material 65 inserted on the underside of corrugated sheets or panels 14 and anges 30, 30.
In FIIGURE 8, the underside of the corrugated sheets or panels 14, 14', are also provided with insulation 66. The insulation, however, may take the form of bats 68 and be secured to the corrugated sheets 14 by cement 70.
In FIGURE 9, bats of insulation material 72 are secured to the underside of corrugated sheets 14, 14 by means of support member 74. In this form of the invention the joists 18 and 18 are respectively, provided with longitudinally extending notches 76, 76. The support member 74 is provided with longitudinally extending anges 77, 77 that are provided, respectively, with beads 78, 78 which engage within the longitudinally extending notches 76, 76.
In FIGURE 10, there is illustrated a hat-type roof construction. In this type of roof construction, a pair of hollow joists 82, 82' are supported upon a pair of conventinal supports 80, 80. A deck 84 formed of corrugated sheets or panel units is supported across the hollow joists 82, 82. The corrugations of these corrugated sheets or panel units are arranged to extend at right angles to the longitudinal extent of the beams 82, 82'. Thus, such sheets possess inherent stiffness and strength for the same reason as does the corrugated sheet described in the roof deck arrangement illustrated in FIGURE 1. Moreover, because of this inherent strength and stiffness, the corrugated sheets or panels may be arranged on the roof supporting structure in such a manner as to provide overhangs as illustrated at 86, y86.
In FIGURE 11, a shed-type building construction is illustrated. More specifically, a pair of hollow beams 88, 88', are, respectively, supported upon support members 90, 90'. Corrugated sheets or panel units 92 rest on the hollow beams '88, 88' with the troughs of the corrugated sheets or panel units 92 extending in a direction at right angles to the longitudinal extent of the beams 88, 88'. The corrugated sheets or panel units 92 are provided with overhangs 94, 94 similar to the overhangs 86, 86 illustrated in FIGURE 10.
FIGURE 12 illustrates the invention as applied to a building having a pitched-type roof. The building includes conventional outer supports 88, 88 and a conventional inner support 90. Mounted, respectively, on outer supports 88, 88' are hollow beams 18, 18' while mounted on the inner support 90 is a conventional I-beam 92. Corrugated sheets or panel units 94 are arranged to extend between the hollow joists 18 and the I-beam 92. These corrugated sheets or panels are provided with troughs arranged to extend in a direction at right angles to the longitudinal extent of the joist 18 and I-beam 92. Similarly, corrugated sheets or panel units 94 are arranged to extend between the hollow joist 18' and the I-beam 92. The corrugated sheets or panel units 94 are arranged to overhang the joist 18 as illustrated at 96. In a like manner, the corrugated sheets or panel units 94 are arranged to overhang the hollow joist 18' as illustrated at 96'. A cap member 98 is arranged to extend longitudinally along and above I-beam 92 and sealing relation -to the adjacent ends of corrugated sheets or panel units 94, 94. The cap member 98, accordingly, seals the space between the adjacent ends of the corrugated sheets or panel units 94, 94 against leakage.
From the foregoing, it is believed to be apparent that a corrugated roof construction has been developed that presents numerous advantages over known corrugated roof constructions. Because the troughs of the corrugations of the corrugated sheets or panel units are arranged to extend at right angles to the joist which supports such sheets or panel units, inherent strength and stillness is obtained without the use of purlin and bracing that is customarily provided for that purpose.
Due to the fact that the joists which support the corrugated sheets or panel units are hollow, such sheets or panel units can be supported on the joists so that water which collects on the corrugated sheets or panel units due to rain or snow, can flow from the troughs into the hollow joists and be drained therefrom.
Again, since the joists are hollow and extend throughout the building in which they are employed, they may serve the added function of air conditioning ducts. They may also serve as ducts through which various utility conduits, such as water, gas or electricity, may extend and be supported thereby, thus eliminating the need for additional hangers for such conduits.
Furthermore, as a result of the inherent strength and stiffness provided by the direction of the corrugations with respect to the joists, a layer of roof topping may be applied to the outer surface of the corrugations without fear of overloading the roof supporting structure.
Similarly, because of this inherent strength and stiffness, the corrugated sheets or panel units that form the deck, may be arranged so as to provide overhangs for at, shed and pitched-type roofs.
After reading the foregoing detailed description, it will be apparent that the objects set forth initially have been successfully achieved.
What is claimed is:
1. A building structure comprising parallel rows of longitudinally spaced colums; an I-beam means supported on the columns of each of said parallel row of columns; a plurality of pairs of closely spaced elongated joists ex tending transversely of said I-beams; each of `said joists including a hollow elongated load-carrying portion closed at its lower end and provided with an elongated lateral opening at its upper end; the opening in one of a pair of the joists cooperating with a corresponding opening in a joist of another adjacent pair of joists to support therebetween a corrugated roof panel member having its corrugations extending in a direction at right angles to the length of said joists whereby rainwater falling on said corrugated panels may be collected in the troughs of the corrugations and directed thereby into said elongated openings; each of said openings being dened by a pair of engaging flanges positioned to receive an edge of a corrugated panel therebetween in tight engagement therewith; each joist having a panel abutment surface located opposite its opening to limit inward movement of an associated panel into said joists; asphalt topping material covering the external surface of some of the troughs formed by the corrugations; insulation material in contact with the internal surface of at least some of said panel members; support means extending between and frictionally cooperating with adjacent spaced joists seuring said insulation means in contact with the surface f the panel members; utility conduits supported by and xtending along the interior of at least some of said .ollow joists and an elongated cap member secured to a air of adjacent spaced joist members and covering the pace between said joist members.
References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 292,738 1/1884 Ehrhardt 52-461 2,164,138 6/1939 London 52-495 2,474,713 6/1949 Auble 52-11 8 2,873,698 2/1959 Hartman 52--11 2,900,681 8/1959 Becker 52-11 3,143,827 8/1964 Showalter 52-11 3,224,154 12/1965 Toti 52-14 3,388,510 6/1968 Smith 52-495 FOREIGN PATENTS 544,610 1943 Great Britain.
U.S. C1. X.R.
|Cited Patent||Filing date||Publication date||Applicant||Title|
|US292738 *||Aug 7, 1883||Jan 29, 1884||F Two||ehrhardt|
|US2164138 *||Mar 5, 1938||Jun 27, 1939||Bernard London||Building construction|
|US2474713 *||Aug 29, 1946||Jun 28, 1949||Auble Arthur J||Marquise or canopy for buildings|
|US2873698 *||Jan 24, 1956||Feb 17, 1959||Childers Mfg Company||Free-standing roof structures|
|US2900681 *||May 22, 1956||Aug 25, 1959||Small Business Administ||Awning structure|
|US3143827 *||Apr 15, 1960||Aug 11, 1964||Showalter Sr Dennis J||Canopy assemblies|
|US3224154 *||Jul 24, 1963||Dec 21, 1965||Toti Andrew J||Structural assembly construction|
|US3388510 *||Oct 18, 1965||Jun 18, 1968||Edward C. Smith||Roof structure|
|GB544610A *||Title not available|
|Citing Patent||Filing date||Publication date||Applicant||Title|
|US3969850 *||Feb 27, 1975||Jul 20, 1976||Kabushiki Kaisha Hirai Giken||Metal roof construction|
|US3969863 *||Aug 2, 1974||Jul 20, 1976||Alderman Robert J||Roof system|
|US3987714 *||May 22, 1975||Oct 26, 1976||Campbell Research Corporation||Building construction|
|US4080881 *||Oct 26, 1976||Mar 28, 1978||Campbell Research Corporation||Building construction|
|US4155206 *||Apr 19, 1978||May 22, 1979||Howmet Corporation||Insulated metal roofing system|
|US4817343 *||Oct 5, 1987||Apr 4, 1989||Rutledge B G||Leak-proof ceiling system|
|US6421969 *||May 20, 1999||Jul 23, 2002||V°lstad Energy AS||Device forming a partition between storeys|
|US7658038||Mar 28, 2005||Feb 9, 2010||Lifetime Products, Inc.||System and method for constructing a modular enclosure|
|US7770334||Mar 28, 2005||Aug 10, 2010||Lifetime Products, Inc.||Door assembly for a modular enclosure|
|US7770337||Mar 28, 2005||Aug 10, 2010||Lifetime Products, Inc.||Modular enclosure with offset panels|
|US7770339 *||Mar 28, 2005||Aug 10, 2010||Lifetime Products, Inc.||Roof system for a modular enclosure|
|US7779579||Mar 28, 2005||Aug 24, 2010||Lifetime Products, Inc.||Packaging system for a modular enclosure|
|US7797885||Mar 28, 2005||Sep 21, 2010||Lifetime Products, Inc.||Modular enclosure|
|US7926227||Mar 28, 2005||Apr 19, 2011||Lifetime Products, Inc.||Modular enclosure with living hinges|
|US8020347||May 11, 2006||Sep 20, 2011||Lifetime Products, Inc.||Modular enclosure|
|US8051617||Sep 20, 2010||Nov 8, 2011||Lifetime Products, Inc.||Modular enclosure|
|US8091289||Mar 28, 2005||Jan 10, 2012||Lifetime Products, Inc.||Floor for a modular enclosure|
|US8132372||Feb 8, 2010||Mar 13, 2012||Lifetime Products Inc.||System and method for constructing a modular enclosure|
|US8161711||Feb 1, 2010||Apr 24, 2012||Lifetime Products, Inc.||Reinforced plastic panels and structures|
|US20050210760 *||Mar 28, 2005||Sep 29, 2005||Mower Barry D||Door assembly for a modular enclosure|
|US20050210761 *||Mar 28, 2005||Sep 29, 2005||Mower Barry D||System and method for constructing a modular enclosure|
|US20050210765 *||Mar 28, 2005||Sep 29, 2005||Mower Barry D||Roof system for a modular enclosure|
|US20050210766 *||Mar 28, 2005||Sep 29, 2005||Mower Barry D||Packaging system for a modular enclosure|
|US20050210828 *||Mar 28, 2005||Sep 29, 2005||Mower Barry D||Floor for a modular enclosure|
|US20050223652 *||Mar 28, 2005||Oct 13, 2005||Mower Barry D||Modular enclosure with living hinges|
|US20050223653 *||Mar 28, 2005||Oct 13, 2005||Mower Barry D||Modular enclosure|
|US20060277852 *||May 11, 2006||Dec 14, 2006||Mower Barry D||Modular enclosure|
|US20100205871 *||Feb 8, 2010||Aug 19, 2010||Mower Barry D||System and method for constructing a modular enclosure|
|US20130318895 *||Aug 9, 2013||Dec 5, 2013||Firestone Building Products Company, Llc||Hook and loop attachment of solar panels to roofing membranes|
|DE2901187A1 *||Jan 13, 1979||Jul 24, 1980||Mizell Emerson H||T-shaped batt of insulation - has U=shaped vapour barrier extending beyond longitudinal ends of batt for connecting consecutive batts|
|WO2004057129A1 *||Dec 23, 2002||Jul 8, 2004||Mara-Institut D.O.O.||The roofing-drainage system for large-span buildings|
|U.S. Classification||52/263, 52/302.3, 52/404.1, 52/14, 52/781|
|International Classification||E04B7/00, E04D13/04|
|Cooperative Classification||E04D13/0445, E04B7/00, E04D2013/045|
|European Classification||E04D13/04B30, E04B7/00|