US 3494351 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Feb. 10, 1970' F. s. HORN MULTIPLE VIAL FLUID COLLJEZC'IIIIG DEVICE Filed me 21, 1966 United States Patent US. Cl. 128-2 2 Claims ABSTRACT OF THE DISCLOSURE A fluid collecting device for collecting fluid samples from a patient, involving a multiple vial receiving unit arranged to accommodate a plurality of evacuated vials having sealant caps thereon, the multiple vial unit having a needle unit at one location, and a plurality of apertures in which piercing means are provided for penetrating on occasion the cap of one or more vials inserted into such apertures, so that the vacuum in the vials can be manifested and bring about the filling of the vials with fluid entering the needle unit, with only a single penetration of the flesh of the patient being involved.
This invention relates to a device for the selective withdrawing of samples of body fluids, and more particularly to a versatile vacuum type implement for the collection of one or a number of fluid samples, such as 'blood, from a patient, which invention necessitates only a single penetration of the patients flesh and which avoids undesirable dripping of fluid samples at any time during the procedure.
It is not infrequent that a series of fluid samples need be taken from a patient, and the obtaining of a sample typically involves penetrating a portion of the patients anatomy, such as his arm, in order to reach the desired fluid. A syringe can of course be used for this purpose, which involves the manipulation of the plunger of the syringe in such a manner as to cause a suitable amount of fluid to be withdrawn.
Other arrangements involve the use of a cannula type needle in connection with which one or more vacuum flasks may be utilized, with second, third and possibly subsequent flasks being successively connected to this type of needle in accordance with the number of samples required.
This latter procedure has an advantage over the former insofar as the patient is concerned in that only a single penetration by a needle is involved. However, the apparatus utilized in accordance with the latter procedure typically must be balanced on the patients arm, making it diflicult for the lab technician or nurse to perform the task efficiently. Furthermore, dripping of the body fluid frequently occurs during the interval that the flasks are being changed, which of course causes annoyance if not dismay to the patient, and undesirable soiling of the bed linens and the like.
In accordance with the present invention I provide a basic fluid collecting device with which one or alternatively a plurality of vacuum vials may be employed. This unit employs a single needle mounted at the end of a short transparent tube, which needle is employed for penetrating the flesh of the patient. It is to be understood that only a single penetration is involved even though several separate specimens are to be taken.
A basic or universal fitting in accordance with this invention is disposed at the other end of the tube from the needle, and into this fitting, either a single vacuum vial can be inserted, or alternatively a multiple vial receiving unit may be installed. Means are provided in each instance for penetrating a sealant cap that is disposed at the top of each of the vacuum vials so that the vacuum in the vial can manifest itself through the tubing and bring about the taking of fluid samples on a selective basis.
Numerous advantages become apparent from a study of this invention, such as the fact that the bulk of the apparatus can rest adjacent the patient rather than on his arm, thus allowing the technician or nurse to be concerned only with the manipulation of the needle and the selective insertion of the vacuum flasks. Another significant advantage is brought about by the utilization of the transparent tubing between the needle and the flasks, which of course enables the technician or nurse to know immediately when the needle has entered the proper portion of the patients body from the color of the fluid appearing in the tubing. Further, the length of tubing enables a less rigid connection between the needle and the flask unit, thus preventing the circumstance in which a needle is inadvertently pressed through the wall of the vein or other fluid source.
In the use of my multiple vial receiving unit, as many vials can be successively inserted as there are samples of fluid to be provided. Significantly, the dripping of blood or other such fluid is entirely eliminated inasmuch as there is no opportunity for the fluid entering the needle and tubing to escape from the fluid collecting unit except into the interior of the vials. Not only is only a single penetration of the patient involved, but also the time that the needle is inserted in the patient is minimized inasmuch as with the multiple vial fluid collecting unit, more than one vial can be filling at a time, :and it is not necessary that one vial filling operation be completed before the next can be commenced.
These and other objects, features and advantages will be more apparent from a study of the appended drawing in which:
FIGURE 1 is an overall view of a simplified form of a blood collecting device along the general lines of my intention;
FIGURE 2 is a cut-away view to a somewhat larger scale, in which the location of a vial cover-penetrating needle in the basic fitting of the device is revealed;
FIGURE 3 is a view similar to FIGURE 2 but revealing by a fragmentary illustration, the penetration of the sealant cap of a fluid collecting vial;
FIGURE 4 depicts a multiple vial fluid collecting arrangement useable with some of the components of FIG- URE 1 in order that fluid such as blood may be withdrawn into several different vials; and
FIGURE 5 is an enlargement of a portion of FIGURE 4, involving a petcock type device that may be utilized when filling the device of FIGURE 4.
Turning to FIGURE 1, the basic or universal fitting 10 is revealed, attached to which is a needle unit comprising a flexible transparent hose 11, valve means 12 disposed on the hose, and on the remote end of the hose 11, a hollow needle 13. This needle is designed for insertion into the arm or other portion of a patients anatomy for the purpose of the removal of blood or other fluid therefrom.
Inserted into a suitable aperture of fitting 10 is the neck of a blood collecting vial 15, which is designed to contain a vacuum up until the time of its use. As revealed in FIGURE 2, this vial has a neck portion 16 in the top of which a sealant cap 17 is tightly disposed. This cap has a skirt portion extending down into the neck of the flask, as well as a central portion of moderate thickness that is capable of being penetrated by a hollow needle or the like. As also revealed in FIGURE 2, the needle 18 may be fairly short and mounted centrally in the interior portion of fitting 10, such as being mounted upon a washerlike member 19, such as of rubber. The uppermost portion of fitting forms a tubular portion upon which hose 11 may be tightly connected.
FIGURE 3 reveals the relationship of needle and vial when the vial has been pressed upwardly so as to cause penetration of the cap 17 by the needle 18. Appropriate length of travel of the vial is of course made possible by the fact that the neck portion 16 of the vial is of constant diameter for some distance, which diameter interfits in an appropriate manner with the inside of fitting 10.
As will be apparent, when the needle has penetrated into the vial as shown in FIGURE 3, the vacuum in the vial can manifest itself into the other components of the system, principally the hose 11, thus to cause the inflow of blood into needle 13, through tubing 11 and thence through the hollow needle 18 into the vial. Upon the vial being filled to an appropriate amount the valve means 12 is being brought into operation so as to prevent further flow, after which the needle 13 may be withdrawn from the patient.
It is to be recognized that in many instances it will be desirable to obtain more than a single specimen of blood from the patient and to that end I provide a multiple vial receiving unit 25, as best seen in FIGURE 4. This unit may be of plastic or metal, and may have a plurality of spaced, aligned apertures 26 on its undersurface which are designed to receive fluid collecting vials of the type discussed in collection with FIGURES 1 through 3. Obviously, the apertures 26 are spaced far enough apart to prevent interference between vials.
The upper portion of unit includes an upstanding connector 27 whose outer diameter is virtually identical with the outer diameter of the neck portion of a vial 15, which of course means that fitting 10 may be inserted over connector 27 in a tight-fitting manner, as is indicated by the phantom lines in FIGURE 4. In other words, if the nurse or doctor desires to take more than one specimen of blood, he or she does not successively insert single vials into the fitting 10, but rather inserts therein the connector 27 of the unit 25.
As will be understood, the connector 27 is hollow and interconnects with a passageway 28 disposed along the interior of unit 25. The apertures 26 interconnect with this passageway in such a manner that blood or other fluid caused to enter the unit 25 through the fitting 10 and the connector 27 can flow along passageway 28 to the apertures 26. It should be noted, however, that there is no requirement that a sealant cap be disposed in the top of connector 27. Therefore, the needle 18 and the washer in which it is mounted can be removed from unit 10, and replaced by a washer with only a central hole therein.
Disposed in the upper portion of each aperture 26 is a plug or fitting 31, in the lower central portion of which a short hollow needle 32 is disposed. The interior of this needle of course connects through the plug 31 into the passageway 28, so accordingly I provide a temporary stopper 33 of rubber or other suitable material that is inserted into each of the apertures 26 so as to prevent undesired fiow into or from the needles 32 that at a given moment are not in use.
As to the operation of this facet of my invention, after the unit 25 has been connected to a fitting 10, the needle 13 may then be inserted into the patient in a location suitable for the drawing of the desired body fluid. Thereafter, the valve means 12 is opened so as to allow some flow of fluid into the passageway 28 of unit 25. In some instances this procedure can be expedited by the manipulation of the petcock unit 35, so as to allow the air displaced by the fluid to leave the unit 25. However, the provision of a petcock is not mandatory. FIGURE 5 reveals the petcock unit may entail a valve member 36 that is normally biased into the closed position by compression spring 37, but which valve can be opened to allow the exit of air by virtue of pressure upon button member 38.
At such time as the operator is assured that body fluid rather than air will fill a vial, he or she presses a vial upwardly into an uncovered aperture 26, as shown in the left hand portion of FIGURE 4. This of course causes the respective short needle 32 to penetrate the sealant cap 17 of the flask, thus to allow the vacuum in the flask to manifest itself into passageway 28, thus causing the entry of fluid into the vial. At such time as the vial has been filled to a suitable level, it is removed and a stopper 33 inserted.
As is apparent, second and third vials may thereafter be pushed upwardly into cap piercing relationship with the other needles 32, there being no requirement that the filling of one vial must be completed before the filling of another vial can commence. Although I have shown three vials and two stoppers in unit 25, it is of course to be understood that I can use a larger or a smaller number of vials, or even use a unit having more than five vialreceiving apertures therein.
As to the vials used, they may be either 2 cc. or 5 cc., but of course I am not to be limited to either of these sizes. The tubing 11 is comparatively thick walled to prevent collapse under the influence of the vacuum, and also if the pssageway portion of the tube is comparatively small, there is not as much air to be displaced. On this latter point, it may be desirable to expend one of the evacuated vials to remove air from the passageway or chamber 28, and then thereafter insert vials into the unit for the purpose of withdrawing fluid.
1. A fluid collecting device for collecting samples of body fluid comprising a fitting having an aperture in one portion thereof, and a needle unit through which fluid can flow, said needle unit extending from another portion of said fitting and interconnected with said aperture, said needle unit being adapted for the withdrawing of fluid from flesh penetrated by said needle, a fluid collecting unit, said aperture receiving therein in closely fitting relation, the neck portion of said fluid collecting unit in which a vacuum is manifested, said vacuum serving to cause fluid entering said needle unit to flow into said fluid collecting unit, said fluid collecting unit being a multiple vial receiving unit and a plurality of evacuated vials having sealant caps thereon, said multiple vial unit having therein a plurality of apertures interconnected with said neck portion, in each of which apertures, piercing means are provided for penetrating the caps of the vials inserted in said apertures, so that the vacuum in the vials can manifest itself and bring about the filling of the vials with fluid entering said needle unit.
2. A fluid collecting device for collecting samples of body fluid comprising a fitting having an aperture in one portion thereof, and a needle unit extending from another portion thereof, said needle unit being designed to permit the flow of fluid therethrough and being interconnected with said aperture, said needle unit being adapted for the withdrawing of fluid from flesh penetrated by said needle, a multiple vial receiving unit, said aperture receiving therein in closely fitted relation, the neck portion of said multiple vial receiving unit, latter unit having a hollow central portion to which are connected a plurality of apertures, a plurality of evacuated fluid collecting vials, said apertures accommodating therein the neck portions of said plurality of evacuated fluid collecting vials, which neck portions are provided with sealant caps, said apertures in said multiple vial receiving unit being provided with piercing means for penetrating the caps of the vials inserted in said apertures so that the vacuum in the vials can manifest itself and bring about the filling of the vials 5 With fluid entering said needle unit, said vials being capable of being selectively inserted into said apertures so that one or many fluid samples can be taken with but one penetration of the flesh of the patient.
References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 1,124,285 1/1915 Brown 128-276 3,304,934 2/1967 Bautista 128-2 3,405,706 10/1968 Cinqualbre 1282 10 Kleiner 128276 Barr et al. 128276 Tenczar.
Keller 1282 5 RICHARD A. GAUDET, Primary Examiner MARTIN F. MAJESTIC, Assistant Examiner US. Cl. X.R.