|Publication number||US3490330 A|
|Publication date||Jan 20, 1970|
|Filing date||Mar 8, 1968|
|Priority date||Mar 16, 1967|
|Publication number||US 3490330 A, US 3490330A, US-A-3490330, US3490330 A, US3490330A|
|Original Assignee||Karlsruhe Augsburg Iweka|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (7), Referenced by (20), Classifications (8)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
Jan. 20, 1970 w. WALTHER 3,490,330
FIREARM, PARTICULARLY LI GHT ANTITANK WEAPON Filed March 8, 1968 2 Sheets-Sheet 1 Fig. 7 J I Fig.2 I
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W. WALTHER Jan. 20, 1 970 FIREARM, PARTICULARLY LIGHT ANTITANK WEAPON 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 Filed March 8, 1968 -mmmmwm=bmwmmw w v t vmNMNvvmwQvMm GMvMRNN mvov m m JNVENTOR: 94%
United States Patent I 33,228 Int. Cl. F41f 3/02, 15/00 U.S. Cl. 891.7 7 Claims ABSTRACT OF THE DISCLOSURE A firearm, particularly a light antitank weapon in which the recoil impulse upon firing a projectile is at least partially intercepted by a counter-thrust drive device arranged at the rear end of the gun barrel. The gun barrel is slidably mounted in a tubular guide provided with a shoulder support, handles and a trigger on one of the handles. Within the gun barrel a slidable pistondriven by a propellant chargehas mounted thereon the projectile. When the projectile leaves the barrel, the piston is intercepted by an intercepter device at the muzzle end of the barrel. The gun barrel then moves rearwardly in the guide and is arrested by the counter-thrust drive device and may even be completely discharged from the rear end of the tubular guide.
The invention relates to a weapon provided with a counter-thrust drive-system for at least partial intercept of the recoil impulses taking effect on the barrel upon firing of a projectile, particularly a light shoulder-weapon for defense against tanks.
Firearms are already known, in which the recoil impulse taking eifect on the gun barrel upon firing of a projectile is partially or entirely intercepted. In the case of weapons of this type constructed as light-guns free from recoil, there is disposed on the rear end of the gunbarrel a nozzle, through which upon firing the projectile are discharged propellent charge gases, and an impulse directed opposite to the recoil impulse and substantially equally great, is produced. The disadvantage of such weapons consists therein, that even upon the slightest deviations of the nozzle axis from the gun-barrel axis, which is practically not to be prevented, the thrust power of the nozzle drive mechanism possesses a force component directed perpendicularly to the barrel axis. As a result thereof, torsional moments act on the barrel, which lead to angular distortions of the weapon with respect to the desired firing direction, while the projectile passes through the gun-barrel. Misfirings result therefrom.
Along the line of the above described lightweight guns, there have also been produced previously light shoulderweapons, particularly antitank weapons. *In addition to the insuflicient accuracy of fire, a great disadvantage of these weapons is the great acoustic effect on account of the muzzle blast during the discharge of the projectile from the barrel and the ignition blast of the intercept drive-mechanism substantially coinciding therewith. As a result, injuries to the hearing may occur upon firing.
A weapon free from recoil is also known, in which, in a gun barrel open on both ends, a liner or inner tube closed on 'one side is longitudinally slidably mounted. This liner receives the projectile and the propellent charge. Upon firing of a projectile, with this weapon, on account of the recoil impulse taking elfect on the liner or inner tube, the liner or inner tube is ejected rearwardly from the gun-barrel which is open at both ends. Although the liner or inner tube possesses a greater bulk than the projectile, behind a projectile of this type considerable 3,490,330 Patented Jan. 20, 1970 safety areas are necessary into which the liner or inner tube is ejected. Such great safety areas, however, are solely available in exceptional cases. Insofar, the gun described above is adjustable solely to a limited extent and has been intended also especially as a gun for aircraft.
The object of the invention consists in the furnishing of a firearm, preferably a light shoulder-weapon for defense against tanks, in which the recoil impulse upon firing of'a projectile is at least partially intercepted by means of a counter-thrust drive-device whereby no acoustic effects occur upon firing, which could lead to hearing injuries of the gunner. Furthermore, upon firing of a projectile, the safety area required behind the weapon shouldbe as small as possible.
Starting with a firearm, particularly a light shoulderwepaon, with a gun-barrel receiving a projectile and a propellent charge, the former being provided with a counter-thrust drive mechanism for at least a partial intercept of the recoil impulses taking effect on the gun barrel upon firing of the projectile and a guide constructed preferably as a shoulder support, on which trigger devices are arranged for the release of a propellent charge and stop means releasable upon firing of the projectile, and in which said guide is positioned to be slidable in longitudinal direction, the solution of the stated problem consists in the arrangement of a piston serving as projectile-drive-base, which is positioned longitudinally slidably in the gun-barrel and is connected tightly with the projectile, however, still releasable upon discharge, further characterized therein, that in the gun barrel muzzle a piston-intercept-device is fixedly disposed for intercepting the piston upon forward motion.
Upon discharge of the projectile from the gun-barrel, with the weapon of the present invention, no muzzle sound of the ordinary type occurs, as the piston driven forward on account of the gas pressure stress in the gun barrel is intercepted by means of the intercept device in the gun-barrel-muzzle and closes the same substantially gastight.
In a suitable manner, the piston may be held tight in the gun-barrel by means of a holding means, whose holding power is released solely under the action of a predetermined piston force. The holding means may be a tension rod connected with the end of thegun-barrel facing away from the piston and the barrel muzzle, said tension rod being provided with a suitably dimensioned breaking point corresponding to the desired breaking force of the piston. In this way, a high starting acceleration of the piston and with it a great acceleration of the projectile in the gun-barrel is insured.
In particularly suitable manner, the holding means may be an ignition tube which extends axially through the propellent charge and is fixedly connected with the barrel end.
In a further advantageous embodiment of the invention, the counter-thrust-drive-mechanism may, in a manner known 'per se, be a nozzle drive mechanism operated by the combustion gases of the propellent charge.
Since after the discharge of the projectile from the gunbarreL'the barrel muzzle is closed tightly by means of the piston guided in the barrel and therefore .no drive gases can escape from the barrel muzzle, the gun barrel after the firing of a projectile acts as gas-pressure-storage member and the drive gases then first partially released are available for the supply to the counter-thrust-drivemechanism. Insofar, with the firearm of the invention, solely one propellent charge is required, and the drivemechanism-thrust may be held small in comparison with the force owing to recoil impulse of the projectile, as the operation of the co-unter-thrust-drive-mechanism lasts very long in comparison with the time in which the projectile passes through the gun-barrel. Any possible disturbing forces, which may occur in view of inaccurate alignment of the longitudinal axis of the gun-barrel with the longitudinal axis of the counter-thrust-drive-mechanism, are accordingly small and lead to no appreciable angular displacement of the gun-barrel.
Preferably the counter-thrust-drive-mechanism may have a gas-pressuring channel which discharges at such a point in the gun-barrel, that the impacting of the drivemechanism with gas pressure takes place only then when the piston has returned to a partial distanc into the gunbarrel after the ignition of the propellent charge. For example, the gas pressure impact channel may discharge in the area in the gun-barrel, which upon a non-fired propellent charge is uncovered by a shaft of the piston.
The advantage of this feature lies therein, that upon break off of the piston, namely upon the beginning of movement of the projectile, no driving mechanism output and accordingly no laterally disturbing forces are present. Only after the piston has covered a pre-determined distance along the gun-barrel, is the counter-thrust drive mechanism impacted by gas pressure and a thrust force directed oppositely to the recoil impulse and which at the beginning of the actuation of the drive mechanism is still small, is produced.
With a particularly suitable embodiment, the counterthr-ust drive mechanism comprises a ring of nozzles which concentrically surrounds the gun-barrel, and whose nozzles are disposed preferably at equal angular spacings from one another in a manner known per se, so that the resulting thrust force acts on the center of gravity of the gunbarrel. The axes of the driving mechanism-nozzles may in this connection be directed inclined outwardly and from mantle lines of a cone imagined to open towards the firing direction, and the longitudinal axis coincides with the longitudinal axis of the gun-barrel.
The arrangement of the nozzles may with advantage be selected in such a manner that the resulting thrust force acts on the center of gravity of the gun-barrel. In this manner it is insured that even upon loss of a thrustnozzle, no torsional moments take effect on the gunbarrel.
In the propellent charge space which is disposed between the piston guided in the gun-barrel and the rear barrel-end, there may be disposed adjacent to the main propellent charge an additional propellent charge made of slow-burning propellent substances. On account of the slow combustion of this propellent substance, the additional propellent charge furnishes no noteworthy addition to the firing of the projectile, but serves for supplying gas to the counter-thrust drive mechanism for a longer period of time. The additional propellent charge may also consist of a propellent substance having a great ignition inertia, or it may be shielded with respect to the main propellent charge by a covering which is destructible under the influence of heat upon combustion of the main propellent charge. Suitably the additional propellent charge consists of a solid-rocket-composition disposed at the rearward end of the propellent charge space.
A further substantial feature of the invention consists therein, that the piston which serves as a projectile drivebase possesses a deformation section with great workrecelvlng capacities, which upon the intercept operation enters into the piston intercept device and is deformed there, whereby a conversion of the kinectic energy inherent to the piston into deformation energy takes place. Suitably the deforming section of the piston lies in front of the piston base, on which the projectile is releasably mounted.
The piston intercept device may comprise an insert piece, which concially tapers toward the gun-barrel-muzzle, said insert piece having on the piston-entry side the same or a somewhat larger diameter than the piston.
In the following, the invention is described more in detail with reference to an embodiment by way of example which is shown partially diagrammatically in the appended drawings.
In the drawings:
FIG. 1 illustrates diagrammatically a weapon of the invention in longitudinal section;
FIG. 2 illustrates diagrammatically and in section the same weapon shortly after the ignition of the propellent charge;
FIG. 3 illustrates the weapon after the firing;
FIG. 4 is a side view of the weapon with a portion in section;
FIG. 5 illustrates the piston intercept device with intercepted piston, partly in section.
Referring to the drawings, the weapon essentially consists of a gun-barrel 1 and a gun-barrel guide 2 constructed as shoulder-support. The gun-barrel is slidably guided with anti-friction property in direction of its longitudinal axis in the guide 2. The guide 2 is provided with means, not shown, for arresting of the gun-barrel which means only upon firing of the weapon are released and thereby release the gun-barrel. The arrangement is made in such a manner that the gun-barrel may be shifted from the position shown in FIG. 1 upon firing solely rearwardly--namely opposite to the firing direction-and if need be may completely leave its guide.
The rearward end 3 of the gun-barrel 2 is closed by a rear wall 4. Within the gun-barrel is disposed a piston 5, which before the firing is held in its position by means of a holding device 6 provided with a breaking point and upon firing is movable along the barrel to the barrelmuzzle 7. In the barrel muzzle is disposed a piston intercept device 8 described hereinafter more in detail. The piston 5 is provided on its end facing the gun-barrel muzzle with a receiver for the projectile 9. Between the piston 5 and the end of the gun-barrel closed by the rear wall 4 is disposed the propellent charge chamber 10. At the rearward end 3 of the gun-barrel 2 is furthermore disposed a counter-thrust drive 11, whose nozzles lie symmetrically to the axis of the counter-thrust drive and is directed toward the rear, namely, opposite to the direction of firing. The high pressure sides of the drive mechanism nozzles discharge into such a point in the gun-barrel, that the nozzles are provided only then with gas pressure, when after the ignition of the propellant charge, the piston 5 carrying the projectile 9 has traveled a pre-determined distance. This is shown in FIG. 2.
The barrel guide 2 surrounds the gun barrel 1 substantially concentrically and extends over a part of the length of the gun barrel. The barrel guide is provided with a shoulder-support 12 as well as two handles 13, 14. On the handle 13 is disposed a trigger device 15.
Details of the weapon construction are shown in FIG. 4. The gun barrel 1 consists of a front cylindrical barrel section 20 and the readward end 3. The cylindrical barrel section 20 and the end 3 of the gun barrel are threadedly connected with each other by means of a screw thread 21. On the front end of the screw thread, the gun barrel is provided with flange 22 projecting radially from the gun barrel, said flange engaging the rear end the barrel guide 2 and preventing a further forward movement of the gun barrel 1 in the barrel guide 2. The hollow space of the gun barrel lying behind the piston 5 in FIG. 4 serves as a propellant charge chamber. In the illustrated embodiment, the propellent charge consists of a solid rocket composition 23 and a powder charge 24. From the rear wall 4 of the gun barrel extends the holding device for the piston 5 constructed as ignition tube 6 in firing direction along the gun barrel axis. The piston 5 and the ignition tube 6 are secured together by means of a screw thread 25. In the vicinity of the screw thread 25, the ignition tube 6 possesses a breaking point 26. In addition, the ignition tube 6 is screwed in a manner not of greater interest here, into the rear wall 4 of the end 3 of the gun barrel. The ignition tube 6 is provided in the area of the propellent charge space with a number of bores 27, which connect its inner chamber with the propellent charge chamber. Within the gun barrel is located a primer charge 29 enclosed by a plastic casing 28, in which primer charge an electric bridge-igniter 30 is embedded. The bridge-igniter 30 is in connection, in a manner not of interest here, through electric conductors 31 with an ignition contact actuatable by the trigger device 15.
For insuring a smooth guidance of the projectile through the projectile passage in the gun-barrel, the piston is provided with a piston wall 33 of considerable length. The forward end 34 of the piston possesses a receiver 35 for the projectile 9. For improving the gas seal, the piston is provided with piston rings 36, 37.
In the area of the end of the gun-barrel in which the piston 5 held in its position by means of the ignition tube 6, is arranged, before the firing, the counter-thrust drive mechanism 11 in the form of an annular series of thrust nozzles 40. On the high pressure side, the nozzles are provided with a gas compacting channel 41, which is covevered by piston wall 33. This channel 41 is first uncovered for gas pressure admission after, as a result of ignition of the propellent charge 24, the piston 5 has been moved from its starting position apredetermined distance forwardly. Thereafter, the thrust nozzles 40 of the counterthrust drive mechanism 11 are pressured by the propellent charge gases and exert a thrust force directed against the recoil impulse upon firing of the weapon. By means of a suitable dimensioning of: the breaking point 26, the break-off force of the piston may be adjusted within wide limits, in such manner, that the piston upon firing of the weapon receives a high starting acceleration.
The propellent charge 24 consists preferably of rapidly burning powder. When upon firing of the weapon, the piston moves toward the gun-barrel muzzle, the tension release of the gas pressure in the gun-barrel occasioned thereby causes a gradual decline in the power of the counter-thrust drive mechanism. In order to maintain the power of the counter-thrust drive mechanism for a longer period of time, there is disposed behind the propellent charge 24 another propellent charge 23 preferably consisting of a slow-burning propellent substance. Between the two propellent charges 23, 24 is located a foil 42, which under effect of temperature during the burning of the charge 24 is destroyed and delays the ignition of the propellent charge 23.
On the gun-barrel muzzle 7 is disposed a piston intercept device 8. The piston intercept device comprises an insert piece secured by means of a screw-thread 45 in the gun-barrel, and has an inner wall surface tapering conically towards the gun-barrel-muzzle. This conical insert piece receives the piston driven by the gas-pressure along the gun-barrel and undergoes thereby a deformation dissipating its kinetic energy. After the interception of the piston at the barrel muzzle, the gun-barrel is closed and the combustion gases still contained in the barrel are now completely available for the operation of the counterthrust-drive mechanism. On account of the great deceleration occurring upon the entry of the piston in the piston intercept device, the projectile 9 is released due to its inertia from the projectile-receiver 35 in the piston bottom and moves then on a ballistic trajectory. 1
As was already indicated above, the gun-barrel-guide 2 is provided with means for arresting the gun-barrel 1 which are released upon firing. In this manner, the gunbarrel can perform during the firing a return movement, withoutapart from the low frictional forces-causing the recoil forces to effect the gun-barrel-guidance and thereby the shoulder-support 12. FIGS. 2 and 3 show the recoil of the gun-barrel during the firing of the weapon. FIG. 2 shows the commencement of the movement of the piston 5. The gun-barrel recoil movement amounts to Z1. In this position, the counter-thrust drive mechanism 11 is full operative. The thrust force is, however, calculated that only a part of the recoil impulse is absorbed. FIG. 3 shows the gun-barrel-recoil at that moment, at which the piston has entered the piston-intercept device on the gun-barrel muzzle, and the projectile has been released from the piston bottom. The projectile therefore has entered on a ballistic trajectory. After the escape of the projectile from the piston, the gun-barrel continues its return movement and depending upon the design of the counter-thrust drive mechanism leaves the gun-barrel guide entirely or is arrested and on account of the continued drive mechanism thrust is conveyed back to its starting position. Preferably the counter-thrustdrive mechanism is so designed that the gun-barrel leaves the barrel guide towards the back and in the area of a predetermined safety path drops to the floor or ground behind the gun.
1. Firearm, particularly light shoulder weapon for antitank defense, comprising a gun barrel accommodating a projectile and a propellent charge, a guide sleeve for said gun barrel in the form of a shoulder support in which said gun barrel is longitudinally slidable upon release of latch means by firing of a shot, trigger means on said guide sleeve connected with means for setting off said propellent charge, piston means slidably mounted in said gun barrel and serving as drive base for said projectile, connection means on said piston means rigidly holding said projectile until released after the firing of a shot, counter thrust means including space at the rear of said gun barrel for an auxiliary charge of a propellent with high ignition inertia for at least partial off-setting of the recoil impulse at the firing of a shot, and piston intercept means secured to the muzzle end of said gun barrel to intercept the forward movement of said piston means.
2. Firearm according to claim 1, in which said piston intercept means comprises an insert piece tapering conically inwardly towards the gun-barrel muzzle, the piston receiving end of said insert piece having a somewhat greater diameter than the piston means.
3. Firearm according to claim 1, including a breakable ignition tube secured to said piston means and to the rear end of said gun barrel and extending through said propellent charge.
4. Firearm according to claim 1, in which said auxiliary charge comprises a slow-burning propellent.
5. Firearm according to claim 1, in which said piston means includes a deformation section with great energy absorption capacity, said deformation section entering said piston intercept means at the firing of a shot and being deformed thereby.
6. Firearm according to claim 5, in which said deformation section is disposed in front of the portion of said pistcin means directly serving as drive base for the projecti e.
7. A light antitank shoulder-weapon, comprising in combination a'gun barrel accommodating a projectile and propellent charges,
a guide sleeve for said gun barrel in the form of a shoulder support in which said gun barrel is longitudinally slidable upon release of latch means through firing of a shot,
ignition means in said gun barrel, trigger means mounted on said guide sleeve and connected with said ignition means,
piston means slidably mounted in said gun barrel and having a portion which serves as a drive base for said projectile,
holding means on said piston means for releasably maintaining said projectile in engagement with said drive base on the piston means,
counter thrust means in the rear portion of said gun barrel to at least partially offset the recoil impulse at the firing of a shot, said counter thrust means including a propellent chamber rearwardly of said piston means to accommodate a main propellent charge and an auxiliary propellent charge which References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 2/1890 Reynolds 891 X 3/1950 Garrett 891 X 2,834,255 5/1958 Musser 891.706 3,255,668 6/1966 Vilbajo 891.705 3,338,133 8/1967 Grandy 89--1.703
FOREIGN PATENTS 578,595 6/ 1959 Canada. 590,268 7/1947 Great Britain.
SAMUEL W. ENGLE, Primary Examiner US. Cl. X.R.
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|U.S. Classification||89/1.7, 89/1.703, 89/1.706, 89/14.6|
|International Classification||F41A1/08, F41A1/00|