US 3491321 A
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Jan. 20, 1970 J. CHASS 3,491,321
. ROTARY VARIABLE DIFFERENTIAL TRANSFORMER USED AS A SINE-COSINE GENERATOR Filed Nov. 26. 1968 I 3 Sheets-Sheet l INVENTOR F76, 74cm? 665455 ATTORNEYS .'ASS' FERENTIAIJ Jan. 20, 1970 J CH ROTARY VARIABLE DIF TRANSFORMER USED AS A SINE-COSINE GENERATOR s Sheets-Sheet 2 Filed NOV. 26, 1968 PIC-7.4
S 3 Mc w mm M r ATTORNEYS Jan. 20, 1970 J. CHASS 3,491,321
ROTARY VARIABLE DIFFERENTIAL TRANSFORMER USED AS A SIRE-COSINE GENERATOR Filed Nov 26, 1968 3 Sheets-Sheet 3 FIG. 7
' FIG. 5
INVENTOR 7460B /ASS ATTORNEYS United States Patent O 3,491,321 ROTARY VARIABLE DIFFERENTIAL TRANS- FORMER USED AS A SINE-COSINE GENERATOR Jacob Chass, Forest Hills, N.Y., assignor to Pickering & Company, Inc., Plainview, N.Y., a corporation of New York Filed Nov. 26, 1968, Ser. No. 779,141 Int. Cl. H01f 21/06 US. Cl. 336-130 7 Claims ABSTRACT OF THE DISCLOSURE BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION There are many electromechanical and electromagnetic devices used in the art to translate mechanical motion into electrical energy to indicate movement or position of the mechanical member and/ or to generate a specific electrical Wave form. The terminology used in referring to these devices includes such terms as differential transformer, transducer, position definer and function generator. The present invention is referred to herein as a rotary variable differential transformer and in the present embodiment it is described in terms of a sine-cosine generator.
Many problems have been encountered in attempting to provide a small, reliable sine-cosine generator having high output. The present invention provides such a device which gives high accuracy and long life. There are no brushes and consequently no brush wear. Only the bearings are subject to wear and the unit can be designed for high temperature operations since an extremely precise and accurate air gapsuch as that required in a resolveris not required. In the absence of brushes, there is no brush wear and no contact noise. Also, provision is made to eliminate the problem of axial movement.
SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION A rotary variable differential transformer comprising first and second tubular bobbins having the same axis and formed of nonconductive, nonmagnetic material, a primary electrical winding on the first bobbin, first and second secondary electrical windings on the second bobbin electrically connected in series opposition, said secondary windings being in spaced relationship and wound on the second bobbin in a slanted position, a core member rotatably supported within the magnetic field of the primary winding, the core member being assymetric with respect to the axis of the windings so that rotation of the core member about the axis will vary the magnetic coupling between the primary winding and the secondary windings so as to develop a voltage in the secondary windings whose magnitude varies as a sine wave.
DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS In the accompanying drawings:
FIG. 1 is a perspecitve View of the electrical windings and core member of a rotary variable differential transformer constructed in accordance with the teachings of this invention with the remaining portions thereof not shown;
FIG. 2 is an exploded perspective view of the primary and secondary winding supporting bobbins;
FIG. 3 is a circuit diagram of the differential transformer of the present invention;
FIG. 4 is a longitudinal sectional view of the differential transformer of the present invention;
FIG. 5 is also a longitudinal sectional view of the differential transformer shown in FIG. 4 but the section is taken along the line 5-5 in the direction of the arrows in FIG. 4;
FIG. 6 is a transverse sectional view taken along the line 6-6 in the direction of the arrows in FIG. 4;
FIG. 7 is a diagrammatic showing of the wave form developed by one set of secondary windings;
FIG. 8 is a diagrammatic showing of the wave form developed by a second set of secondary windings; and
FIG. 9 is a longitudinal cross sectional view of an alternate embodiment of the invention.
DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION A rotary 'variable differential transformer constructed in accordance with the teachings of this invention is shown utilizing a primary coil 10 having a uniform number of turns per unit length wound on a cylindrical bobbin 12 formed of nonmagnetic nonelectrical conducting material, a pair of spaced, slanted secondary coils 14 and 16 wound on nonmagnetic, nonelectrical conducting cylindrical bobbin 18, and a second pair of spaced, slanted secondary coils 20 and 22 wound on nonmagnetic, nonelectrical conducting cylindrical bobbin 24.
Bobbins 12, 18 and 24 are concentric-having the same axis. Coils 14 and 16 lie in parallel planes which as seen in FIG. 4 form angles with the bobbin axis of approximately 45. Likewise, coils 20 and 22 lie in spaced parallel planes forming angles of approximately 45 with the bobbin axis. The second pair of secondary coils 20 and 22 are in position rotated with respect to the coil pair provided by coils 14 and 16.
Coils 14 and 16 are electrically connected in series opposition and coils 20 and 22 are also connected in series opposition. As will appear below, the physical arrangement and electrical connection of the coils provides an output wave at points 26 and 28, as seen in FIG. 3-the output of the first pair of secondary coils, which varies as a sine upon rotation of core member 30 and an electrical output varying as a cosine appears at points 32 and 34 which are the output terminals of the second pair of secondary windings.
The terminals of the primary winding 10 are indicated in FIG. 3 by the numerals 36 and 38.
The core member 30 is rotatably supported by shaft 40 within the bore of bobbin 24. Shaft 40 is mounted in bearings-not shown-and can be rotated through a full 360. The core member 30 is fixed with respect to shaft 40 and the bobbins 12, 18, and 24 are fixed in position with respect to each other.
Armature core 30 comprises a member of magnetic material which is of a length which will allow its ends to terminate within the secondary coils and the armature is supported symmetrically axially with respect to the coils. The core 30 projects equal distances axially on either side of the primary coil and projects within each coil of each pair and equal amount. Additionally, each coil of each pair is spaced an equal distance from the primary winding. A sleeve 42 of a magnetic material is placed around the bobbin 12.
The core member 30 is elongated and half circle shaped in cross sectional configuration and when viewed from the end, as in FIG. 6, appears as onehalf of a tube sliced axially. The core member 30 is supported by shaft 40 asymmetrically with respect to the axis of rotation of shaft 40.
A reference winding 44 having terminals 46 and 48 is wound on core 12 beneath the primary coil 10. Additionally, a set of compensating secondary windings 50 and 52 are wound on bobbin 18. Windings 50 and 52 lie in parallel planes which intersect the axis of rotation of shaft 40 at right angles and the coils are equally distant from the primary winding and the ends of the core mem ber. These secondaries are not sensitive to a rotary motion of the rotor as are the other secondary coils, but they are sensitive to an axial motion of the rotor. The compensating secondaries are connected complementary to the remaining secondaries and the number of turns are designed to cancel out the output caused by an axial motion of the rotor. Hence coils 50 and 52 are electrically connected in series opposition and their terminals are designated in FIG. 3 by the numerals 54 and 56.
In operation, the primary coil 10 is energized with alternating current and a magnetic flux is generated which flows through the core member or rotor 30. In the position of the rotor shown in FIGS. 4, 5, and 6 the secondary winding 16 of the one pair will have more flux lines passing through it than the secondary winding 14 of that pair since the core member has a greater portion thereof within the field of the winding 16 than the winding 14. Since the coils 14 and 16 are connected electrically in opposition, a net voltage will result which will be the maximum voltage to be generated in coil 16 and the minimum voltage to be generated in coil 14. Hence a position such as that indicated by the letter A in FIG. 7 will be demonstrative of thevoltage appearing at terminals 26 and 28. When the rotor is rotated 90 from the position shown, the two secondaries 14 and 16 will have equal number of flux lines and therefore the two voltages induced will cancel out and the net voltage will be very low, which is the null position indicated by the letter B in FIG. 7. The output voltage versus angle of rotation characteristic shown in FIG. 7 conforms to a sine wave function as the rotor is rotated.
At the same time in the position of rotor shown in FIGS. 4, and 6 the coils 22 and 20 have equal number of flux lines cut and hence the null position indicated by the letter C in FIG. 8 is achieved. Rotation of the rotor 90 will result in a net voltage appearing at terminals 32 and 34 which is the position D indicated on the wave form in FIG. 8. I
With this arrangement, two voltages can be generated, one appearing across terminals 26 and 28, and the other appearing across terminals 32 and 34. The amplitude of these voltages are 90 out of phase, therefore a sine function can appear across 26-28 while a cosine function appears across terminals 32-34.
The compensating coils 50 and 52 decrease the sensitivity of the device to axial motion. These secondaries as mentioned before, are not sensitive to a rotary motion of the rotor but are sensitive to an axial motion of the rotor with respect to the bobbins. Since the compensating coils are arranged in series opposition relationship, a voltage will appear across terminals 54 and 56, which is a function of relative axial movement of rotor 30 with respect to the bobbins and coils, which voltages can be utilized in an electrical system to compensate or take into account this change in relative axial position.
A further embodiment of the invention is shown in FIG. 9 wherein all of the parts which are identical to parts shown in the previous figures are indicated by the same numerals as were used therein. The difference be- 4 tween the embodiment shown in FIG. 9 and that shown in the previous figures is that the primary winding 110 is spread to extend axially a sufficient distance to completely enclose the remaining secondary coils. The reference winding in this embodiment is indicated by the numeral 112.
1. A rotary variable differential transformer including in combination, a first electrical coil providing a transformer primary winding, second and third electrical coils connected in series opposition providing a transformer secondary Winding, an axis of said first, second and third coils, said first coil lying in a plane forming substantally a angle with said axis, said second and third coils lying in spaced parallel planes forming an angle with said axis which is other than 90, a core member rotatably supported within the magnetic field of said coils upon energization of said primary winding, said core member being asymmetric with respect to said axis so that rotation of said core member about said axis will vary the magnetic coupling between said first coil and each of said second and third coils to provide an electrical signal in said secondary winding which varies in amplitude as a sine wave.
2. A rotary variable differential transformer in accordance with claim 1 in which fourth and fifth electrical coils connected in series opposition are provided to form a secondary winding, said axis being the axis of said fourth and fifth coils and said fourth and fifth coils lying in spaced parallel planes forming an angle with said axis which is other than 90 and said fourth and fifth coils being rotated about said axis an angle 0 with respect to said second and third coils to provide an electrical signal in said second secondary winding which is 6 degrees out of phase with respect to the signal in said first secondary winding.
3. A rotary variable differential transformer in accordance with claim 2 in which 0 is 90 and the wave forms generated in said first and second secondary windings are respectively sine and cosine functions.
4. A rotary variable differential transformer in accordance with claim 1 in which first and second spaced compensating secondary windings are provided having an output voltage indicative of the relative axial positions of said core member and said primary winding.
5. A rotary variable differential transformer in accordance with claim 1 in which one coil of each pair of said secondary coils is spaced from an end of said primary coil the same distance as the remaining coil of said pair is spaced from the remaining end of said primary.
6. A rotary variable differential transformer in accordance with claim 5 in which said primary winding is of limited axial dimension and lies axially within said secondary coils.
7. A rotary variable differential transformer in accordance with claim 5 in which said primary winding is of axial dimension to overlie said secondary winding.
References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS THOMAS J. KOZMA, Primary Examiner