|Publication number||US3494344 A|
|Publication date||Feb 10, 1970|
|Filing date||Dec 14, 1966|
|Priority date||Dec 14, 1966|
|Publication number||US 3494344 A, US 3494344A, US-A-3494344, US3494344 A, US3494344A|
|Inventors||John F Vadas, Frederick J Brindisi|
|Original Assignee||Crosman Arms Co Inc|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (7), Referenced by (27), Classifications (6)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
Feb. 10, 1970 J. F. VADAS ET AL GAS OPERATED GUN ,l 8 mm INVENTORS FREDERICK J. BRINDISQ JOHN F. VADAS Filed Dec. 14, 1966 8 I. vm mm mm mm 8 8 n N. 9 8 mm 8 mm mm a $8 2 8% New 8 a N GI o 8 d 8 8 8 mm A 3% r W in M B N on ,2: 0' H r/ \r 2 \T\ a I 7V; I f s NN ow mm mm vm R Q g on 3 N. 9
United States Patent 3,494,344 GAS-OPERATED GUN John F. Vadas, Webster, and Frederick J. Brindisi, Rochester, N.Y., assignors to Crosman Arms Company, Inc., Fairport, N.Y., a corporation of New York Filed Dec. 14, 1966, Ser. No. 601,647 Int. Cl. F41b 11/00; F41f 1/04, 7/02 US. Cl. 124-11 7 Claims ABSTRACT OF THE DISCLOSURE The hammer of the gun illustrated is axially bored. Its bore registers at one end with the bore of the gun barrel, and at its other end it communicates with a chamber holding gas under pressure. Communication between chamber and hammer bore is normally shut off by a valve. When the trigger is operated, a spring moves the hammer rectilinearly rearwardly to open the valve and the gas enters the barrel to propel a projectile therefrom. A handle secured to the hammer for recoking it can also be rotated to lock it in safety position.
In gas-operated guns, a valve is employed to govern flow of gas from a supply source for instance a C0 cartridge, to the gun barrel behind the projectile to propel the projectile from the barrel. Usually the gas chamber is offset from the gun barrel; in some cases parallel thereto; in other cases in the gun stock. When the valve is opened, gas flows from the chamber through a duct to the rear of the projectile. Usually a bolt, which is separate from the hammer of the gun, is provided for inserting the projectile into firing position in the barrel. Because of the need for separate hammer and bolt, and because of the locations of the gas chamber and valve, and the need for duct work connections between the gas chamber and barrel, these prior gas-operated guns have been bulky, heavy and complicated.
An object of this invention is to provide an improved gas-operated gun which has a substantially more efficient and compact valving system than prior guns of this type.
A still further object of this invention is to provide an improved gas-operated gun, which has substantially fewer moving parts than prior guns of this type.
These objects are achieved by employing an axiallybored hammer, which reciprocates in a sleeve between a normally-closed valve and the rear end of a gun barrel. A pin projects radially from the hammer through an elongate slot in the sleeve, and is manually operable to push the hammer away from the valve against the resistance of a spring, and into a cocked position where it is releasably held by a trigger mechanism. A tubular extension on the forward end of the hammer projects slidably into the rear of the barrel, and a like extension on the opposite end of the hammer is engageable with the valve to open it temporarily, when the spring-loaded hammer is released from its cocked position, thereby to admit gas under pressure through the hammer to the rear of a projectile in the gun barrel. When the hammer is cocked, it can be rotated manually by its pin until the latter engages in a transverse notch in one end of the slot in the sleeve, thereby to hold the hammer in its cocked position independently of the operation of the trigger mechanism.
Other objects and achievements of the invention will be apparent hereinafter from the specification and from the recital of the appended claims, particularly when read in conjunction with the accompanying drawing.
In the drawing:
FIG. 1 is a fragmentary side elevational view of a gun made in accordance with one embodiment of this invention, parts of the gun being cut away and shown in section;
FIG. 2 is a fragmentary plan view of this gun, parts thereof again being cut away and shown in section;
FIG. 3 is a fragmentary sectional view taken along the line 33 in FIG. 1 looking in the direction of the arrows, and
FIG. 4 is an enlarged view, partly in section, of the hammer employed in this gun.
Referring now to the drawing by numerals of reference, 10 designates a rifle comprising a cylindrical housing or sleeve 12, and a stock 15. Housing 12 is secured by a pair of conventional ring clamps 14 to the stock 15 which terminates at its rear in a conventional butt 16. The clamps 14 surround opposite ends of the sleeve 12 and are secured to stock 15 in the usual manner by screws 17, and nuts 18.
Secured at its rear end in a pair of spaced ring bearings 21 and 22, which are mounted in the sleeve 12 adjacent the forward end thereof, is the gun barrel 24. Bearing 22 is secured to the barrel 24 by a screw 26 (FIG. 1), which has a shank portion 27 that extends through an opening in the sleeve 12 and threads into the barrel. At its rear end barrel 24 has a reduced diameter portion 30, which projects rearwardly beyond the bearing 22, and which is surrounded by one end of a coiled compression spring 32. At its opposite end spring 32 engages the enlarged, central portion of an axially bored hammer 34, which is rotatable and reciprocable in sleeve or housing 12. The hammer has reduced diameter tubular extensions 35 and 36 that project coaxially from opposite ends thereof. The forward extension 35 projects into the bore in the reduced diameter portion 30 of barrel 24; and the rear extension 36 extends into the forward end of a hollow valve block 37, which is secured by a screw 38 in the sleeve 12 rearwardly of the hammer.
Mounted to reciprocate in a chamber 39 in the rear end of block 37 is a valve 41. Intermediate its ends valve 41 has a pair of axially spaced, bearing portions 42 which have sliding engagement with the wall of chamber 39 to guide the valve for reciprocation axially of the hammer 34. Each bearing portion 42 is generally rectangular in cross-section but has its corners rounded off as shown in FIG. 3. Secured by a pin 44 in an annular recess in the forward end of the valve 41 is an elastic ring or seal 45 which is adapted to seat on an annular boss or valve seat 46, which is formed in the block 37 at the front end of its chamber 39. Valve 41 is constantly urged toward its closed position, that is, to the right in FIGSv 1 and 2, by a compression spring 48 (FIG. 2), which is interposed between the valve 41, and a foraminous filter member 50, which is secured by a ring 51 in the chamber 39 rearwardly of the valve.
A CO cartridge s adapted to supply the power for firing a ball or pellet from the gun. Such a cartridge C is shown in FIGS. 1 and 2 removably mounted in the sleeve 12 rearwardly of the valve block 37 with its closed end seated in a pocket in the rear end of the block. The opposite, or capped end of cartridge C projects into a recess forward in the forward end of an insert 53, which is threaded into the formed end of a plug 55. Plug 55 is removably secured in the rear end of the sleeve 12 by a ring cap 56, which threads onto the rear end of sleeve 12. Plug 55 has a reduced diameter portion 57, which projects slidably through a central opening formed in the closed end of the cap 56.
Mounted in a central recess in the outer end of plug 55 for limited reciprocal movement axially of the plug is a plunger 60, which has an enlarged head 59 formed on the outer end thereof. Projecting from the inner end of plunger 60 is a piercing pin 61, which extends slidably through registering openings in the plug 55 and the irisert 53 for engagement with the capped end of the cartridge C. Secured in the outer end of the plug 55 rearwardly of the cap 56, and extending through a diametral 3 opening 62 in the plunger 60, is a pin 63. Opening 62 has a diameter substantially larger than that of the pin 63 to permit limited reciprocation of the plunger 60 in plug 55.
Threaded radially into the hammer 34, and projecting laterally therefrom outwardly through a slot 65 in sleeve 12 is a pin or knob 66. Slot 65 is of right-angular shape as shown in FIG. 1. Knob 66 is operable manually to shift hammer 34 forwardly against the resistance of spring 32 from its released or fired position (FIGS. 1 and 2) to its cocked position in which knob 66 may be engaged in the leg 67 of the slot 65 to lock the hammer 34 in cocked position.
Mounted intermediate its ends on a pin 70 to pivot thereabout in an elongate recess 71 in stock 15 is a sear 72. The rear end of sear 72 overlies the upper face of a trigger 74, which is pivoted on a pin 75 that is secured in the stock rearwardly of pin 70. At its forward end sear 72 has on its upper surface a projection 76, which is adapted to project through a slot 77 in sleeve 12 into engagement with the rear of the enlarged portion of hammer 34. A spring 78 housed in a recess 79 in the stock 15 engages the underside of the sear 72 at its forward end, and constantly urges the sear in a direction to force its projection 76 upwardly through the slot 77.
When the hammer 34 is in its released position (FIGS. 1 and 2), projection 76 is resiliently engaged with the underside of the hammer. When the hammer is advanced to its cocked position by forcing knob 66 forwardly, the projection 76 on the sear 72 is urged upwardly through the slot 77 and behind the rear end of the hammer 34 releasably to hold the latter in its cocked position.
Extending diametrally through sleeve 12, the bushing 22, and the barrel 24, is a rotatable plug 80, one end of which is shouldered as at 82 to overlie one side of the bearing 22. Releasably secured to the opposite end of plug 80 by a screw 84 is an externally knurled collar 85, which overlies the opposite side of sleeve 12 to secure theplug 80 against axial movement. Mounted in a recess 87 in the barrel 24 to register with radial openings formed in the sleeve 12 and the bearing 22 beneath the collar 85 is a compression spring 88. Interposed between the spring 88 and collar 85 is a ball detent 89, which is engageable in one of two angularly spaced, semi-spherical dimples or recesses 91 formed in the inside face of the collar. Intermediate its ends plug 8 has a diametral bore 92 equal in diameter to the bore of barrel 24.
Plug 80 is rotatable manually by its collar 85 bet-ween a first position in which its bore 92 registers with the bore in the barrel 24 (FIGS. 1 and 2), and a second position (not illustrated) in which its bore 92 registers with registering radial ports 94 and 95 (FIG. formed in the bearing 22 and the sleeve 12, respectively. In each of these two positions the detent 89 is resiliently urged by spring 88 into one of the two dimples formed in the inside face of collar 85.
In use, the cap of the cartridge C is punctured by striking the head 59 of the plunger 60 with sufficient force to cause its pointed end 61 to penetrate the cap on the cartridge. This releases gas, which passes along the outside of the cartridge, through diametrally opposed slots 100 formed in the rear end of the block 37, and through the ring 51 and foraminous member 50 into chamber 39. The flats on the shoulders 42 permit this gas to pass along the outside of the valve 41 to the forward end of chamber 39, where it is stopped by seal 45, which is at this time against its seat 46. The gun is loaded by manually rotating the collar 85 until the bore 92 in plug 80 registers with the ports 94 and 95. The projectile, a ballshaped BB, or a pellet, is dropped through these ports into the bore 92, after which the collar 85 is rotated to register its bore 92 with the bore of barrel 24. The knob 66 is then pushed manually forwardly and rocked upwardly into the leg or notch 67 of slot 65. In this posihe Pr jection 76 on the scar 72, urged upwardly by the spring 78, engages the rear end of hammer 34, releasably to secure the latter in its advanced or cocked position. This pivots the rear end of the sear 72 downwardly into engagement with the upper face of the trigger 74. When the knob 66 is engaged in locking notch 67, the gun is on safety. This locks the hammer 34 against axial movement, so that even if the trigger 74 is actuated, the hammer will not be released while it is in this safety position.
To release the hammer from safety position, the knob 66 is swung manually downwardly until it is disengaged from the locking notch 67. Then the hammer 35 is held in cocked position solely by the projection 76 on the sear 72; and the gun may be fired merely by pulling the trigger 74, the pivotal movement of which is limited by the pin 97 (FIG. 1). This pivots the sear 72 clockwise in FIG. 1 about the pin 70, disengaging projection 76 from the hammer 34. The hammer is then urged suddenly rearwardly by spring 32, and the nose 98 (FIG. 4) on its rear end, strikes the pin 44, thereby shifting the valve 41 off its seat 46 against the resistance of spring 48'. When the resilient annulus 45 is thus unseated, gas in the chamber 39 is admitted through port 99 (FIG. 4) in the hammer in front of nose 98, into the bore of the extension 36, through the bore of the hammer, and against the projectile then disposed in block 80. the gas propels the projectile out of the barrel, and the valve 41 is re turned by the spring 48 to its closed position, as illustrated in FIG. 1.
When the gas is exhausted therefrom, a cartridge C may be replaced by removing cap 56, which by engagement with pin 63 withdraws the plug 55 from sleeve 12.
From the foregoing it will be apparent that the novel gun disclosed herein eliminates the need for employing a separate safety mechanism, which operates directly on trigger. Instead, the novel safety device disclosed here is mounted directly on the hammer of the gun, thereby providing a far more compact and inexpensive gun than was heretofore possible. In addition, the projectile loading plug disclosed herein is rotatable between loading and firing positions, respectively; and in each of these positions, a spring loaded detent is engageable with the collar on the plug to prevent accidental rotation thereof. In addition, the valve which controls the flow of the propellent gas from the supply cartridge to the bore of the gun is operated directly by the hammer 34, thereby providing more compactoperation than prior, like guns.
While the invention has been described in connection with a specific embodiment thereof, it will be understood that it is capable of further modification, and this application is intended to cover any variations, uses, or adaptations of the invention following, in general, the principles of the invention and including such departures from the present disclosure as come within known or customary practice in the art to which the invention pertains and as may be applied to the essential features hereinbefore set forth, and as fall within the scope of the invention or the limits of the appended claims.
Having thus described our invention, what we claim 1. A gas-operated gun comprising:
a housing containing a source of gas under pressure,
a barrel secured at its rear end in a bore in said housing coaxially thereof,
a normally-closed valve in said housing for controlling the flow of gas from said source to the rear end of said barrel,
a hammer mounted in said bore in said housing between said valve and said barrel for rotation between locked and released positions, respectively, and for axial reciprocation into cocked and fired positions, respectively, and having therethrough an axial bore, the forward end of which is in fluid com. munication with the rear end of said barrel,
means for loading a projectile into the bore of the barrel adjacent the rear end thereof and forwardly of said hammer.
means on said hammer operative to open said valve temporarily, and to admit gas from said source through the bore in said hammer to the rear of the projectile in said barrel, when said hammer is moved to its fired position, and
further means on said hammer manually operable from the exterior of said housing selectively to rotate said hammer into and out of its locked position, when the hammer is in its cocked position.
2. A gas-operated gun as defined in claim 1 including trigger-operated means for releasably holding said hammer in its cocked position, and
said manually operable means including means operable independently of said trigger-operated means for holding said hammer in its cocked position upon the release thereof by said trigger-operated means,
3. A gas-operated gun as defined in claim 2, wherein said manually operable means comprises a lever secured at one end to said hammer and projecting therefrom outwardly through an elongate slot in said housing, and manually operable for shifting said hammer axially from its fired to its cocked position, and
said hammer is rotatable by said lever, when the hammer is in its cocked position, to engage said lever in a transverse notch formed in said housing at one end of said slot.
4. A gas-operated gun as defined in claim 3 wherein said trigger-operated means comprises a sear pivotally mounted in said frame beneath said housing, and having thereon a projection which extends through a second slot in said housing to engage and hold said hammer in its cocked position, and
said lever, when engaged in said transverse notch is operative to prevent the return of said hammer to its fired position when said projection is disengaged from said hammer.
5. A gas-operated gun comprising a housing containing a source of gas under pressure,
a barrel secured at its rear end in said housing,
means for loading a projectile into the bore of said barrel adjacent the rear end thereof,
a normally-closed valve in said housing for controlling the fiow of gas from said source to the rear of a projectile in said barrel,
a hammer movable in said housing between said valve and said barrel into cocked and released positions, respectively, and having therethrough an axial bore, one end of which communicates with the rear end of said barrel,
means on said hammer operative to open said valve temporarily, and to admit gas from said source through the bore in said hammer to the projectile in said barrel, when said hammer is moved to its released position,
said hammer being a cylindrical member mounted for rotation in a bore in said housing rearwardly of said barrel, and for axial reciprocation coaxially of said barrel,
a spring interposed between said hammer and said barrel constantly to urge said hammer rearwardly in the last-named bore toward its released position,
trigger-operated means for releasably holding said hammer in its cocked position,
a lever secured at one end to said hammer, and projecting at its opposite end through a slot in said housing for shifting said hammer manually to its cocked position,
a hollow valve block secured in said bore in said housing rearwardly of said hammer, and having therein a chamber which communicates at one end with said source of gas under pressure, and at its opposite end with a port in said block,
said hammer having reduced diameter tubular extensions, which project from opposite ends thereof coaxially of its bore and slidably into said barrel and said port, respectively, for conveying gas from said chamber to said barrel bore,
said valve being mounted in said chamber normally to close otf said chamber from said bore in said block, and engageable by one of said tubular extensions momentarily to be opened thereby, when said hammer moves from its cocked to its released position,
a plug removably mounted in the bore in said housing remote from said barrel, and in axially spaced confronting relation to said block,
a gas cartridge removably mounted in said housing between said plug and said block with its capped end confronting said plug,
an axially reciprocable piercing member mounted in a central opening in said plug, and having a pointed end engageable with the capped end of said cartridge, and
a pin secured in said plug and extending through a diametral opening in said piercing member, the lastnamed opening having a diameter larger than said pin to allow limited axial movement of said piercing member relative to said plug.
6. A gas-operated gun as defined in claim 5, wherein an annular valve seat is formed on said block in said chamber around said port,
a second spring normally urges said valve against said seat to close said port, and
the first-named spring is operative, upon the release of said hammer from its cocked position, to urge said one tubular extension into engagement with said valve with sufficient force to unseat said valve temporarily from said seat.
7. A gasoperated gun, comprising a housing,
a barrel fixed at its rear end in a bore in said housing coaxially thereof,
means for loading a projectile into said barrel through a radial port located in said barrel adjacent the rear end thereof,
a normally-closed valve mounted in said bore in said housing rearwardly of said barrel,
a hammer .mounted in said bore in said housing between said valve and said barrel for reciprocation axially of said bore between cocked and fired positions, respectively,
a gas cartridge removably mounted in said bore in said housing rearwardly of said valve, and operable to supply gas to said bore,
said hammer having therethrough an axial bore in fluid communication with the rear end of said barrel rearwardly of said radial port therein, and
means on said hammer operative to open said valve temporarily, and to admit gas from said bore in said housing, and through said bore in said hammer to the projectile in said barrel, when said hammer is moved to its fired position.
References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 3,233,600 2/1966 Spack 124-11 452,882 5/1891 Gifrard 12411 2,225,719 12/1940 Shotton.
2,375,314 5/1945 Mills 12411 2,881,752 4/1959 Blahnik 12411 2,980,096 4/1961 Merz 124-40 X 3,204,625 9/1965 Shepherd 124-11 RICHARD C. PINKHAM, Primary Examiner THOMAS ZACK, Assistant Examiner U.S. C1. X.R.
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|U.S. Classification||124/74, 124/76, 124/40|