US 3498675 A
Abstract available in
Claims available in
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
m s, 1970 G, KAMPF-EMDEN ETAL 3,498,675
TUNNEL DRIVING MACHINE HAVING SYMMETRIGAL BRACES Filed March 19, 1968 5 Sheets-Sheetl Inventors 55/20 KAMPF- EMDEN WILHELM smY/mw March 3,1970 G} RAM H ETAL 3,498,675
v TUNNEL muvrue MACHINE HAVING SYMMETRICAL BRACES I Filed March 1a, 1968 3 I 5 Sheets-Sheet 2 v Inventors GE/2D KAMPF EMOsIv WILHELM STA YMA AW ,4 TTORNE/s Ma.1 ch 3, 1910 KAMPH'EMDEN mL 3,498, 75
TUNNEL muvmG MACHINE HAVING SYMMETRICAL BRACES Filed March 19. 1958 5 Sheets-Shed s Fig. 6
. Inventors G520 hA MPF- EMOEN WIL ug-m 57A YMA MN March 3,1970 A E EI'AL 3,498,675
TUNNEL muyme MACHINE HAVING smumnicu, BRACES vj Filed March 19. 1968 5 Sheets-Shut 4 Inventors 652D KAMPF EMDEN JWILHELM STAYMANNI y March 3,1970 KAMPF-EMDEN E IAL v v 3,498,675 v TUNNEL DRIVING, mcnmn HAVING symmzcn. Bucks a Filed larch 19; 1968 s Sheets-Sheet 5 Fig.9
Inventors .6620 IIAMPF EHDEN ural. srawvaaw United States Patent Int. Cl. E21c 1/(50, 9/00, 19/00 U.S. 299-31 10 Claims ABSTRACT OF THE DISCLOSURE A tunnel driving device particularly for boring a tunnel into solid rock without a shield includes a cutting arm which carries a rotatable Cutting head at its outer end and which is mounted at its inner end for universal pivotal movement. The arm is supported at the inner end of the tunnel by a stepping gear which advantageously includes a plurality of bracing groups. Each bracing group includes preferably two oblique arms which extend outwardly from opposite sides at angles to each other and a vertical arm which includes a telescopic portion which may be moved outwardly to bear against the roof of the tunnel which is excavated. The inner bracing element supports the cutting arm and it is connected to an outer bracing element through a rigid guide beam extending therebetween. An intermediate bracing element is carried on a sliding sleeve which moves backwardly and forwardly on the guide beam under the control of adjustment cylinders which are connected between the intermediate bracing element and one of the other bracing elements.
A tunnel is driven by rotating the cutter and then moving it through a desired arc in order to cut away a conical piece of the tunnel. Thereafter, the outermost bracing elements are released from engagement with the wall of the tunnel and they are advanced together with the cutting arm into the rock being cut away so as to position the cutting head in a location for the next cutting stroke. After this is accomplished, the end bracing elements are secured in position in the tunnel, and the intermediate bracing element is advanced relative to the guide beam to a position at which it is equally spaced from each of the end bracing elements.
The apparatus also includes conveyor means which may be oriented to continuously remove the material being cut away. In addition, means are provided for supporting and positioning a tube within the tunnel which operates in conjunction with the bracing groups to advance the tube directly behind the bracing groups as the driving of the tunnel progresses.
Summary of the invention This invention relates, in general, to a method and device for boring a tunnel and, in particular, to a new and useful tunnel driving machine including bracing elements for supporting a cutting arm which are interconnected to form a stepping gear which may be advanced through the tunnel as the cutting is carried out and to a method of driving a tunnel.
Known tunnel driving machines have a winning head which permits the winning of the outcropping end face of the tunnel in one scoop. The Winning head is designed as a concentrically revolving disk which fills the entire tunnel cross section and is equipped with self-driven cutter heads. Such machines have the disadvantage that the tunnel cross section which may be excavated is fixed to a circular profile. In addition. the diameter of such Hce profile is fixed and it is practically impossible to drive such a winning head tunnel excavating device using different diameters. A further disadvantage is that the power consumption for such devices is very high since the entire solid rock is removed. In addition, the machine is very large and access is very difficult and cumbersome, particularly when the cutter heads have to be exchanged. The winning head is very heavy and requires a relatively complicated support and a complicated traveling unit.
The simultaneous engagement of the entire cross section of the tunnel by the concentrically revolving disk has the further disadvantage that hard phenocrysts, particularly erratic blocks, have a disturbing effect in the face shoulder and require an interruption of the machine operation for their removal.
In accordance with the present invention there is provided a tunnel driving machine which does not have the disadvantages of the prior art devices and which comprises a stepping gear composed of individual bracing elements which are interconnected in a manner to permit the advance of the bracing elements into the tunnel. The stepping gear supports a rotating cutting head and a carrying arm which is mounted for universal movement at the forward end of the tunnel. The driving machine of this nature has the following advantages:
Any desired tunnel cross section can be selected and the same device can be used for opening cross sections that vary in number of square yards. The energy consumption is relatively low because the device permits the cutting out of several frames of the face shoulder so that the core formed inside the shoulder will either fall out by itself or with little effort, and thus it is not necessary to cut away the entire shoulder by a single rotating cutting head. The arrangement makes it possible to remove erratic blocks contained in the face shoulder by cutting around the block and permitting the block to be removed in a single operation.
In the preferred arrangement the stepping gear includes an inner and outer bracing group which are interconnected by a guiding tube and an intermediate bracing group having a cylindrical part which may be shifted backwardly and forwardly on the guide tube. Each bracing group may be secured in its associated tunnel position by hydraulically extensible and retractible post elements which are advantageously symmetrically arranged at substantially apart with the central one extending substantially vertically upwardly. Stepping control cylinders mounted between the end bracing element and the intermediate bracing element permit the release and the shifting of the two end bracing elements forwardly into the tunnel and their subsequent securement in the moved position while the intermediate bracing element is advance to a position equally spaced between the end bracing elements.
In a preferred arrangement guide rails are provided for skids which are connected to post elements of the bracing groups so that the skids of the various bracing groups may be easily slid therealong in order to advance the machine into the tunnel as it is cut away.
Another advantage of the device of the present invention is that it permits the driving of various circular tunnel cross sections. The cutting arm includes a cone-shaped cutting head which extends with its cone genetrix parallel to the tunnel axis for the advancing movement of the cutting head. The arm may be universally pivotally moved about a pivotal mounting at its inner end to locate the cutting head with its side face parallel to the tunnel axis at the extreme cutting path ends so that a smooth tunnel cylindrical wall may be cut away. The head is moved to form a conical end face bounded by a smooth cylindrical wall surface which is of particular advantage when setting the tubings in the excavated wall space.
In accordance with the preferred embodiment of the invention, the annular space between the tunnel link or tubing and the rock wall is filled as known with a concrete and a concrete milk. The apparatus includes means for pressing a tube setting ring adjacent its forward edge while the opposite edge is sealed on the driving side. The tube setting ring carries a rubber ring packing sealing the annular gap between the tunnel tube and the tunnel wall to the front end. In addition, the front end carries a flange carrying thrust cylinders which act to extend the tubing into the tunnel.
The driving machine according to the invention is capable of performing automatic loading and removal of the material being cut away. The apparatus includes two single chain scraper conveyors and shovels arranged on respective sides of the machine frame and which may be revolved in two perpendicular planes at right angles to each other and which can be displaced parallel to the tunnel axis. The shovels operate within a swivel range of 200 and are mounted eccentrically on the end of the machine frame.
Accordingly it is an object of the invention to provide an improved tunnel driving device which includes a plurality of bracing groups which support a cutting arm at the inner end of a tunnel to be driven, the arm being rotatable and being pivotally mounted for universal pivotal movement to permit cutting away of the tunnel with a conical end face formation.
A further object of the invention is to provide a stepping gear for mounting a cutting head for excavating a tunnel which includes inner and outer bracing groups on respective sides of an intermediate bracing group, each bracing group being selectively engaged with the tunnel wall; and wherein means are provided for shifting one of the groups relative to the other two after it is released from the tunnel wall and for thereafter securing the shifted group to the tunnel wall, the other two groups being shiftable thereafter after they are relased from the tunnel wall.
A further object of the invention is to provide a method of drilling a tunnel and advancing a tunnel head therethrough using means for supporting the tunnel head on the inner one of three bracing groups which may be individually secured to the tunnel wall, comprising rotating the cutting head and pivoting it through an arc to cutaway a conical end face of the tunnel, releasing the end bracing groups from the tunnel and advancing them relative to the intermediate group to cause the cutting head to move into the end face, securing the end bracing groups to the tunnel wall and repositioning the intermediate bracing group centrally between the end bracing groups, and thereafter cutting away a further section of the tunnel in a conical end face formation, and so on.
A further object of the invention is to provide a tunnel machine which includes means for advancing a universally mounted cutting head through the tunnel being excavated and for simultaneously positioning a chain conveyor for the removal of the material being cut away and for also advancing a tubing through the tunnel.
A further object of the invention is to provide a tunnel driving machine which is simple in design, rugged in construction and economical to manufacture.
The various features of novelty which characterize the invention are pointed out with particularity in the claims annexed to and forming a part of this specification. For a better understanding of the invention. its operating advantages and specific objects attained by its use, reference should be had to the accompanying drawings and descriptive matter in which there is illustrated and described a preferred embodiment of the invention.
Brief description of the drawings In the drawings:
FIG. 1 is a schematic representation of a tunnel driving machine constructed in accordance with the invention;
FIGS- 3 and 4 are views similar to FIG. 1 indicating the various steps of operation of the machine to advance in the tunnel;
FIG. 5 is a side elevation of the tunnel driving machine positioned in an operating position Within the tunnel;
FIG. 6 is a top plan view of the tunnel driving machine;
FIG. 7 is a front view of the tunnel driving machine;
FIG. 8 is a rear elevational view of the tunnel drivingmachine; and
FIG. 9 is a view similar to FIG. 5 but including a tubing setting ring arranged adjacent the rear of the machine.
Detailed description of the preferred embodiment Referring to the drawings in particular, the invention as embodied therein with reference to FIGS. 14 comprises a cutting arm 1 having a rotary cutting head 2 which is rotated by driving means (not shown). The cutting arm 1 is pivotally mounted at its inner end on a swivel sleeve 3 in a manner perrniting it to be universally pivotally movable concentrically to the wall 16 of a tunnel being excavated so as to cut a conical face shoulder 19.
In accordance with the invention, the cutting head swivel sleeve 3 is carried on a post beam 10* of stepping gear which is made up of a plurality of bracing groups, in this instance end bracing groups 5 and 6, and an intermediate bracing group 9. The post beam 10 forms a portion of the bracing group 5 and it is rigidly connected to a guide beam 7 which is connected at its opposite end to post beam 11 of the bracing group 6. The intermediate bracing group 9 includes a post beam 12 which is connected to a sliding cylinder 13 which slides on the guide beam 7 and permits the movement of the bracing roup 9 along such beam.
Means are provided to facilitate shifting of the bracing group 9 relative to the bracing group 5 and thus also relative to the bracing group 6. Such means comprise, in the embodiment illustrated, three stepping cylinders 14, 14, 14. The stepping cylinders 14 are distributed around the circumference between the post beam 12 of the bracing group 9 and the post beam 10* of the bracing group 5. Each cylinder 14 carries a rod portion 14a which may be extended outwardly in order to vary the spacing between the bracing groups 5 and 9.
Each bracing group 5, 6 and 9 advantageously includes three post assemblies, including posts 5a, 5b, 50, 6a, 6b, 6c, and 9a, 9b and 90, which are advantageously disposed at an angle of substantially 120 from each other. The uppermost post assemblies 5c, and 60 advantageously extend substantially vertically and each carries a hydraulic cylinder 17 which may be operated to extend a connecting rod element 17a with a skid 15 at its end upwardly to cause the skid 15 to bear in bracing engagement with the wall 16. The lower arms 5a and 5b and 9a and 9b and 6a and 6b are advantageously oriented obliquely against the sides of the tunnel. The lower post groups serve merely as a sliding support for the post beams on the bottom portion of the tunnel wall, while the upper post groups are the bracing posts proper. The hydraulic cylinder 17 permits the skids carried by the arm portion 17a to either be pressed against the tunnel wall 16 or be detached therefrom. All of the bottom bracing posts 5a and 5b and 9a and 9b and 6a and 6b include two telescopic portions 50 and 52 with means for adjusting the position 52 within the portion 50 in order to vary the radial extent of the post in the event that adjustment becomes necessary or that the posts require detachment from their holding position against the tunnel wall 16. The adjustment of the two parts 50 and 52 may be made by hydraulic means or by a spindle, bolts, or other adjustment devices.
In accordance with the method of the invention, the tunnel driving machine is operated as schematically indicated in FIGS. l-4. As shown in FIG. 1, the cutting arm 1 is in a position at which a cut has just been completed and in which it may be moved forward to drill the head 2 into the face shoulder 19. This is accomplished by releasing the bracing elements 5 and 6, which is preferably done merely by lowering the vertical bracing elements 5c and 60 by actuating the hydraulic cylinder 17 to withdraw the arm 17a. When this is done, the skids 15 of these arms are moved downwardly to the position indicated in FIG. 2. Thereupon the two end bracing groups 5 and 6 are shifted forwardly as the cutting head 2 is rotated to drive the head into the face shoulder 19. This is accomplished by actuating the cylinders 14 to extend the arms 14a and cause movement of the bracing group 5 away from the bracing group 9. Since the guide beam 7 is connected between the bracing groups 5 and 6, it will slide in the sliding sleeve 13 and cause the bracing group 6 to be moved to the left also. The step in the driving direction which is accomplished is equal to the amount of the cut 18 shown in FIG. 4.
After the head 2 is driven into the face shoulder 19 by the amount of the cut 18, the end bracing groups 5 and 6 the again secured in position against the tunnel walls 16, as indicated in FIG. 3. The intermediate bracing group 9 is then released from the wall 16 by retracting the piston rod portion 17a into the cylinder 17 and brought into the dotted line position indicated in FIG. 4-. Thereupon the cylinders 14 are again actuated to retract the piston rod portions 14a and to move the bracing group 9 from the dotted line position to the solid line position indicated in FIG. 4. In the solid line position, the skids are again moved upwardly against the roof portion of the wall 16. In the position indicated in FIG. 4, the face shoulder 19 is worked to remove the cutting thickness 18 with the cutting head 2 continuously rotated.
The desired diameter with a circular tunnel cross section is taken into account, and the ratio between the cone aperture angle of the conical cutting head 2 in the horizontal position indicated and the cutting arm length up to the top of the head is so selected that the cone side is parallel to the tunnel axis with the cutting head turned to the tunnel periphery. In this manner, a smooth cylindrical tunnel wall is obtained so that the assembly of tubing 21, as indicated in FIG. 8, is facilitated.
In FIGS. 5-7, the tunnel driving machine is indicated with more detail. It can be seen that the post beams and 11 are rigidly connected with each other through the guide beam 7 by means of beams 22 which can be of any desirable cross section. Post beam 12 of the intermediate bracing group 9 is provided with holes 27 for the passage of beams 22 of the forward bracing group 5. Two guide rails 28, 2-8 are provided for the bottom posts 5a and 5b and for the bottom posts 6a and 6b, as can be seen in FIG. 6. This facilitates the guiding of the intermediate bracing group 9 and prevents any tilting with respect to the forward part of the stepping gear. The forward bracing group 5 is also guided on the rails '28.
The cutting arm 1 is mounted on the swivel sleeve 3 for rotation about the horizontal swivel axis 23. A fluid control cylinder 24 which is pivoted at 24a may be actuated for extending or retracting an arm 24b to guide the cutting member 1 about a vertical pivot axis 23'. The swivel sleeve 3 is mounted for pivotal movement about a vertical swivel axis which is formed by two post beams 10 and 11, beams 22 and guide tube 7. For this pivotal movement, a cylinder 25 is mounted on respective sides of the post beam 12 and includes arm portions 25a which are slidable therein which engage respective ends of the swivel yoke or arms 26.
Conveyor means are provided for loading and removal of the material which is cut away from the face shoulder 19, Such means comprise a chain scraper conveyor 29 arranged on each side of the machine. The conveyor includes a shovel formed by a loading ramp 30 to charge the materials to the chain and plates 31 are provided to collect the materials which break out from the upper part of the face shoulder. The conveyor chain 29 is slidably mounted on the machine frame so that it can be pushed forward into the material being removed by means of cylinders 32, 32 connected to respective sides of the post beams 5a and 5b. The operation is similar to that of a shovel.
In accordance with a further feature of the invention, the tunnel driving machine may be provided with a tubing assembly device as shown in FIGS. 8 and 9. The device advantageously includes two post members 33, 33 which are secured eccentrically to the post beam 11 and which may pivot about a swivel axis 34 over an angular range of about 200. A tubing head 35 is pivoted to the outer ends of the beams 33 on telescopic portions 33a and they may be pivoted about a pivot 35a by means of cylinders 36 acting to extend or retract a cylinder rod member 36a which is pivotally connected to the supporting head 35 at pivot location 35b.
As best seen in FIG. 9, a tubing setting ring 37 is associated with the tunnel driving machine. The setting ring 33 has a front flange 38 which bears on skids 15 of the rear bracing group 6. The setting ring 37 carries a plurality of tubing pressure cylinders 39 around its circumference, and these are operated to press the last assembled tubing to the assembled tubing column 21. A packing ring 40 of rubber material is arranged to the rear of the setting ring 37 and insures a continuous seal of the annular space 41 between the tubing 21 which is being applied and the tunnel wall 16. No concrete or concrete milk may escape through the space 41.
The tubing setting ring 37 which bears on the tubing 21 is automatically brought up to the driving machine. This is accomplished by the cylinders 39 which cause retraction of the piston rod portions 29a. The last assembled tubing ring is pushed up to the already assembled tubing column with relatively little resistance. Be
fore the final tight pressing of the tubing ring 21, the setting ring 39 is first pushed forward until it bears on the skids 15 of the rear bracing group 6. Then the cylinders 39 effect the tight pressing of the last tubing ring to the existing tubing column.
The tubing setting ring 37 has in the present case a circular cross section, but it should be appreciated that this ring can be adapted in form to any desired tunnel cross section.
While a specific embodiment of the invention has been shown and described in detail to illustrate the application of the inventive principles, it will be understood that the invention may be embodied otherwise without departing from such principles.
What is claimed is:
1. A tunnel driving machine comprising a plurality of bracing groups each group having no more than three symmetrically arranged extensible and retractible radially extending braces for respective engagement with and release from the tunnel wall, a cutting arm mounted adjacent the forward end of said bracing groups and carrying a rotatable cutting head adjacent its forward end, mounting means adjacent the rear end of said cutting arm for mounting said cutting arm for universal pivotal movement, and means connected between at least two of said bracing groups for shifting at least two of said bracing groups relatively to each other after one of said groups is released from said tunnel wall to advance said bracing groups in the tunnel.
2. A tunnel driving machine according to claim 1, wherein said bracing groups comprise at least one forward, one rear and one intermediate bracing group located between said forward and rear groups, said cutting arm being pivotally mounted on said forward bracing group, said shifting means being connected between said forward and said intermediate bracing group, and guide means for said intermediate bracing group extending between said forward and said rear bracing groups.
3. A tunnel driving machine according to claim 1, wherein each of said bracing groups includes a central post beam, a plurality of bracing posts extending radially outwardly from said beam, at least one of said post beams having extensible and retractable post portions for engagement and release from the tunnel wall, said bracing groups comprising at least one forward bracing group an intermediate bracing group and a rear bracing group, a guide beam extending between said forward bracing group and said rear bracing group, said intermediate bracing group being slidable on said guide beam between said forward and rear bracing groups, said shifting means being connected between said forward bracing group and said intermediate bracing group for shifting said intermediate bracing group relative along said guide beam and for permitting the shifting of said forward and said rear bracing groups relative to said intermediate bracing group.
4. A tunnel driving machine according to claim 1, wherein said bracing groups include an intermediate bracing group and a forward and rear bracing group on each side of said intermediate bracing group, each of said bracing groups having a plurality of posts extending radially for engagement and disengagement with the tunnel wall, each of said posts having an extensible and retractible portion, said shifting means including a guide beam extending between said forward and rear bracing groups, said intermediate bracing group including a sleeve member slidable on said guide beam, and stepping cylinders connected between said forward and said intermediate bracing groups, said forward and said rear bracing groups being shiftable with said guide beam relative to said intermediate bracing group when said intermediate bracing group is engaged with the tunnel wall and said intermediate bracing group being shiftable relative to said forward bracing group when said forward bracing group is engaged with the tunnel wall and the intermediate group is released from the tunnel wall.
5. A tunnel driving machine according to claim 1, wherein said cutting head has a conical end pointed to the front and symmetrically arranged, the cone angle of said conical head and the length of the cutting arm up to the end of the cone head being selected such that the head extends with its cone genetrix parallel to the tunnel axis with the tunnel arm oriented to the tunnel periphery.
6. A tunnel driving machine according to claim 1, including a tubing setting ring adapted to embrace the tubing which lines the tunnel, a rubber ring packing ar ranged at the inner end of said tubing ring and adapted to be located exteriorly of the tunnel wall already in place, said tube setting ring including a flange portion adapted to abut against said bracing groups and a tube pressing cylinder carried by said tube setting ring and engageable between said ring and the tubing in the tunnel for pressing the ring against the driving machine.
7. A tunnel driving machine according to claim 1, including conveyor means carried by said bracing groups and including at least one shovel element adapted to be positioned adjacent the cutting head, and chain conveyor means associated with said shovel element for conducting material collected to the rear of the tunnel.
8. A tunnel driving machine comprising a plurality of bracing groups each group having extensible and retractible braces for respective engagement with and release from the tunnel wall, a cutting arm mounted adjacent the forward end of said bracing groups and carrying a rotatable cutting head adjacent its forward end, mounting means adjacent the rear end of said cutting arm for mounting said cutting arm for universal pivotal movement, and means connected between at least two of said bracing groups for shifting at least two of said bracing groups relatively to each other after one of said groups is released from said tunnel wall to advance said bracing groups in the tunnel, said bracing groups comprising a forward bracing group, a rear bracing group, and an intermediate bracing group between said forward and rear bracing groups, each of said bracing groups having three substantially symmetrically arranged posts, one of which is substantially vertically arranged and the other of which extends obliquely downwardly.
9. A tunnel driving machine according to claim 8, wherein at least one of said posts of each of said bracing groups includes an extensible and retractible portion for engagement and release from the tunnel wall.
10. A tunnel driving machine according to claim 8, including guide means extending between said forward and rear bracing groups, and skid means on each of said posts engageable with said guide means for permitting movement of said bracing groups along said guide means.
References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 1,026,335 5/1912 Walther 299-31 2,833,531 5/1958 Joy 299-31 3,350,889 11/1967 Sturm 29933 FOREIGN PATENTS 997,519 7/1965 Great Britain.
ERNEST R. PURSER, Primary Examiner U.S. Cl. X.R.