US 3498014 A
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` March 3,1970 F. FRGN 3,498,014
CONSTRUCTION OF BUILDIN- WALL PANELS um Jun. 19, 1967' v z snnewsneez x INVENTOR. ROBERT F. FERGEN ATTORNEY Max-'ch 3, L 1970 R. F,.FERsr-:N 3,498,014
GONSTRUCTON OF BUILDING WALL PANELS Filed June 19. 196'? 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 INVENTOR.
ROBERT F. FERGEN ATTORNEY United States Patent O 3,498,014 CONSTRUCTION OF BUILDING WALL PANELS Robert F. Fergen, 7373 Colony Road, La Mesa, Calif. 92041 Filed June 19, 1967, Ser. No. 647,002 Int. Cl. E04b 2/72; E04c 2/10, 2/36 U.S. Cl. 52-284 2 Claims ABSTRACT OF THE DISCLOSURE This invention relates to a method and construction of building wall panels that are individually framed at one location on a at square table layout and are then transported to the place of use and assembled and which wall panels comprise a network of spacer bars joined by pairs of studs positioned on each side of the panel.
BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION The assembly line production of prefabricated buildings and houses is well known. Components of these buildings are fabricated at a factory and joined in later assembly. While these structures have a proven acceptance in the art, they are expensive to construct, have a heavy weight, are dicult to move in sections, and are sometimes dicult to assemble. Also in general, the type of construction of prefabricated housing modules is so different from the normally accepted building construction that involves framing and the like, that prefabricated housing has experienced only limited acceptance by the building trades.
SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION It is therefore the general object of this invention to provide new and improved framed wall panels that are individually framed at a manufacturing location, are then transported to point of assembly, and are assembled into a 'building frame. The finished frame has a configuration that resembles known wood building frame that are constructed with widely used and known framing techniques. The frame panels of this invention comprise a plurality of aligned spacer bars that are joined together in parallel spaced relationship by groups of pairs of studs. The spacer bars and studs are joined by at least two fasteners at each intersection. The network of pairs of studs and spacer bars form rigid, non-twisting panels that may be constructed, for example, of one inch by four inch wood studs and two inch by three inch wood spacer bars. lt has been found that this construction provides a rigid, strong, light weight building frame that requires less board feet than known building frame construction. Thus this J invention not only provides a framing construction that may be accomplished at a remote point, permitting quality control, easy layout, and many other advantages, but also the panels when framed still have a relatively light weight with rigidity and can be transported to point of assembly in a relatively easy manner.
In accomplishing the method of this invention, a fiat square surface provides a layout having lines thereon to indicate the positioning of spacer bars, studs, and the like in a given finished wall panel construction. The appropriate spacer bars and studs are layed out on the layout and are secured together, as for example, by nails driven through the pairs of studs and the spacer bar. The layout has a hard surface, such as steel or the like, that crimps the nails. A pneumatic nailing tool can be used to speed construction of the panels. The panels are then transported to point of use where appropriate footings, foundations, or the like have been constructed. The framing panels are installed on the foundation in a manner that the entire house may be framed in a matter of minutes. The outer covering of the building or walls can, if desired, be added to the framing panels prior to their being transported to point of assembly. But essentially this invention is directed to the framing panels and their construction and assembly.
It is therefore an object of my invention to provide a new and improved method of framing a building.
It is another object of my invention to provide a new and improved wall framing panel.
It is another object of my invention to provide a new and improved method of framing a wall panel that is constructed at a remote location, has increased resistance against racking, and is constructed in a manner that it cannot get out of square.
It is another object of my invention to provide a new and improved framing wall panel that is inexpensive to make, yet is relatively light weight and easily transported to point of use and which has sucient structural integrity as a unit that it does not pull apart, separate, or become out of square during transportation from point of construction to point of use.
It is another object of my invention to provide a new and improved wall panel framing that has the flexibility to be used in any type of Wall construction having windows, doors, or the like.
It is another object of my invention to provide a new and improved framed wall panel that utilizes simplified drafting and custom design constmction techniques.
These and other objects of my invention will become more apparent upon a reading of the following detailed specification and an examination of the drawings in which like reference numerals identify like parts throughout the views of the drawings and in which:
FIGURE l is a perspective view with parts broken away of a plurality of joined framed wall panels.
FIGURE 2 is a cross sectional view taken along lines 2-2 of FIGURE 1.
FIGURE 3 is a cross sectional view taken along lines 3 3 of FIGURE l.
FIGURE 4 is a cross sectional View taken along lines 4 4 of FIGURE l.
FIGURE 5 is a cross sectional view of a joined pair of abutting panels.
FIGURE 6 is a perspective view of a flat layout for making a panel.
Referring now to FIGURE l, there is illustrated a plurality of embodiments of the framed wall panels of my invention. For example, panel 10 is joined to panel 12 to which a partially shown panel 14 is also secured to panel 12. Panels 10 and 12 are outer wall panels and panel 14 is an interior wall panel. The panels provide the framing for a house or similar type building and exterior and interior wall surfaces are secured to these framing panels. Doors, windows and the like are installed in openings in the panels in the manner well known in the art. Normally these framed wall panels are used in place of the normal two inch by four inch framing of houses and the like.
It is generally contemplated that the outer w-all panels 10 and 12 and interior wall panels 14 are installed yat the point of construction of the building on lan existing foundation, floor or the like. Each wall panel has a plurality of horizontal spacer bars 418 that, for example, would be ymade of wood and have a dimension of two inches by three inches with the three inch dimension being in the vertical direction. In panel 10, one side of the spacer bars 218 are secured to wall studs 34 that are, for example, one
inch by four inches. The other side of the spacer bars 18 are secured to a plywood shear panel 28 that substantially covers the outer surface of the panel. Shear panels are used in lieu of a similar arrangement of studs 34 being positioned on the outer wall surface as illustrated in the wall panel 12, where i-t is expected that the wall will experience excessive shear stress that causes excessive racking or twisting and shear stresses on the individual connections between the spacer bars 18 and the studs 34. Excessive stress can occur where the roof loading is large or in two story buildings or other like situations. However, in normal construction of the wall panels, the spacer bars 18 and 90 are connected to the studs 34 and 92 by Ia two nai-l connection that provides sufcient strength against shear and racking. A top panel plate 32 and bottom panel plate 30 are nailed to the upper yand lower spacer brars 18 and 90 with gaps left at 38 and with extensions at 58 to provide an overlapping type junction at the corner-s.
In the panel construction of FIGURE 2, pairs of wal-1 studs 92 are secured to each side of the spacer bars 90 by a pair of connectors, such as nails or the like. `It is not necessary to have cross bracing, since the combination of studs 92 and spacer bars 90 with at least a pair of spaced connectors 93 at each intersection create a suiciently rigid structure to resist the shear stresses.
At one end of each of the panels, there is provided a plurality of splice blocks 26, that may be short lengths of two inch by two inch boards. These splice blocks are inserted, las shown, with one end adjacent to outer edges of fthe end studs 34 and 92.The other ends of the panels have la pair of one inch by six inch studs 62 secured to ythe ends of the spacer bars with a two inch by two inch vertical end member secured therebetwen and to the ends of the spacer bars.
In joining the -ramed wall panels, as is illustrated in the joining of panels .10 and 12, see FIGURE 3, the splice blocks 46 lay above the corresponding aligned spacer bars 18 and 90 leaving a space above the space bars through which a l'ag bolt 39 is inserted through a predrilled hole in the vertical end member 4-1 that is secured between studs 42 and 43. The lag bolt 41 is driven into the splice block 46 holding the ends of the two panels :10 and 12 together. The upper projection, as for example S8, over- :laps a recessed type area 38 and provides an additional securing means.
The framed wall panels may also function as framing for interior walls of houses, buildings, or the like, and Iare secured to another framed lwall panel along its length as illustrated in FIGURES 1 and 4. The partial wall panel `14 is secured to the side of the wall panel 12 with the end of panel 14 abutting the side wall panel 12. A two inch by two inch vertical end member 84 is secured between a pair of one inch by six inch studs 82. A plurality of splice 'blocks 74 in wall panel 12 receive -lag bolts 86 that pass through the vertical end members 81 holding panel 14 to the side of wall panel |12. A pair of wall panels can be joined end to end as illustrated in the cross sectional view of FIGURE 5, where vertical end members 124 and i126 are secured between a pair of one inch by four inch studs. The vertical end members 124 and 126 are held together by lag bolts 128 in the abutting connection.
As may be understood from the illustration in FIG- URE l, doors, windows, and the `like may be layed out by use of appropriate templates constructing the Wall frames. As for example, over a Window opening 48 a pair of shear panels S are secu-red to the spacer bars `90 Iand form a box beam structure. Above the door opening 24, where there is insufiicient room for a box beam structure, the normal ystud 40 spacer bar 22 construction is used.
In the method of making the framed wall panels, a flat layout is used. This layout is constructed, for example, on a concrete support with a sheet steel covering 102 secured thereto by studs 104. Welded on the upper sur-face of the steel member 102 are vertical members 106 that have a height of approximately one-half to two inches and form a square corner. Grids or lines for the particular layout of the wall panel to be framed are layed out on the table l102 by tapes 108, 110, and 112 or by paint or similar means. Lines 108 mark the position of the spacer bars, lines 1:10 mark the positions of the studs y34 and 36, and lines 112 mark the position and alignment of the splice blocks 26. Accordingly, all the studs 34, spacer blocks 22 and splice blocks 26 are previously cut to correct size and are layed out in an Iassembled position on the table 102. The various parts are then nailed together by at least two nails at each junction point. The nails would normally be inserted by a pneumatic n-ailer and the end of the nails upon contact with the steel plate are crimped in the `single step of nailing. lIt may thus be seen that the framed wall panels are quickly layed out and are quickly nailed in a complete single operation providing -a square Iframed wall panel having the exact size desired 4and which panel has suicient st-rength and rigidity to exceed the strength and shear rigidity of existing two inch by four inch frame structures.
Thus the wall framing panels are constructed with my method and construction iat a manufacturing plant that Igives the desired quality control. The -Snaming units are built on the flat square table and constructed in such a manner that all units are square. Nailing of the unit frames may be accomplished with hand tools, .power nailer or the like. The nails will be driven at a slight angle through both the one inch by four inch studs land the two inch by three inch spacer bars and automatically clinch on the other side when they hit the me-tal surface of the table. The lines 108, 110, and 112 are layed out on the table so that -measurement and spacing of the studs and other members are practically automatic. Door and window template-s are used at the openings to assure true and square opening. The interior and exterior Ifinish materials could be installed at the manufacturing plant, With window units, electrical outlets and wall plumbing incorporated into -the room unit before being shipped to the point of assembly. The equipment required to manufacture the wall framing panels is very inexpensive and thus no large lcapital linvestment is required to make the panels. The roof of the house or building is secured to the upper surfaces 32 and 56 of the wall panels 10 and 12 in the normal manner.
Having thus disclosed my invention, I now claim:
1. In a prefabricated building frame construction,
a plurality of building panel modules individually framed at one location and joined as a unit in a building frame construction at a second location,
said modules each comprising complete panels formed by a plurality of spaced, aligned, longitudinal spacer bars having a cross section of given width and thickness dimensions,
said modules being further formed by a plurality of pairs of studs aligned normal to said spacer bars and secured thereto in groups of spaced opposing pairs with said spacer bars sandwiched between each of said pairs of studs,
each of said studs having a thickness less than and a width slightly greater than said width and thickness dimensions of said spacer bars,
said width dimension of said studs abutting said spacer bars whereby said pairs of studs lie flat relative to said spacer bars and are secured to said spacer bars by connectors at the intersections therebetween,
said spacer bars being widely spaced one from the other and each of said pairs of studs being widely spaced forming large open spaces between said intersections,
said modules forming said building frame construction including a plurality of splice blocks at one end of 6 said modules secured between said pairs of studs and References Cited positioned between said spacer bars with the ends of UNITED STATES PATENTS said splice blocks terminating adjacent the ends of said spacer bars and a vertical end member Secured 1 Ilsn 52E-figg to the ends of said spacer bars and fastener means t0 5 3432336 6/1886 Osgood "2 621 X join one of said vertical end members Of One Of Said 1 504454 8/1924 Tyson n 52 281 X modules to one of said splice block of a second of 11645;@2 10/1927 De 52 745 Said modules 1,649,872 11/1927 Swisher 52-281 X 2. In a prefabricated building frame construction aS 1,673,788 6/1928 Hobson 52 299 X claimed in claim 1, including cover plates having a width 10 2,275,275 3 /1942 Wilson 52- 481 substantially equal to the combined width of the thickness 2,521,381 9/1950 Linck 52-281 X of a pair of studs and a spacer bar therebetween, 2,568,133 9/1951 Swisher 52-275 said cover plates secured to the upper and lower sur- 2,803,856 8/1957 Kofahl 52-238 X faces of said modules and against the adjacent `sur- 15 3,133,322 5/ 1964 Douglas 52-281 X faces of the spacer bars and the adjacent ends of said 3,293,820 12/1965 Smith 52-284 X Studs, FOREIGN PATENTS said upper cover plates being offset lengthwise relative to said panels for a distance substantially equal to 561117 1930 Germany' the width of said cover plates creating an opening 2O OTHER REFERENCES on the upper surface of one end of said modules and Factory in the Field, House & Home, June 1962, pp a projection on said upper surface on the other end 118-129,
of said modules, said projection of one module overlapping said open HENRY C- SUTHERLAND, Primary EXamIlCY space on another module at an intersection junction 25 SAM D BURKE HL Assistant Examiner whereby said vertical end members are Secured between a pair of said studs and are flush with the outer U.S. Cl. X.R. edges of said studs. 52-4S3, 615