Search Images Maps Play YouTube News Gmail Drive More »
Sign in
Screen reader users: click this link for accessible mode. Accessible mode has the same essential features but works better with your reader.

Patents

  1. Advanced Patent Search
Publication numberUS3492826 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateFeb 3, 1970
Filing dateFeb 28, 1968
Priority dateFeb 28, 1968
Publication numberUS 3492826 A, US 3492826A, US-A-3492826, US3492826 A, US3492826A
InventorsGardner Elmer C, Horstketter Eugene A, Marks Constant R
Original AssigneeS O G Research & Dev Corp
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Retaining wall structure
US 3492826 A
Abstract  available in
Images(2)
Previous page
Next page
Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

Feb. 3, 1970 E. A. HORSTKE'TTER ETAL 3,492,325

RETAINING WALL STRUCTURE Filed Feb. 28, 1968 2 Sheets-Sheet l I L L I CRMARKSH,

5 4 5c GARDNER a 5. A. HORSTKETTER FIG 2 INVENTOR.

BY flmoftf, W a? UwJaee ATTORNEYS Feb. 3,1970 EQA. HoRs'rKs'rTER r-. 'r AL 3,492,826

RETAINING WALL STRUCTURE 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 Filed Feb. 28, 1968 C. R. MAR/(5H, EC. GARDNER 8 FIG. 5

EAHORSTKETTER INVENTOR.

BY AWM,

ATTORNEYS United States Patent O 3,492,826 RETAINING WALL STRUCTURE Eugene A. Horstketter, Elmer C. Gardner, and Constant R. Marks III, Houston, Tex., assignors to S.0.G. Research and Development Corporation, Houston, Tex., a corporation of Texas Filed Feb. 28, 1968, Ser. No. 709,127 Int. Cl. E021: 3/12; E02d 5/06, 27/16 US. Cl. 6149 12 Claims ABSTRACT OF THE DISCLOSURE BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION Retaining wall structures utilized in temporary structures such as cofierdams or diversion dams, or in permanent structures such as seawalls or breakwaters, or retaining walls to form docks or wharfs are commonly constructed of edge-interlocking sheet metal piling sections driven into place in the soil. The types of structures heretofore in use have utilized double wall structures with cross-wise interior bracing and truss work to provide the necessary supporting element for preventing undue distortion of the walls, or have used a series of circular cellular enclosures of sheet metal piling sections interconnected by a double wall of arcuate sections of piling. These cellular structures and the space between the double walls are commonly filled with earth, sand or gravel, to provide horizontal tension to the piling sections and to add structural rigidity to the wall. However, these circular cellular structures are expensive and time consuming to build.

When building such cellular enclosures of circular design, one problem encountered is that of closing the structure to form a circular enclosure. A closure defined as the point where two series of sheet metal pilings meet, being driven in sequence from different directions. It often occurs that the widths of standard pilings may not coincide with the final space necessary to close the structure and custom-sized pilings must be utilized to close the final space. In addition, the arcuate double-wall structures used to connect the circular cellular enclosures must be closed at each end to connect with the circular enclosures. A substantial amount of time is employed in making each closure, and it can be seen that for a retaining wall structure of considerable length, the number of piling sections required to build the retaining wall can indeed be quite large and a considerable amount of time will be utilized in elfecting the various necessary closures.

Accordingly, the disadvantages of the prior art are overcome by the present invention and novel methods are provided for producing a retaining wall structure that is comprised substantially of a single continuously driven wall having no closures and a minimum number of cellular enclosures formed by utilizing a technique that eliminates the need for custom-sized piling sections in the construction of the enclosures.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION In accordance with this invention, a retaining wall structure is provided having a single continuous wall member comprised of arcuate wall sections alternately disposed for forming a sinuous wall undulating along a preselected axis line for the retaining wall structure, and arcuate wall members disposed along one side of the continuous wall member to close alternate ones of the arcuate wall sections for forming regularly spaced cellular enclosures that are filled with earth, sand or gravel. The continuous wall member is driven as a continuous series of interconnected sheet metal piling sections with no closures being effected throughout its entire length. The arcuate wall members that are disposed along one side of the continuous wall member to close alternate ones of the arcuate sections are first placed in an interlocking relationship, fitted within the space necessary to close with the arcuate section of the continuous wall member, prior to the time the pilings of the arcuate wall member are driven. In this way, the closure problem is overcome prior to the time that the piling sections are driven and the radius of the arcuate wall member may be adjusted slightly to close with the arcuate wall section of the continuous wall member utilizing standard widths of piling sections. Only arcuate single walls of piling sections will interconnect the cellular enclosures.

Accordingly, it is the primary feature of the present invention to provide a retaining wall structure that utilizes arcuate wall sections and cellular wall enclosures defined by two arcuate interconnecting wall sections to substantially reduce the number of sheet metal pilings required to construct the retaining wall.

Another feature of the present invention is the simplicity and speed with which the retaining wall structure may be constructed by substantially reducing the number of sheet metal piling sections necessary and in reducing the number of closures necessary to form the cellular enclosures in the wall structure.

Another feature of the present invention is that the principal structural stress advantages of sheet metal pilings are utilized in the construction of the retaining wall structure.

DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS The aforementioned features of the present invention will be apparent from the following detailed description wherein reference is made to figures in the accompanying drawings, which drawings form a part of and are incor porated by reference as a part of the specification.

In the drawings:

FIGURE 1 is a pictorial view of a retaining wall structure according to one embodiment of this invention.

FIGURE 2 is a plan view of a portion of the retaining wall structure shown in FIGURE 1.

FIGURE 3 is a detailed view of the interlocking piling sections at the closure of the arcuate wall sections form ing a cellular enclosure structure.

FIGURE 4 is a vertical cross-sectional view of the retaining wall structure in accordance with this invention taken along lines 44 of FIGURE 2.

FIGURE 5 is a vertical cross-sectional view of the retaining wall structure in accordance with this invention taken along lines 5-5 of FIGURE 2.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS With reference to FIGURE 1, a retaining wall structure according to an embodiment of this invention is shown. The structure consists of a continuous wall member 10 comprising a series of edge-interlocking metal piling sections 12 driven into an appropriate earthen structure 14 which may be the earths surface or a conventional compacted earthen embankment as illustrated. As may be seen, continuous wall member is made up of a series of arcuate wall sections 16 facing in one direction and interconnected by arcuate wall sections 18 facing in the opposite direction to form a sinuous wall undulating along a known axis line. The ends of wall member 10 are shown conventionally closing with an embankment 20 for forming a continuous retaining wall between the two ends of the embankment as for forming a cofferdam or a diversion dam. Arcuate wall members 22 are composed of edge-interlocking sheet metal piling sections 12 and are disposed opposite arcuate wall sections 16 and interconnected therewith to form a cellular enclosure. Each cellular enclosure, composed of arcuate wall sections 16 and arcuate wall members 22, is filled with an aggregate material 24, commonly soil, sand or gravel, to provide a means of stability for continuous wall member 10 and for other reasons to be hereinafter described.

Referring now to FIGURE 2, a plan view of a portion of the retaining wall structure as shown in FIGURE 1 may be seen. A portion of continuous wall member 10 is shown having an arcuate wall section 16 flanked on either side by arcuate wall sections 18 and continuously interconnected therewith. A body of water 28 is shown providing a continuous lateral force against one side of wall member 10 as represented by the force vectors marked X, Y, Z, and representing the force of the restrained water as applied to the arcuate wall sections 16 and 18. As may be seen, one arcuate wall section 18 is defined by the arcuate section of the continuous wall member 10 between points A and B, arcuate wall section 16 is defined by that portion of continuous wall member 10 between points B and C, and another arcuate Wall section .18 is defined by that portion of continuous wall member 10 between points C and D.

Arcuate wall member 22 is shown disposed on the side of continuous wall member 10 opposite the side in resistive contact with water 28. Wall member 22 is interlocked with arcuate wall section 16 at points B and C to form a cellular wall structure which is filled with an aggregate material 24. Continuous wall member 10 and arcuate wall member 22 are composed of a series of edgeinterlocking sheet metal pilings 12 driven into a retaining surface 14 which may commonly be the earths surface or an embankment as shown in FIGURE 1. The edge-interlocking sheet metal pilings 12 are conventional interlocking sheet pilings designed to utilize horizontal tension forces to close the interlocking edges to form a water tight retaining wall.

Continuous wall member 10 would be driven as a continuous series of interlocking sheet pilings 12 along a predetermined wall axis as defined by points A, B, C and D in FIGURE 2. Arcuate wall member 22 would first be formed by placing upright in an interlocking relationship the edge-interlocking sheet metal pilings 12 that would be necessary to form arcuate wall member 22 and provide a closure with continuous wall member 10 at points B and C. A closure is defined as the point where two series of sheet metal pilings meet, being driven in sequence from dilferent directions. In other words, the pilings 12 that comprise arcuate wall member 22 are placed in an interlocking relationship and fitted to close with continuous wall member 10 at points B and C prior to the time the pilings 12 are actually driven. This procedure eliminates the conventional closure problem at points B and C where often the width of standard piling sections may not coincide with the amount of space to be filled to effect the closure, necessitating the use of special sizes of sheet pilings at additional cost and the utilization of additional time. It will be noted that since continuous wall member 10 is driven in a continuous series of sheet metal piles it has no closures and hence can 'be constructed rapidly using standard sizes of sheet metal pilings throughout and with a minimum of delay. It will also be noted that at points A, B, C and D, where a closure will be effected between continuous wall member 10 and arcuate wall member 22, a special triple. edge-interlocking sheet metal piling 26 is utilized.

Aggregate material 24 is used to fill the cellular enclosure defined by the closed portion of continuous wall member 10 and arcuate wall member 22 to apply an outward horizontal pressure for spreading the sheet metal piling sections 12 and placing them in horizontal tension. The piling sections 12 are prevented from slipping in vertical relation to each other by the frictional en gagement between the interlocking edges of the sections when the pilings are placed in horizontal tension so that they act in their intended relationship of being a continuous sheet, rather than functioning as individual piling sections. The interlocking edges of piling sections 12 becomes water tight under horizontal tension thus creating a water tight retaining wall. The continuous force exerted against the arcuate surface of wall sections 18 between points A and B, and C and D of continuous wall member 10 is represented by the arrows X and Z, respectively. The force acting against pilings 12 of arcuate wall sections 18 place the sheet metal pilings 12 in horizontal tension forming continuous water tight wall sections.

Arcuate wall section 16 of continuous wall member .10 has a continuous force being applied by the body of water 28 as is shown by the force vector Y. Force Y is exerting pressure against the vertical beam structure formed by the closed wall section 16 of wall member 10 and wall member 22, tending to push over the vertical beam structure, and placing the sheet metal pilings 12 of arcuate wall section 16 in vertical tension and the sheet metal pilings 12 of the arcuate wall member 22 in vertical compression. The piling sections 12 act as a continuous wall member and do not slip vertically in relation to each other because of the frictional forces caused by horizontal tension as previously described. The structure defined by continuous wall member 10 and arcuate wall members 22, places the sheet metal pilings 12 either in horizontal tension, vertical compression or vertical tension and therefore utilizes the principal structural advantages of sheet metal pilings.

Referring now to FIGURE 3, a detailed view of the interlocking piling sections 26 at the closure of arcuate wall sections 16 and arcuate wall member 22 are shown. Sheet metal pilings 12 of conventional design are shown, having a channel web section 15 and edge-interlocking means along both longitudinal edges of the piling. The interlocking means are comprised of a thumb 13 and a curved finger 11 which interlock with and grip corresponding thumb and curved finger surfaces of an adjoining piling section. Triple edge-interlocking sheet piling section 26 has the conventional channel web 15 with interlocking thumb 13 and curved finger 11 at either end, and an additional web member 27 terminating in an edge-interlocking surface having an identical thumb section 13 and a curved finger portion 11. Section 26 has additional built-up web surfaces 23 to add structural strength at the point where web. 15 and web 27 are joined.

Referring now to FIGURE 4, a vertical cross-sectional view of a retaining wall structure in accordance with the invention in FIGURE 1 may be seen. Sheet metal piling sections 12 of an arcuate wall section 16 of continuous wall member 10 are shown driven in to an embankment 14. Sheet iling sections 12 of arcuate wall member 22 are also shown driven into embankment 14. Point C indicates the point at which continuous wall member 10 and arcuate wall member 22 are closed to form the cellular enclosure structure filled with an aggregate material 24. A body of water 28 is shown providing a continuous force against the outer surface of arcuate wall sections 16 and continuous wall member as previously described in FIGURE 2. As earlier mentioned, the force caused by water 28 indicated by force vector Y, is tending to push the cellular enclosure structure filled with unconsolidated aggregate 24 in the direction as indicated at Y. This force, tending to push over the cellular enclosure structure, places the metal pilings 12 of arcuate wall sections 16 in vertical tension, attempting to pull the sheet metal pilings 12 out of the embankment as shown by the arrow indicated at S. The metal piling sections 12 of arcuate wall member 22 are being forced further into embankment 14 as indicated by the arrow T and hence are placed in vertical compression. It will be noted that it is not necessary for the metal piling sections that are in vertical compression to be driven as deeply as those piling sections that are in vertical tension, hence saving the cost of additional lengths of metal pilings and the additional costs of pile-driving operations.

In FIGURE 5 is shown a vertical cross section of a retaining wall structure in accordance with the invention and showing a section of the wall structure taken through arcuate wall section 18 of continuous wall member 10. A piling section 12 of arcuate wall section 18 of continuous wall member 10 is shown in cross section in its driven position in embankment 14. The point where piling sections 12 intersect at B indicates the juncture of arcuate wall sections 16 and 18 of continuous wall member 10. A body of water 28 is shown contacting the outer surfaces of arcuate wall sections 16 and 18 of continuous wall member 10 as previously described in FIGURES 2 and 4. A horizontal force, indicated by the arrow at X, is shown as it is applied against the surfaces of arcuate Wall section 18 causing the piling sections 12 to be pushed in the direction shown by arrow X and placing piling sections 12 of arcuate wall section 18 in horizontal tension to form a rigid continuous water tight wall surface.

Referring now to FIGURES 2, 4 and 5, it will be seen that the retaining wall structure formed by continuous wall member 10 and arcuate wall members 22 define an evenly spaced series of embedded vertical beams, represented by the closed semi-circular structures filled with unconsolidated aggregate 24, between which are suspended Water tight continuous retaining wall surfaces as represented by arcuate wall sections 18. Since the retaining wall structure makes use of only three forces acting on the sheet metal pilings 12, i.e., horizontal tension, vertical compression and vertical tension, the principal structural advantages of sheet metal pilings are utilized.

It may be seen that as continuous wall member 10 may be driven in a continuous series, having no closures, a considerable amount of time may be saved plus the cost of custom sized sheet piling sections that are normally required to effect the closure. Continuous wall member 10 may be driven utilizing only standard conventional sheet piling sections 12, employing the use of triple edge-interlocking sheet piling sections 26 at appropriate closure points to form the cellular enclosure structures to be filled with an aggregate material 24. Further, since wall member 10 is a single wall of arcuate sections, a substantially fewer number of piling sections 12 are needed than are required in conventional double-wall structures having circular enclosures, thus effecting a considerable saving in the cost of the retaining wall structure. By placing the sheet piling sections 12 of arcuate wall member 22 in an interlocking relationship and in their desired positions to effect closure with continuous wall member 10, prior to the time they are driven, a considerable saving may be made in time and the cost of custom-sized sheet metal pilings to effect closure. It will also be noted that arcuate sections 16 and 18, and arcuate wall member 22 are of less than semi-circular length for convenience rather than being a critical feature of the invention. The wall sections 16 and 18, and arcuate wall member 22 could be semi-circular, although a considerable amount of cost advantage through the use of the fewer number of sheet piling sections 12 would be lost. In addition, the radii of arcuate wall sections 16 and 18 need not be of equal length, in fact, it has been found that the radii of arcuate wall sections 18 may conveniently be greater than the radii of arcuate wall section 16, adding additional savings in the cost of sheet metal pilings required to form continuous wall member 10. Generally, however, it has been found that the radii of arcuate wall sections 16 and arcuate wall members 22 should be substantially equal.

An embodiment of this invention shown in the previous figures has shown a retaining wall structure to be used as a cofferdam or a diversion dam used in holding back a body of water so that various construction operations may be carried on within or behind the dry area defined by the structure. In addition to its use as a colferdam, or a diversion dam, the retaining wall structure may also be used in the construction of docks or wharfage. As used for construction of docks or warfage, compacted earth fill would be placed on the side of the structure where the body of water is shown in FIGURES 2, 4 and 5, and the water would be on the opposite side of the retaining wall structure from the earth fill. However, the principal stress forces would still be acting on continuous wall 10 and arcuate wall member 22 as shown in FIGURES 2, 4 and 5, and as hereinbefore described.

Numerous variations and modifications may obviously be made in the structure herein described without departing from the scope of the present invention. Accordingly, it should be clearly understood that the forms of the invention described herein and shown in the figures in the accompanying drawings are illustrative only and are not intended to limit the scope of the invention.

What is claimed is:

1. A retaining wall for resisting a horizontally applied force, comprising a continuous wall formed of edge-interlocking sheet metal pilings partially driven into the ground, said wall having arcuate wall sections alternately facing in opposite directions for forming a sinuous wall, one side of which is in contact with the horizontally applied force,

arcuate wall members formed of a plurality of edgeinterlocking sheet metal pilings partially driven into the ground, said members disposed on the other side of said continuous wall for closing alternate ones of said arcuate sections for forming spaced cell structures, and

aggregate material for filling saidcell structures and applying a continuous outward horizontal force on the projecting pilings of said cell structures for placing said walls in horizontal tension and effecting a water tight seal along said interlocking edges of said pilings.

2. The retaining wall structure as described in claim 1, wherein said arcuate wall sections of each of said cell structures in resistive contact with said force are in vertical tension.

3. The retaining wall structure as described in claim 1, wherein said arcuate wall members closing each of said cell structures are in vertical compression.

4. The retaining wall structure as described in claim 1, wherein said alternate arcuate unclosed wall sections of said continuous wall in resistive contact with said force are in horizontal tension for effecting a watertight seal along said interlocking edges of said pilings.

5. A retaining wall for resisting a horizontally directed force, comprising a continuous wall member having a plurality of arcuate wall sections alternately facing in opposite directions for forming a sinuous wall having one side in resistive contact with the horizontally directed force, each of said arcuate wall sections comprising a plurality of edge-interlocking sheet metal pilings .partially driven into the ground,

arcuate wall members formed of a plurality of edgeinterlocking sheet metal pilings partially driven into the ground and disposed on the side of the wall opposite the side in resistive contact with the horizontally directed force and adapted for closing with alternate ones of said arcuate Wall sections to form spaced cell structures, aggregate material for filling said cell structures and applying a continuous outward horizontal force on said pilings of said cell structures to place the portion of said pilings above ground in horizontal tension. 6. The retaining wall structure as described in claim 5, wherein said pilings of said arcuate wall sections in resistive contact with said horizontally directed force are placed in vertical tension by the action of said horizontal force against the portion of said pilings projecting above ground.

7. The retaining wall structure as described in claim 6, wherein said pilings of said arcuate wall members closing with said alternate arcuate wall sections are placed in vertical compression by the action of said horizontal force against the portion of said cell structures projecting above ground.

8. The retaining wall structure as described in claim 7, wherein said pilings of said unclosed alternate arcuate wall sections are placed in horizontal tension by the action of said horizontal force against the portion of said pilings projecting above ground.

9. The method of forming a retaining wall structure for resisting a horizontally applied force, comprising the steps of placing a series of edge-interlocking sheet metal pilings in an interlocking relationship and forming a continuous wall having arcuate wall sections alternately facing in opposite directions for forming a sinuous wall one side of which will be placed in restrictive contact with the horizontally applied force,

placing a series of edge-interlocking sheet metal pilings in an interlocking relationship for forming arcuate wall members disposed along the side of said wall opposite the side to be placed in resistive contact with the horizontally applied force, and positioned to cooperate with alternate ones of said arcuate wall sections to form cell structures,

interlocking said arcuate wall members with said alternate arcuate wall sections for forming spaced cell structures,

partially driving said piling sections into the ground for forming a continuous wall member having spaced cell structures, filling said cell structures with an aggregate material for applying a continuous outward horizontal force on said pilings of said cell structures for stabilizing said cell structures and said continuous wall, and

applying the horizontally directed force against said one side of said continuous wall.

10. The method of forming a retaining wall structure as described in claim 9, wherein the step of applying the horizontally directed force against said one side of said continuous wall vertically tensions said pilings of said arcuate wall sections of said cell structures that are in resistive contact with said force.

11. The method of forming a retaining wall structure as described in claim 9, wherein the step of applying the horizontally directed force against said one side of said continuous wall vertically compresses said pilings of said arcuate wall mmebers closing said cell structures and disposed opposite the side of said wall that is in resistive contact with said force.

12. The method of forming a retaining wall structure as described in claim 9, wherein the step of applying the horizontally directed force against said one side of said continuous wall horizontally tensions the projecting portion of said pilings of said unclosed arcuate wall sections that are in resistive contact with said applied force.

References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 1,341,949 6/1920 Troye 6162 2,001,473 5/1935 Smith 6139 X 2,101,358 12/1937 Boardman 61-50 OTHER REFERENCES German Printed Application to Domke, DAS 1,095,- 754, December 1960.

JACOB SHAPIRO, Primary Examiner US. Cl. X.R.

I Am

53 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE CERTIFICATE OF CORRECTION Parent No. q gq2 325 Dated February 3 L 1970 Inventor(s) E- 'StketteI' et all It: is certified that error appears in the above-identified patent and that said Letters Patent are hereby corrected as shown belpw:

Col 7 line 37 "restricfiive" should be --resist1ve-- Col 8, line 22 "mmebersl', should read members- SIGNED A'ND SEALED JUL 141970 Edwin! Fletcher, In

- I m I. 4 Attesting Officer m Gomissioner of Patents

Patent Citations
Cited PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US1341949 *May 13, 1918Jun 1, 1920Einar TroyeSheet-piling
US2001473 *Jan 29, 1934May 14, 1935Inland Steel CoDouble wall structure
US2101358 *May 28, 1937Dec 7, 1937Jones & Laughlin Steel CorpMethod of making load sustaining structures
Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US3779024 *Jun 21, 1971Dec 18, 1973Hoeyer Ellefsen AsStationary storage and mooring plant resting on the bottom of the sea
US3959938 *Jun 26, 1974Jun 1, 1976John ZachariassenWall system of corrugated sections
US3999392 *Aug 18, 1975Dec 28, 1976Nikkai Giken Co., Ltd.Method of constructing a wall for supporting earth
US4040216 *May 19, 1975Aug 9, 1977A & T Development CorporationPillars, walls and buildings
US5155872 *Oct 25, 1990Oct 20, 1992Aymes Doniel GSwimming pool with interlocking wall panels and liner-receiving top rail
US5333971 *Nov 3, 1992Aug 2, 1994Lewis John AInterlocking bulkhead
US5437520 *Nov 6, 1992Aug 1, 1995University Of WaterlooSealing system for in-ground barrier
US5921716 *Jan 18, 1996Jul 13, 1999Wickberg; NormanApparatus and method for forming a barrier wall
US5938375 *Dec 17, 1997Aug 17, 1999Sevonson Environmental Services, Inc.Method of sealing joints between adjacent sheet piling sections to form a continuous barrier and barriers formed using said method
Classifications
U.S. Classification405/281, 52/169.1
International ClassificationE02D29/02
Cooperative ClassificationE02D29/0266
European ClassificationE02D29/02F1