|Publication number||US3502372 A|
|Publication date||Mar 24, 1970|
|Filing date||Oct 23, 1968|
|Priority date||Oct 23, 1968|
|Publication number||US 3502372 A, US 3502372A, US-A-3502372, US3502372 A, US3502372A|
|Original Assignee||Shell Oil Co|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (5), Referenced by (227), Classifications (11)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
March 24, 1970 M. PRATS 3,502,372
PROCESS OF RECOVERING OIL AND DAWSONITE FROM OIL SHALE Filed 001;. 23, 1968 INVENTOR:
M. PRATS AG NT United States Patent US. Cl. 299-5 8 Claims ABSTRACT OF THE DISCLOSURE A method of shale oil and dawsonite recovery from dawsonite-containing oil shale formations utilizing sequentially an in situ pyrolysis technique for shale oil recovery and solution mining for dawsonite recovery. The pyrolysis is controlled to prevent conversion of the dawsonite to insoluble oxides.
BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION Field of the invention This invention relates to a new, novel and improved method for recovering both shale oil and dawsonite from subterranean oil shale formations containing both products by sequential treatment of fracture-permeated zones, such as rubblized caverns and/or fragmented portions of such formations produced by suitable fracturing and/ or solids-extracting means, to a controlled in situ pyrolysis, in order to pyrolize the organic components into fluid or fluidizable and recoverable oil products and thereafter injecting into the oil depleted area containing therein dawsonite an aqueous liquid capable of dissolving the daJwsonite and recovering the dissolved dawsonite from the recovered liquid by any suitable means.
The use of various explosive techniques both nuclear and non-nuclear to rubblize or break-up or fragment underground oil shale formations so as to form a chimney or cavern filled with rubble or fragmented oil shale to facilitate shale oil recovery from such fragmented or rubblized areas by in situ pyrolysis is well known in the art. Although some oil shale formations under discussion are known to also contain dawsonite and/or other soluble aluminum compounds, their recovrey in conjunction with in situ pyrolysis of shale oil recovery, or per se, has not been thought feasible in the past because of the temperature conditions encountered which generally result in the fromation of insoluble oxides or aluminum making dawsonite (sodium aluminum carbonate) or other soluble aluminum compound recovery impossible or very costly and unattractive. Therefore, attempts to recover dawsonite from oil shale formations have not been attempted and a valuable source of aluminum and aluminum products has been essentially neglected.
OBJECTS OF THE INVENTION It is an object of the invention to recover soluble aluminum compounds from underground oil shale formations.
It is another object of this invention to sequentially recover shale oil and dawsonite from underground oil shale formations.
It is still another object of this invention to sequentially recover shale oil and dawsonite from underground rubblized or fragmented oil shale formations using in situ combustion or pyrolysis techniques and solution mining techniques for recovering oil and soluble aluminum compounds, respectively, from dawsonite-containing oil shale formations.
Other objects of this invention will be apparent from the following description.
SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION The present invention is directed to recovery of shale oil and soluble aluminum compounds such as dawsonite from underground dawsonite-containing oil shale formations by sequential treatment of such formations to effect pyrolysis of the organic matter, preferably by in situ combustion thereby recovering oil therefrom and subsequently subjecting the formation to solution mining to recover the dawsonite by means of aqueous solutions capable of dissolving the dawsonite and effecting above ground the separation of the dawsonite from the solution by any suitable means known to the art.
To effect and facilitate this recovery process of both oil and soluble aluminum compounds such as dawsonite, the formation containing these materials should be fragmented or rubblized, for example, by means Well known in the art, prior to treating or injecting sequentially into the resulting fracture-permeated zone of the formation a kerogen-pyrolyzing fluid and an aqueous solution capable of dissolving therein the soluble aluminum compounds such as dawsonite.
In order to accomplish the recovery of both the oil and dawsonite from dawsonite-containing oil shale formations most efficiently, it has been found that it is essential to control the pyrolyzing fluid temperature and/ or composition within specified limits so as to effect desired oil recovery while preventing the decomposition of the dawsonite or other soluble aluminum compounds into an insoluble oxide. To accomplish this the fracture-permeated zone of the oil shale formation is treated under controlled conditions by:
(1) Flowing into the recovery zone hot oil-shale pyrolyzing fluid having a pH of less than about 8 and a temperature above the formation temperature (and preferably above about 500 F.) through portions of a fracturepermeated oil shale that contains an aqueous fluid soluble aluminum compound, such as dawsonite, so that organic components of pyrolyzed oil shale are entrained and displaced by the oil-shale-pyrolyzed fluid;
(2) Flowing aqueous liquid into contact with oil shale from which organic components have been removed by said oil-shale-pyrolyzing fluid, so that aluminum-containing mineral components, such as dawsonite, are dissolved in the aqueous liquid; and
(3) Recovering oil and aluminum from fluids produced from the said fluid-contacted oil shale.
The oil-shale-pyrolyzing fluid can comprise the combustion products of substantially any type of in situ combustion in which the combustion-supporting fluid is sufliciently free of alkaline material to form non-alkaline combustion products, hot hydrocarbons such as benzene, volatile compounds of oil shale, steam or hot aqueous non-alkaline fluids, phenolic materials, mixtures of hydrocarbons with phenols, polyacids or the like, etc.
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWING The figure schematically drawn shows a rubblized or fragmented or fractured chimney formed area of an underground oil shale formation that contains inorganic soluble aluminum compounds, such as dawsonite, penetrated by wells through which, sequentially, (a) pyrolyzing fluids are injected to effect recovery of organic components such as oil and (b) aqueous liquids or solutions are injected to effect dissolution of the inorganic materials, such as dawsonite, and recovering both products from one or more production wells.
DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENT As shown in the drawing a dawsonite-containing oil shale 26 has been rubbelizing, fragmented or fractured to form a nuclear detonation cavern or chirrmey 27 which contains fragmented oil shale and which has been conditioned by gravel packing 20 to normalize permeability so as to effect efficient pyrolysis when injecting a pyrolysis fluid through tubing string 12 in well 11 which is within the chimney 27. Well 11 contains perforations 24 in addition to tubing string 12 which has been suspended therein, temperature-sensing devices 13 and packing 14. The pyrolyzing fluid injected via tubing string 12 enters the formation via perforations 24 and penetrates through the gravel pack 20, to establish a combustion front or zone 21. As the combustion front 21 proceeds downward under controlled conditions a pyrolyzing zone 25 is established from which oil can be recovered via well 15 which contains a tubing string 16 and pump 17. At a desired time combustion and oil recovery are stopped and an aqueous liquid is injected into the formation 22 via well 15 and/ or 1 8 in an amount suflicient to form a liquid filled zone 22 so as to dissolve dawsonite and recover it as a solution via tubing string 19 and/or 16. Solidified impermeable material is shown by numeral 23. The process of establishing a combustion zone by injection of a pyrolysis fluid and subsequently injecting an aqueous liquid to dissolve dawsonite and recovering both products is repeated in cycles until the area is worked over and depleted of these materials.
In order to obtain a relatively rapid rate of operation the combustion zone or front 21 should be within a temperature range of about 800 F. to about 1000" F. and the pyrolyzing zone 25 should be between about 600 F. and about 950 F. Also, the aqueous liquid used to dissolve the inorganic mineral, namely dawsonite, can be an alkaline solution preferably having a pH of at least about 10.
The widely varying permeabilities of the fragmented and fractured oil shale that is formed, for example, within a nuclear detonation chimney, can be normalized by forming a permeability-normalizing layer by forming a gravel pack across the top of the fragmented oil shale as described in my copending patent application Ser. No. 768,666, filed Oct. 16, 1968 or by any other suitable means. Thus, to produce shale oil from. a subterranean oil shale by means of in situ combustion the zone from which the oil is to be recovered may be treated by exploding a relatively high energy explosive device within the oil shale formation thereby forming a fragmented zone having the configuration as shown in the figure with a void space at the top of the zone which is filled with a layer of granular material for permeability adjustment. The combustion front is initiated by injecting via tubing string 12 a pyrolyzable fluid such as air, oxygen or a mixture of oxygen-containing gas and an aqueous liquid near the upper end of the granular filled fragmented zone so as to advance a combustion front down the zone and as it advances downward producing oil shale pyrolysis products. Preferably, the oil shale is pyrolyzed by injecting a mixture of air and water above a permeability-normalizing layer in order to advance a combustion front down through the chimney.
It is important that the ratio of water to air and the flow rate and pressure of the oxygen-containing mixture be controlled to avoid overheating portions of oil shale that contain water soluble mineral components, such as dawsonite, before they are contacted with an alkaline aqueous liquid. When such minerals are overheated they tend to be converted to insoluble oxides. The dawsonitecontaining portions of oil shale can be heated in contact with liquid, with liquid having a pH below about 7 at substantially any oil shale pyrolysis so that most of the organic components are removed and the dawsonite is exposed to contact with an aqueous liquid in which it is soluble.
Various types of procedures and equipment are available for monitoring the location of the combustion front and the temperatures being generated. As shown in the figure, a borehole 11 is extended through the fragmented oil shale, plugged at a lower level 14, perforated at an upper level 24, and used to inject a combustion-supporting fluid or a tubing string 12 into the chimney and to convey measuring elements, such as temperature-sensing devices 13, into the zones of interest. Alternatively, the temperatures being generated can be controlled by other procedures, such as subjecting samples of the oil shale to various combustion conditions and using the conditions that are productive of the selected temperatures and rates of combustion front advance, etc.
When a zone of dawsonite-containing oil shale has been contacted by hot fluid for a time sufficient to remove a substantial portion of the organic material, the injection of such a fluid is temporarily interrupted and aqueous liquid is flowed into contact with the pyrolyzed oil shale. One way of doing this, which is shown in the figure, utilizes a series of wells 15 and 18 drilled so that substantially horizontal portions of wells traverse the chimney at different depths. In using such wells, the lower portions of the cavern can be kept filled with a relatively dense and low-cost liquid such as water as shown by 22. During the advancing of the combustion front, the boreholes extending into the lower regions can be closed and fluids inclusive of combustion products, petroleum, and aqueous solutions of minerals can be produced, preferably with the aid of a pump, from one or more upper Wells that traverse the chimney below the location of the combustion front.
When a dawsonite-containing zone has been pyrolyzed, the combustion-supporting fluid injection is interrupted and aqueous liquid is injected into the pyrolyzed oil shale. This fluid can be injected through either the production well 15 or through the injection well 18, during an interruption of the injection of combustion-supporting fluids. During the aqueous liquid injection, combustionsupporting fluids can be produced from the permeable zone to the extent desirable to prevent the overpressuring of the cavern. The aqueous liquid which is injected to dissolve minerals is preferably an alkaline solution having a pH of at least about 10 and includes sodium hydroxide, calcium oxide solutions, lime solutions etc. The resulting aqueous liquid solution of minerals (dawsonite) is produced from the production well and the injection of combustion fluid is reinitiated.
A preferred feature of the present invention resides in the discovery that the addition of saturated calcium hydroxide solution to a sodium hydroxide solution greatly increased the effectiveness of aqueous alkaline solutions for extracting aluminum from dawsonite bearing oil shales.
An equimolar solution of saturated calcium hydroxide and sodium hydroxide has been found will extract approximately 600% more dawsonite aluminum than a solution of sodium hydroxide of the same alkalinity. It has been found that the aluminum concentrations of eflluent alkaline solutions are initially quite high when sodium hydroxide solution is flowed through crushed oil shale but fell off rapidly with increased flow and time. Conversely, the aluminum concentration of the calcium hydroxide-sodium hydroxide solution is quite small initially but continually increases with time. The pH of these eflluent solutions varied in the same manner as the aluminum concentration of the effluent; i.e., low aluminum concentrationlow pH. Since the idealized chemical reaction is between the dawsonite and hydroxide ion, a process which maintains a high pH is more efficient.
Also, important in the recovery of dawsonite aluminum is the need for preheating the raw shale. Experiments have shown that without preheating aluminum extraction by aqueous alkaline solutions is virtually impossible. Furthermore, the amount of preheating is significant. Aluminum recovery from an oil shale preheated for 5 days was four times greater than that from the same shale preheated for 2 days.
In no instance should the heated shale be contacted with an aqueous phase at temperatures above 175 C. (350 F.). Above this temperature, an insoluble aluminum silicate, analcite, is rapidly formed and recovery of the aluminum is not possible.
Generally, the in-situ combustion can be reinitiated when the oxygen injection is resumed and the combustion-supporting fluid contacts the hot oil shale. The combustion can be reinitiated by known procedures and the combustion front advanced through the permeable zone from which the soluble minerals have been extracted so as to produce additional shale oil from this regiomand to preheat a region further downstream as well, from which the desired minerals can then be extracted as described above. The steps of the process are repeated in sequence until both the oil and the soluble minerals are essentially completely recovered.
When the location of the combustion front has approached the borehole of an upper production well, that well can be shut-in. When one or more upper wells is shutin, the combustion-drive and solution-mining operations are conducted through one or more lower wells.
The well patterns, oil-shale-pyrolyzing procedures, and solution-mining procedures can be varied widely. For example, in place of, or in addition to, using the permeabilty-normalizing barrier, a relatively uniform advance of the combustion front can be obtained by the process as described in copending patent application Ser. No. 689,- 181, filed Dec. 8, 1967, now Patent No. 3,448,807, and comprises advancing the combustion front by injecting a foamed mixture of air and water. One or more plural completion wells can be used for the injection and production wells. The oil shale can be pyrolyzed by injecting gas heated to oil-shale pyrolyzing temperatures at a surface location or a location other than the chimney, etc. Thus, the combustion front can be controlled at a temperature high enough to permit oxidation of the residual hydrocarbons within the formation at a relative high rate without generating excessive temperatures by injecting a quantity of water into the formation through the injection well cocurrently with the injection of the combustionsupporting gas. A surface-active foaming material is mixed with the gas and water so as to move the gas and water through the formation in the form of a foam. The foam keeps the water mixed with the gas and thus, even in reservoirs where segregation occurs due to the oil becoming thermally mobilized and settling below the incoming combustion-supporting gas upstream of the combustion front, keeps the combustion from attaining the high temperature of dry combustion that would be attained if the water and gas were not converted into foam.
The foregoing description of the invention is merely intended to be explanatory thereof. Various changes in the details of the described method may be made within the scope of the appended claims without departing from the spirit of the invention.
I claim as my invention:
1. In a method of producing shale oil and soluble aluminum compounds from subterranean soluble aluminumcontaining oil shale formation comprising the steps of:
creating a ru-bblized or fragmented oil shale in said formation cavity; flowing into the top of the rubblized cavity a combustion-supporting fluid, establishing a combustion front, and directing the flow of the established combustion front in a downward direction while controlled temperature conditions in said cavity to effect recovery of hydrocarbons and said oil-shale-pyrolyzing fluid without danaging the chemical standard composition of the soluble aluminum compound;
flowing an aqueous liquid into the pyrolyzed area from which the pyrolyzed fluid has been removed, in an mount sufiicient to dissolve the soluble aluminum compound; and
recovering the soluble aluminum compounds from the liquid.
2. The method of claim 1 wherein the aluminum compound is dawsonite.
3. The method of claim 2 wherein the fluid recovered by the combustion treatment is shale oil and the aqueous liquid used to dissolve the drawsonite is an aqueous a1- kaline liquid having a pH of at least about 10.
4. The method of claim 3 wherein the oil shale is pyrolyzed by injecting therein a mixture of air and water and maintaining the pyrolyzing zone between 600 F. and 950 F.
5. The method of claim 4 wherein the combustion mixure is maintained as a foamed mixture of air and water.
6. The method of claim 3 wherein the aqueous a1- kaline liquid is an aqueous solution containing a mixture 7 of alkali metal and alkaline earth metal hydroxides.
7. The method of claim 6 wherein the hydroxides are sodium and calcium hydroxides, respectively.
8. The method of claim 2 wherein the si-situ combustion for oil recovery and aqueous liquid dissolution of the dawsonite is sequentially repeated.
References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 2,780,449 2/1957 Fisher et a1. 166-259 2,954,218 9/1960 Dew et al 2995 X 3,001,775 9/1961 Allred 166259 X 3,322,194 5/1967 Strubhar 166-259 3,404,919 10/1968 Dixon 166-247 CHARLES E. OCONNELL, Primary Examiner.
IAN A. CALVERT, Assistant Examiner US. Cl. X.R.
|Cited Patent||Filing date||Publication date||Applicant||Title|
|US2780449 *||Dec 26, 1952||Feb 5, 1957||Sinclair Oil & Gas Co||Thermal process for in-situ decomposition of oil shale|
|US2954218 *||Dec 17, 1956||Sep 27, 1960||Continental Oil Co||In situ roasting and leaching of uranium ores|
|US3001775 *||Dec 8, 1958||Sep 26, 1961||Ohio Oil Company||Vertical flow process for in situ retorting of oil shale|
|US3322194 *||Mar 25, 1965||May 30, 1967||Mobil Oil Corp||In-place retorting of oil shale|
|US3404919 *||May 4, 1966||Oct 8, 1968||Nuclear Proc Corp||Method of creating large diameter boreholes using underground nuclear detonations|
|Citing Patent||Filing date||Publication date||Applicant||Title|
|US3572838 *||Jul 7, 1969||Mar 30, 1971||Shell Oil Co||Recovery of aluminum compounds and oil from oil shale formations|
|US3620301 *||Apr 13, 1970||Nov 16, 1971||Mobil Oil Corp||Method of in-situ-retorting oil shale|
|US3661423 *||Feb 12, 1970||May 9, 1972||Occidental Petroleum Corp||In situ process for recovery of carbonaceous materials from subterranean deposits|
|US3700280 *||Apr 28, 1971||Oct 24, 1972||Shell Oil Co||Method of producing oil from an oil shale formation containing nahcolite and dawsonite|
|US3753594 *||Sep 24, 1970||Aug 21, 1973||Shell Oil Co||Method of producing hydrocarbons from an oil shale formation containing halite|
|US3759574 *||Sep 24, 1970||Sep 18, 1973||Shell Oil Co||Method of producing hydrocarbons from an oil shale formation|
|US3765722 *||Aug 2, 1971||Oct 16, 1973||Continental Oil Co||Method for recovering petroleum products or the like from subterranean mineral deposits|
|US3779601 *||Sep 24, 1970||Dec 18, 1973||Shell Oil Co||Method of producing hydrocarbons from an oil shale formation containing nahcolite|
|US4059308 *||Nov 15, 1976||Nov 22, 1977||Trw Inc.||Pressure swing recovery system for oil shale deposits|
|US4065183 *||Nov 15, 1976||Dec 27, 1977||Trw Inc.||Recovery system for oil shale deposits|
|US4072191 *||Sep 21, 1976||Feb 7, 1978||Phillips Petroleum Company||Fire floor process|
|US4083604 *||Nov 15, 1976||Apr 11, 1978||Trw Inc.||Thermomechanical fracture for recovery system in oil shale deposits|
|US4113313 *||May 16, 1977||Sep 12, 1978||In Situ Technology, Inc.||Recovering uranium from coal in situ|
|US4120355 *||Aug 30, 1977||Oct 17, 1978||Standard Oil Company (Indiana)||Method for providing fluid communication for in situ shale retort|
|US4171146 *||Jan 23, 1978||Oct 16, 1979||Occidental Research Corporation||Recovery of shale oil and magnesia from oil shale|
|US4178039 *||Jan 30, 1978||Dec 11, 1979||Occidental Oil Shale, Inc.||Water treatment and heating in spent shale oil retort|
|US4886118 *||Feb 17, 1988||Dec 12, 1989||Shell Oil Company||Conductively heating a subterranean oil shale to create permeability and subsequently produce oil|
|US6997518 *||Apr 24, 2002||Feb 14, 2006||Shell Oil Company||In situ thermal processing and solution mining of an oil shale formation|
|US7040397||Apr 24, 2002||May 9, 2006||Shell Oil Company||Thermal processing of an oil shale formation to increase permeability of the formation|
|US7077198 *||Oct 24, 2002||Jul 18, 2006||Shell Oil Company||In situ recovery from a hydrocarbon containing formation using barriers|
|US7493952 *||Feb 27, 2006||Feb 24, 2009||Archon Technologies Ltd.||Oilfield enhanced in situ combustion process|
|US7493953 *||Mar 13, 2008||Feb 24, 2009||Archon Technologies Lcd.||Oilfield enhanced in situ combustion process|
|US7549470 *||Oct 20, 2006||Jun 23, 2009||Shell Oil Company||Solution mining and heating by oxidation for treating hydrocarbon containing formations|
|US7644765||Oct 19, 2007||Jan 12, 2010||Shell Oil Company||Heating tar sands formations while controlling pressure|
|US7644993||Mar 22, 2007||Jan 12, 2010||Exxonmobil Upstream Research Company||In situ co-development of oil shale with mineral recovery|
|US7673681||Oct 19, 2007||Mar 9, 2010||Shell Oil Company||Treating tar sands formations with karsted zones|
|US7673786||Apr 20, 2007||Mar 9, 2010||Shell Oil Company||Welding shield for coupling heaters|
|US7677310||Oct 19, 2007||Mar 16, 2010||Shell Oil Company||Creating and maintaining a gas cap in tar sands formations|
|US7677314||Oct 19, 2007||Mar 16, 2010||Shell Oil Company||Method of condensing vaporized water in situ to treat tar sands formations|
|US7681647||Oct 19, 2007||Mar 23, 2010||Shell Oil Company||Method of producing drive fluid in situ in tar sands formations|
|US7683296||Apr 20, 2007||Mar 23, 2010||Shell Oil Company||Adjusting alloy compositions for selected properties in temperature limited heaters|
|US7703513||Oct 19, 2007||Apr 27, 2010||Shell Oil Company||Wax barrier for use with in situ processes for treating formations|
|US7717171||Oct 19, 2007||May 18, 2010||Shell Oil Company||Moving hydrocarbons through portions of tar sands formations with a fluid|
|US7730945||Oct 19, 2007||Jun 8, 2010||Shell Oil Company||Using geothermal energy to heat a portion of a formation for an in situ heat treatment process|
|US7730946||Oct 19, 2007||Jun 8, 2010||Shell Oil Company||Treating tar sands formations with dolomite|
|US7730947||Oct 19, 2007||Jun 8, 2010||Shell Oil Company||Creating fluid injectivity in tar sands formations|
|US7735935 *||Jun 1, 2007||Jun 15, 2010||Shell Oil Company||In situ thermal processing of an oil shale formation containing carbonate minerals|
|US7785427||Apr 20, 2007||Aug 31, 2010||Shell Oil Company||High strength alloys|
|US7798220||Apr 18, 2008||Sep 21, 2010||Shell Oil Company||In situ heat treatment of a tar sands formation after drive process treatment|
|US7798221||May 31, 2007||Sep 21, 2010||Shell Oil Company||In situ recovery from a hydrocarbon containing formation|
|US7831134||Apr 21, 2006||Nov 9, 2010||Shell Oil Company||Grouped exposed metal heaters|
|US7832484||Apr 18, 2008||Nov 16, 2010||Shell Oil Company||Molten salt as a heat transfer fluid for heating a subsurface formation|
|US7841401||Oct 19, 2007||Nov 30, 2010||Shell Oil Company||Gas injection to inhibit migration during an in situ heat treatment process|
|US7841408||Apr 18, 2008||Nov 30, 2010||Shell Oil Company||In situ heat treatment from multiple layers of a tar sands formation|
|US7841425||Apr 18, 2008||Nov 30, 2010||Shell Oil Company||Drilling subsurface wellbores with cutting structures|
|US7845411||Oct 19, 2007||Dec 7, 2010||Shell Oil Company||In situ heat treatment process utilizing a closed loop heating system|
|US7849922||Apr 18, 2008||Dec 14, 2010||Shell Oil Company||In situ recovery from residually heated sections in a hydrocarbon containing formation|
|US7860377||Apr 21, 2006||Dec 28, 2010||Shell Oil Company||Subsurface connection methods for subsurface heaters|
|US7866385||Apr 20, 2007||Jan 11, 2011||Shell Oil Company||Power systems utilizing the heat of produced formation fluid|
|US7866386||Oct 13, 2008||Jan 11, 2011||Shell Oil Company||In situ oxidation of subsurface formations|
|US7866388||Oct 13, 2008||Jan 11, 2011||Shell Oil Company||High temperature methods for forming oxidizer fuel|
|US7912358||Apr 20, 2007||Mar 22, 2011||Shell Oil Company||Alternate energy source usage for in situ heat treatment processes|
|US7931086||Apr 18, 2008||Apr 26, 2011||Shell Oil Company||Heating systems for heating subsurface formations|
|US7942197||Apr 21, 2006||May 17, 2011||Shell Oil Company||Methods and systems for producing fluid from an in situ conversion process|
|US7942203||Jan 4, 2010||May 17, 2011||Shell Oil Company||Thermal processes for subsurface formations|
|US7950453||Apr 18, 2008||May 31, 2011||Shell Oil Company||Downhole burner systems and methods for heating subsurface formations|
|US7984759 *||Feb 27, 2007||Jul 26, 2011||Archon Technologies Ltd.||Diluent-enhanced in-situ combustion hydrocarbon recovery process|
|US7986869||Apr 21, 2006||Jul 26, 2011||Shell Oil Company||Varying properties along lengths of temperature limited heaters|
|US8011451||Oct 13, 2008||Sep 6, 2011||Shell Oil Company||Ranging methods for developing wellbores in subsurface formations|
|US8027571||Apr 21, 2006||Sep 27, 2011||Shell Oil Company||In situ conversion process systems utilizing wellbores in at least two regions of a formation|
|US8042610||Apr 18, 2008||Oct 25, 2011||Shell Oil Company||Parallel heater system for subsurface formations|
|US8070840||Apr 21, 2006||Dec 6, 2011||Shell Oil Company||Treatment of gas from an in situ conversion process|
|US8082995||Nov 14, 2008||Dec 27, 2011||Exxonmobil Upstream Research Company||Optimization of untreated oil shale geometry to control subsidence|
|US8083813||Apr 20, 2007||Dec 27, 2011||Shell Oil Company||Methods of producing transportation fuel|
|US8087460||Mar 7, 2008||Jan 3, 2012||Exxonmobil Upstream Research Company||Granular electrical connections for in situ formation heating|
|US8104537||Dec 15, 2009||Jan 31, 2012||Exxonmobil Upstream Research Company||Method of developing subsurface freeze zone|
|US8113272||Oct 13, 2008||Feb 14, 2012||Shell Oil Company||Three-phase heaters with common overburden sections for heating subsurface formations|
|US8118096||Jun 28, 2011||Feb 21, 2012||Archon Technologies Ltd.||Diluent-enhanced in-situ combustion hydrocarbon recovery process|
|US8122955||Apr 18, 2008||Feb 28, 2012||Exxonmobil Upstream Research Company||Downhole burners for in situ conversion of organic-rich rock formations|
|US8146661||Oct 13, 2008||Apr 3, 2012||Shell Oil Company||Cryogenic treatment of gas|
|US8146664||May 21, 2008||Apr 3, 2012||Exxonmobil Upstream Research Company||Utilization of low BTU gas generated during in situ heating of organic-rich rock|
|US8146669||Oct 13, 2008||Apr 3, 2012||Shell Oil Company||Multi-step heater deployment in a subsurface formation|
|US8151877||Apr 18, 2008||Apr 10, 2012||Exxonmobil Upstream Research Company||Downhole burner wells for in situ conversion of organic-rich rock formations|
|US8151880||Dec 9, 2010||Apr 10, 2012||Shell Oil Company||Methods of making transportation fuel|
|US8151884||Oct 10, 2007||Apr 10, 2012||Exxonmobil Upstream Research Company||Combined development of oil shale by in situ heating with a deeper hydrocarbon resource|
|US8151907||Apr 10, 2009||Apr 10, 2012||Shell Oil Company||Dual motor systems and non-rotating sensors for use in developing wellbores in subsurface formations|
|US8162059||Oct 13, 2008||Apr 24, 2012||Shell Oil Company||Induction heaters used to heat subsurface formations|
|US8162405||Apr 10, 2009||Apr 24, 2012||Shell Oil Company||Using tunnels for treating subsurface hydrocarbon containing formations|
|US8172335||Apr 10, 2009||May 8, 2012||Shell Oil Company||Electrical current flow between tunnels for use in heating subsurface hydrocarbon containing formations|
|US8177305||Apr 10, 2009||May 15, 2012||Shell Oil Company||Heater connections in mines and tunnels for use in treating subsurface hydrocarbon containing formations|
|US8191630||Apr 28, 2010||Jun 5, 2012||Shell Oil Company||Creating fluid injectivity in tar sands formations|
|US8192682||Apr 26, 2010||Jun 5, 2012||Shell Oil Company||High strength alloys|
|US8196658||Oct 13, 2008||Jun 12, 2012||Shell Oil Company||Irregular spacing of heat sources for treating hydrocarbon containing formations|
|US8200072||Oct 24, 2003||Jun 12, 2012||Shell Oil Company||Temperature limited heaters for heating subsurface formations or wellbores|
|US8220539||Oct 9, 2009||Jul 17, 2012||Shell Oil Company||Controlling hydrogen pressure in self-regulating nuclear reactors used to treat a subsurface formation|
|US8224163||Oct 24, 2003||Jul 17, 2012||Shell Oil Company||Variable frequency temperature limited heaters|
|US8224164||Oct 24, 2003||Jul 17, 2012||Shell Oil Company||Insulated conductor temperature limited heaters|
|US8224165||Apr 21, 2006||Jul 17, 2012||Shell Oil Company||Temperature limited heater utilizing non-ferromagnetic conductor|
|US8225866||Jul 21, 2010||Jul 24, 2012||Shell Oil Company||In situ recovery from a hydrocarbon containing formation|
|US8230927||May 16, 2011||Jul 31, 2012||Shell Oil Company||Methods and systems for producing fluid from an in situ conversion process|
|US8230929||Mar 17, 2009||Jul 31, 2012||Exxonmobil Upstream Research Company||Methods of producing hydrocarbons for substantially constant composition gas generation|
|US8233782||Sep 29, 2010||Jul 31, 2012||Shell Oil Company||Grouped exposed metal heaters|
|US8238730||Oct 24, 2003||Aug 7, 2012||Shell Oil Company||High voltage temperature limited heaters|
|US8240774||Oct 13, 2008||Aug 14, 2012||Shell Oil Company||Solution mining and in situ treatment of nahcolite beds|
|US8256512||Oct 9, 2009||Sep 4, 2012||Shell Oil Company||Movable heaters for treating subsurface hydrocarbon containing formations|
|US8261832||Oct 9, 2009||Sep 11, 2012||Shell Oil Company||Heating subsurface formations with fluids|
|US8267170||Oct 9, 2009||Sep 18, 2012||Shell Oil Company||Offset barrier wells in subsurface formations|
|US8267185||Oct 9, 2009||Sep 18, 2012||Shell Oil Company||Circulated heated transfer fluid systems used to treat a subsurface formation|
|US8272455||Oct 13, 2008||Sep 25, 2012||Shell Oil Company||Methods for forming wellbores in heated formations|
|US8276661||Oct 13, 2008||Oct 2, 2012||Shell Oil Company||Heating subsurface formations by oxidizing fuel on a fuel carrier|
|US8281861||Oct 9, 2009||Oct 9, 2012||Shell Oil Company||Circulated heated transfer fluid heating of subsurface hydrocarbon formations|
|US8327681||Apr 18, 2008||Dec 11, 2012||Shell Oil Company||Wellbore manufacturing processes for in situ heat treatment processes|
|US8327932||Apr 9, 2010||Dec 11, 2012||Shell Oil Company||Recovering energy from a subsurface formation|
|US8353347||Oct 9, 2009||Jan 15, 2013||Shell Oil Company||Deployment of insulated conductors for treating subsurface formations|
|US8355623||Apr 22, 2005||Jan 15, 2013||Shell Oil Company||Temperature limited heaters with high power factors|
|US8381815||Apr 18, 2008||Feb 26, 2013||Shell Oil Company||Production from multiple zones of a tar sands formation|
|US8434555||Apr 9, 2010||May 7, 2013||Shell Oil Company||Irregular pattern treatment of a subsurface formation|
|US8448707||Apr 9, 2010||May 28, 2013||Shell Oil Company||Non-conducting heater casings|
|US8459359||Apr 18, 2008||Jun 11, 2013||Shell Oil Company||Treating nahcolite containing formations and saline zones|
|US8485252||Jul 11, 2012||Jul 16, 2013||Shell Oil Company||In situ recovery from a hydrocarbon containing formation|
|US8536497||Oct 13, 2008||Sep 17, 2013||Shell Oil Company||Methods for forming long subsurface heaters|
|US8540020||Apr 21, 2010||Sep 24, 2013||Exxonmobil Upstream Research Company||Converting organic matter from a subterranean formation into producible hydrocarbons by controlling production operations based on availability of one or more production resources|
|US8555971||May 31, 2012||Oct 15, 2013||Shell Oil Company||Treating tar sands formations with dolomite|
|US8562078||Nov 25, 2009||Oct 22, 2013||Shell Oil Company||Hydrocarbon production from mines and tunnels used in treating subsurface hydrocarbon containing formations|
|US8579031||May 17, 2011||Nov 12, 2013||Shell Oil Company||Thermal processes for subsurface formations|
|US8596355||Dec 10, 2010||Dec 3, 2013||Exxonmobil Upstream Research Company||Optimized well spacing for in situ shale oil development|
|US8606091||Oct 20, 2006||Dec 10, 2013||Shell Oil Company||Subsurface heaters with low sulfidation rates|
|US8608249||Apr 26, 2010||Dec 17, 2013||Shell Oil Company||In situ thermal processing of an oil shale formation|
|US8616279||Jan 7, 2010||Dec 31, 2013||Exxonmobil Upstream Research Company||Water treatment following shale oil production by in situ heating|
|US8616280||Jun 17, 2011||Dec 31, 2013||Exxonmobil Upstream Research Company||Wellbore mechanical integrity for in situ pyrolysis|
|US8622127||Jun 17, 2011||Jan 7, 2014||Exxonmobil Upstream Research Company||Olefin reduction for in situ pyrolysis oil generation|
|US8622133||Mar 7, 2008||Jan 7, 2014||Exxonmobil Upstream Research Company||Resistive heater for in situ formation heating|
|US8627887||Dec 8, 2008||Jan 14, 2014||Shell Oil Company||In situ recovery from a hydrocarbon containing formation|
|US8631866||Apr 8, 2011||Jan 21, 2014||Shell Oil Company||Leak detection in circulated fluid systems for heating subsurface formations|
|US8636323||Nov 25, 2009||Jan 28, 2014||Shell Oil Company||Mines and tunnels for use in treating subsurface hydrocarbon containing formations|
|US8641150||Dec 11, 2009||Feb 4, 2014||Exxonmobil Upstream Research Company||In situ co-development of oil shale with mineral recovery|
|US8662175||Apr 18, 2008||Mar 4, 2014||Shell Oil Company||Varying properties of in situ heat treatment of a tar sands formation based on assessed viscosities|
|US8701768||Apr 8, 2011||Apr 22, 2014||Shell Oil Company||Methods for treating hydrocarbon formations|
|US8701769||Apr 8, 2011||Apr 22, 2014||Shell Oil Company||Methods for treating hydrocarbon formations based on geology|
|US8701788||Dec 22, 2011||Apr 22, 2014||Chevron U.S.A. Inc.||Preconditioning a subsurface shale formation by removing extractible organics|
|US8739874||Apr 8, 2011||Jun 3, 2014||Shell Oil Company||Methods for heating with slots in hydrocarbon formations|
|US8752904||Apr 10, 2009||Jun 17, 2014||Shell Oil Company||Heated fluid flow in mines and tunnels used in heating subsurface hydrocarbon containing formations|
|US8770284||Apr 19, 2013||Jul 8, 2014||Exxonmobil Upstream Research Company||Systems and methods of detecting an intersection between a wellbore and a subterranean structure that includes a marker material|
|US8789586||Jul 12, 2013||Jul 29, 2014||Shell Oil Company||In situ recovery from a hydrocarbon containing formation|
|US8791396||Apr 18, 2008||Jul 29, 2014||Shell Oil Company||Floating insulated conductors for heating subsurface formations|
|US8820406||Apr 8, 2011||Sep 2, 2014||Shell Oil Company||Electrodes for electrical current flow heating of subsurface formations with conductive material in wellbore|
|US8833453||Apr 8, 2011||Sep 16, 2014||Shell Oil Company||Electrodes for electrical current flow heating of subsurface formations with tapered copper thickness|
|US8839860||Dec 22, 2011||Sep 23, 2014||Chevron U.S.A. Inc.||In-situ Kerogen conversion and product isolation|
|US8851170||Apr 9, 2010||Oct 7, 2014||Shell Oil Company||Heater assisted fluid treatment of a subsurface formation|
|US8851177||Dec 22, 2011||Oct 7, 2014||Chevron U.S.A. Inc.||In-situ kerogen conversion and oxidant regeneration|
|US8857506||May 24, 2013||Oct 14, 2014||Shell Oil Company||Alternate energy source usage methods for in situ heat treatment processes|
|US8863839||Nov 15, 2010||Oct 21, 2014||Exxonmobil Upstream Research Company||Enhanced convection for in situ pyrolysis of organic-rich rock formations|
|US8875789||Aug 8, 2011||Nov 4, 2014||Exxonmobil Upstream Research Company||Process for producing hydrocarbon fluids combining in situ heating, a power plant and a gas plant|
|US8881806||Oct 9, 2009||Nov 11, 2014||Shell Oil Company||Systems and methods for treating a subsurface formation with electrical conductors|
|US8936089||Dec 22, 2011||Jan 20, 2015||Chevron U.S.A. Inc.||In-situ kerogen conversion and recovery|
|US8992771||May 25, 2012||Mar 31, 2015||Chevron U.S.A. Inc.||Isolating lubricating oils from subsurface shale formations|
|US8997869||Dec 22, 2011||Apr 7, 2015||Chevron U.S.A. Inc.||In-situ kerogen conversion and product upgrading|
|US9016370||Apr 6, 2012||Apr 28, 2015||Shell Oil Company||Partial solution mining of hydrocarbon containing layers prior to in situ heat treatment|
|US9022109||Jan 21, 2014||May 5, 2015||Shell Oil Company||Leak detection in circulated fluid systems for heating subsurface formations|
|US9022118||Oct 9, 2009||May 5, 2015||Shell Oil Company||Double insulated heaters for treating subsurface formations|
|US9033033||Dec 22, 2011||May 19, 2015||Chevron U.S.A. Inc.||Electrokinetic enhanced hydrocarbon recovery from oil shale|
|US9033042||Apr 8, 2011||May 19, 2015||Shell Oil Company||Forming bitumen barriers in subsurface hydrocarbon formations|
|US9051829||Oct 9, 2009||Jun 9, 2015||Shell Oil Company||Perforated electrical conductors for treating subsurface formations|
|US9080441||Oct 26, 2012||Jul 14, 2015||Exxonmobil Upstream Research Company||Multiple electrical connections to optimize heating for in situ pyrolysis|
|US9127523||Apr 8, 2011||Sep 8, 2015||Shell Oil Company||Barrier methods for use in subsurface hydrocarbon formations|
|US9127538||Apr 8, 2011||Sep 8, 2015||Shell Oil Company||Methodologies for treatment of hydrocarbon formations using staged pyrolyzation|
|US9129728||Oct 9, 2009||Sep 8, 2015||Shell Oil Company||Systems and methods of forming subsurface wellbores|
|US9133398||Dec 22, 2011||Sep 15, 2015||Chevron U.S.A. Inc.||In-situ kerogen conversion and recycling|
|US9181467||Dec 22, 2011||Nov 10, 2015||Uchicago Argonne, Llc||Preparation and use of nano-catalysts for in-situ reaction with kerogen|
|US9181780||Apr 18, 2008||Nov 10, 2015||Shell Oil Company||Controlling and assessing pressure conditions during treatment of tar sands formations|
|US9309755||Oct 4, 2012||Apr 12, 2016||Shell Oil Company||Thermal expansion accommodation for circulated fluid systems used to heat subsurface formations|
|US9347302||Nov 12, 2013||May 24, 2016||Exxonmobil Upstream Research Company||Resistive heater for in situ formation heating|
|US9394772||Sep 17, 2014||Jul 19, 2016||Exxonmobil Upstream Research Company||Systems and methods for in situ resistive heating of organic matter in a subterranean formation|
|US9399905||May 4, 2015||Jul 26, 2016||Shell Oil Company||Leak detection in circulated fluid systems for heating subsurface formations|
|US9512699||Jul 30, 2014||Dec 6, 2016||Exxonmobil Upstream Research Company||Systems and methods for regulating an in situ pyrolysis process|
|US9528322||Jun 16, 2014||Dec 27, 2016||Shell Oil Company||Dual motor systems and non-rotating sensors for use in developing wellbores in subsurface formations|
|US9644466||Oct 15, 2015||May 9, 2017||Exxonmobil Upstream Research Company||Method of recovering hydrocarbons within a subsurface formation using electric current|
|US20020029885 *||Apr 24, 2001||Mar 14, 2002||De Rouffignac Eric Pierre||In situ thermal processing of a coal formation using a movable heating element|
|US20020033256 *||Apr 24, 2001||Mar 21, 2002||Wellington Scott Lee||In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation with a selected hydrogen to carbon ratio|
|US20020033257 *||Apr 24, 2001||Mar 21, 2002||Shahin Gordon Thomas||In situ thermal processing of hydrocarbons within a relatively impermeable formation|
|US20020034380 *||Apr 24, 2001||Mar 21, 2002||Maher Kevin Albert||In situ thermal processing of a coal formation with a selected moisture content|
|US20020038709 *||Apr 24, 2001||Apr 4, 2002||Wellington Scott Lee||In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation using a natural distributed combustor|
|US20020038710 *||Apr 24, 2001||Apr 4, 2002||Maher Kevin Albert||In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation having a selected total organic carbon content|
|US20020038711 *||Apr 24, 2001||Apr 4, 2002||Rouffignac Eric Pierre De||In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation using heat sources positioned within open wellbores|
|US20020043365 *||Apr 24, 2001||Apr 18, 2002||Berchenko Ilya Emil||In situ thermal processing of a coal formation with a selected ratio of heat sources to production wells|
|US20020043367 *||Apr 24, 2001||Apr 18, 2002||Rouffignac Eric Pierre De||In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation to increase a permeability of the formation|
|US20020046838 *||Apr 24, 2001||Apr 25, 2002||Karanikas John Michael||In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation with carbon dioxide sequestration|
|US20020053429 *||Apr 24, 2001||May 9, 2002||Stegemeier George Leo||In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation using pressure and/or temperature control|
|US20020053431 *||Apr 24, 2001||May 9, 2002||Wellington Scott Lee||In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation to produce a selected ratio of components in a gas|
|US20020053432 *||Apr 24, 2001||May 9, 2002||Berchenko Ilya Emil||In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation using repeating triangular patterns of heat sources|
|US20020056551 *||Apr 24, 2001||May 16, 2002||Wellington Scott Lee||In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation in a reducing environment|
|US20020057905 *||Apr 24, 2001||May 16, 2002||Wellington Scott Lee||In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation to produce oxygen containing formation fluids|
|US20020062051 *||Apr 24, 2001||May 23, 2002||Wellington Scott L.||In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation with a selected moisture content|
|US20020077515 *||Apr 24, 2001||Jun 20, 2002||Wellington Scott Lee||In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation to produce hydrocarbons having a selected carbon number range|
|US20020084074 *||Sep 24, 2001||Jul 4, 2002||De Rouffignac Eric Pierre||In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation to increase a porosity of the formation|
|US20020104654 *||Apr 24, 2001||Aug 8, 2002||Shell Oil Company||In situ thermal processing of a coal formation to convert a selected total organic carbon content into hydrocarbon products|
|US20030131994 *||Apr 24, 2002||Jul 17, 2003||Vinegar Harold J.||In situ thermal processing and solution mining of an oil shale formation|
|US20030164234 *||Apr 24, 2001||Sep 4, 2003||De Rouffignac Eric Pierre||In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation using a movable heating element|
|US20030192691 *||Oct 24, 2002||Oct 16, 2003||Vinegar Harold J.||In situ recovery from a hydrocarbon containing formation using barriers|
|US20030196801 *||Oct 24, 2002||Oct 23, 2003||Vinegar Harold J.||In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation via backproducing through a heater well|
|US20030213594 *||Jun 12, 2003||Nov 20, 2003||Shell Oil Company||In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation to produce a mixture with a selected hydrogen content|
|US20040108111 *||Apr 24, 2001||Jun 10, 2004||Vinegar Harold J.||In situ thermal processing of a coal formation to increase a permeability/porosity of the formation|
|US20040140096 *||Oct 24, 2003||Jul 22, 2004||Sandberg Chester Ledlie||Insulated conductor temperature limited heaters|
|US20040144541 *||Oct 24, 2003||Jul 29, 2004||Picha Mark Gregory||Forming wellbores using acoustic methods|
|US20040145969 *||Oct 24, 2003||Jul 29, 2004||Taixu Bai||Inhibiting wellbore deformation during in situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation|
|US20040177966 *||Oct 24, 2003||Sep 16, 2004||Vinegar Harold J.||Conductor-in-conduit temperature limited heaters|
|US20060207762 *||Feb 27, 2006||Sep 21, 2006||Conrad Ayasse||Oilfield enhanced in situ combustion process|
|US20070131415 *||Oct 20, 2006||Jun 14, 2007||Vinegar Harold J||Solution mining and heating by oxidation for treating hydrocarbon containing formations|
|US20070137857 *||Apr 21, 2006||Jun 21, 2007||Vinegar Harold J||Low temperature monitoring system for subsurface barriers|
|US20080017370 *||Oct 20, 2006||Jan 24, 2008||Vinegar Harold J||Temperature limited heater with a conduit substantially electrically isolated from the formation|
|US20080066907 *||Jun 7, 2005||Mar 20, 2008||Archon Technologies Ltd.||Oilfield Enhanced in Situ Combustion Process|
|US20080087427 *||Oct 10, 2007||Apr 17, 2008||Kaminsky Robert D||Combined development of oil shale by in situ heating with a deeper hydrocarbon resource|
|US20080169096 *||Mar 13, 2008||Jul 17, 2008||Conrad Ayasse||Oilfield enhanced in situ combustion process|
|US20080283241 *||Apr 18, 2008||Nov 20, 2008||Kaminsky Robert D||Downhole burner wells for in situ conversion of organic-rich rock formations|
|US20080289819 *||May 21, 2008||Nov 27, 2008||Kaminsky Robert D||Utilization of low BTU gas generated during in situ heating of organic-rich rock|
|US20080314593 *||Jun 1, 2007||Dec 25, 2008||Shell Oil Company||In situ thermal processing of an oil shale formation using a pattern of heat sources|
|US20090050319 *||Apr 18, 2008||Feb 26, 2009||Kaminsky Robert D||Downhole burners for in situ conversion of organic-rich rock formations|
|US20090145598 *||Nov 14, 2008||Jun 11, 2009||Symington William A||Optimization of untreated oil shale geometry to control subsidence|
|US20090194278 *||Feb 6, 2009||Aug 6, 2009||L'air Liquide Societe Anonyme Pour L'etude Et L'exploitation Des Procedes Georges Claude||Enhanced Oil Recovery In Oxygen Based In Situ Combustion Using Foaming Agents|
|US20090308606 *||Feb 27, 2007||Dec 17, 2009||Archon Technologies Ltd.||Diluent-Enhanced In-Situ Combustion Hydrocarbon Recovery Process|
|US20090308608 *||Mar 17, 2009||Dec 17, 2009||Kaminsky Robert D||Field Managment For Substantially Constant Composition Gas Generation|
|US20100089585 *||Dec 15, 2009||Apr 15, 2010||Kaminsky Robert D||Method of Developing Subsurface Freeze Zone|
|US20100181066 *||Jan 4, 2010||Jul 22, 2010||Shell Oil Company||Thermal processes for subsurface formations|
|US20100218946 *||Jan 7, 2010||Sep 2, 2010||Symington William A||Water Treatment Following Shale Oil Production By In Situ Heating|
|US20100282460 *||Apr 21, 2010||Nov 11, 2010||Stone Matthew T||Converting Organic Matter From A Subterranean Formation Into Producible Hydrocarbons By Controlling Production Operations Based On Availability Of One Or More Production Resources|
|US20100319909 *||Feb 25, 2010||Dec 23, 2010||Symington William A||Enhanced Shale Oil Production By In Situ Heating Using Hydraulically Fractured Producing Wells|
|US20110132600 *||Dec 10, 2010||Jun 9, 2011||Robert D Kaminsky||Optimized Well Spacing For In Situ Shale Oil Development|
|US20110146982 *||Nov 15, 2010||Jun 23, 2011||Kaminsky Robert D||Enhanced Convection For In Situ Pyrolysis of Organic-Rich Rock Formations|
|US20110170843 *||Sep 29, 2010||Jul 14, 2011||Shell Oil Company||Grouped exposed metal heaters|
|US20160251947 *||Feb 23, 2016||Sep 1, 2016||Schlumberger Technology Corporation||Methods of Modifying Formation Properties|
|CN1993534B||Jun 7, 2005||Oct 12, 2011||阿克恩科技有限公司||Oilfield enhanced in situ combustion process|
|CN103233713A *||Apr 28, 2013||Aug 7, 2013||吉林省众诚汽车服务连锁有限公司||Method and process for extracting shale oil gas through oil shale in situ horizontal well fracture chemical destructive distillation|
|CN103233713B||Apr 28, 2013||Feb 26, 2014||吉林省众诚汽车服务连锁有限公司||Method and process for extracting shale oil gas through oil shale in situ horizontal well fracture chemical destructive distillation|
|WO2003035801A2 *||Oct 24, 2002||May 1, 2003||Shell Oil Company||Producing hydrocarbons and non-hydrocarbon containing materials from a hydrocarbon containing formation|
|WO2003035801A3 *||Oct 24, 2002||Feb 17, 2005||Shell Oil Co||Producing hydrocarbons and non-hydrocarbon containing materials from a hydrocarbon containing formation|
|WO2007126676A2 *||Mar 22, 2007||Nov 8, 2007||Exxonmobil Upstream Research Company||In situ co-development of oil shale with mineral recovery|
|WO2007126676A3 *||Mar 22, 2007||Feb 21, 2008||Exxonmobil Upstream Res Co||In situ co-development of oil shale with mineral recovery|
|U.S. Classification||299/5, 166/247, 166/261|
|International Classification||E21B43/243, E21B43/28, E21B43/00, E21B43/16|
|Cooperative Classification||E21B43/28, E21B43/243|
|European Classification||E21B43/28, E21B43/243|