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Publication numberUS3505739 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateApr 14, 1970
Filing dateDec 22, 1967
Priority dateDec 22, 1967
Publication numberUS 3505739 A, US 3505739A, US-A-3505739, US3505739 A, US3505739A
InventorsAbrams William C
Original AssigneeEveready Electric Co, Abrams William C
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Apparatus for transferring floor to ceiling markings
US 3505739 A
Abstract  available in
Previous page
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

April 14, 1970 w. c. ABRAMS 3,505,739

APPARATUS FOR TRANSFERRING FLOOR TO CEILING MARKINGS Filed Dec. 22, 1967 3 Sheets-Sheet 1 INVENTOR WILLIAM C. ABRAMS PATENT ATTORNEY April 14, 1970 w. c. ABRAMS APPARATUS FOR TRANSFERRING FLOOR TO CEILING MARKINGS Filed Dec. 22, 1967 3 Sheets-Sheet 5 INVENTOR. WILLIAM C. ABRAMS PATENT ATTORNEY United States Patent 3,505,739 APPARATUS FOR TRANSFERRING FLOOR T0 CEILING MARKINGS William C. Abrams, Eveready Electric Company, 1624 Folsom St., San Mateo, Calif. 94103 Filed Dec. 22, 1967, Ser. No. 692,762 Int. Cl. Gtllc ]/00 US. Cl. 3346 3 Claims ABSTRACT OF THE DISCLOSURE Apparatus for use by electricians, heating, air-conditioning and ventilating contractors and the like is provided in order to transfer location markings interpolated from blueprints to actual markings on the floor of the building to the ceiling as disclosed. A tube is supported from the floor in such manner that the tube is vertically aligned and its vertical axis is accurately located in line with a floor marking. One means to transfer the floor marking to the ceiling is by light transmission. A bulb is supported in the tube and light emitted therefrom is focused on the ceiling. Light from the bulb passes through a crosshair located centrally of the axis of the tube and such crOsshair is projected onto the ceiling. The workman marks on the ceiling the location of the crosshair which is in vertical alignment with the floor marking. Illumination of the bulb may be from a conventional electrical outlet, from a flashlight battery, or by a blinker circuit. Alternatively, a compressed air gun may be located in the tube and a pellet containing a dye propelled from the gun onto the ceiling where it leaves a mark.

This invention relates to a new and improved apparatus for transferring markings from a floor to a ceiling location. In building construction and repair, it is frequently necessary to mark a spot on a ceiling in accordance With an architects plans for the specific location of an electrical outlet, lighting fixture, heating, ventilating or air-conditioning duct, or the like.

Conventionally, workmen lay out the location of such markings on the floor. Transmission of the marking to the ceiling is a labor-consuming job usually requiring two men and the accuracy of the location is difficult to obtain, particularly when a strong wind is blowing, which interferes with the accuracy of the plumb bob conveniently employed for such purpose. Accordingly, it is a principal object of the present invention to reduce the time and labor required to transmit markings from the one location to the other, and also to improve the accuracy of such transmission.

Another object of the invention is to provide a lightweight, readily portable, inexpensive tool which may be used for the purpose stated. Operation of the tool is simple and does not require special training or skill.

A still further feature of the invention is the provision of a tool which is relatively fool-proof and not readily subject to damage or misalignment.

Other objects of the present invention will become apparent upon reading the following specification and referring to the accompanying drawings in which similar characters of reference represent corresponding parts in each of the several views.

In the drawings:

FIG. 1 is a perspective view of one modification of the present invention showing the tool used to transmit a marking from the floor to the ceiling.

FIG. 2 is an enlarged top plan of the structure of FIG. 1.

FIG. 3 is an enlarged vertical sectional view through a portion of the tube.

FIG. 4 is a view similar to FIG. 3 showing a modification.


FIG. 5 is a view similar to FIG. 3 of still another modification.

FIG. 6 is a schematic circuit diagram of the modification of FIG. 5.

FIG. 7 is a perspective view of a still further modificati on of the invention.

FIG. 8 is a vertical sectional view of still another modification employing an air gun.

FIG. 9 is an enlarged fragmentary vertical sectional View through the gun of FIG. 8, said view being partially schematic.

As best shown in FIG. 1, a marking 11 has. been laid out on the fioor in accordance with a plan, and the purpose of the use of the tool here described is to transmit said marking 11 to a spot 12 on the ceiling which is accurately vertically above mark 11. In the form of the invention shown in FIGS. 1-3, a tube 13 has a sleeve 14 on the lower end accurately aligned with the central axis of the tube. Sliding in sleeve 14 is rod 16 carrying on its lower end a plumb bob 17 which is, in use of the instrument, accurately located above the mark 11. Tube 13 is supported in vertical alignment by a stand 21 here shown to have a horizontal ring 22 supported above the floor by a plurality of legs 23, here shown to be three in number. Within ring 22 is a gimbal arrangement consisting of an inner ring 24 supported from ring 22 by horizontal rods 26. Accurate, substantially friction-proof bearings (not shown) support ring 24 on rod 26. At right angles to rods 26 are second rods 27, the inner ends of which are attached to tube 13 and the outer ends of which are journalled in accurate bearings (not shown) in ring 24. The weight of plumb bob 17 maintains tube 13 in vertical position because of the gimbal-like support and regardless of the evenness of the floor or the accuracy of the length of legs 23. Accordingly, it is assumed that the central axis of tube 13 is vertical and directly in line with marking 11.

The electrical and optical arrangement of the modification of FIGS. 1-3 is best shown in FIG. 3. A source of electric current, such as household current, is plugged into lead wires 31 which run up one of the legs 23 and are aifixed at the top by a clamp 32 leaving a loop 33 of highly flexible wire extending up into tube 13. Thus, the weight and stiffness of the lead wire does not tend to force tube 13 out of vertical alignment. It will further be noted that the point 34 at which the lead wires enter the tube 13 1s at the level of the gimbal mounting or close thereto. The flexible wires 33 terminate inside tube 13 in a terminal box 36. The switch 37 may be located remote from support 21 so that turning the switch on and off does not alfect the accuracy of alignment of tube 13. Within tube 13 is a bulb 35, the socket 38 of which is connected to terminal 36 by wires 39. Below bulb 35 is a parabolic reflector 41 which reflects the light of bulb 35 upward. A condenser lens 42 directs the rays of light in a straight line. Since the heights of ceilings vary, a focusing tube 43 may be used, telescoping within tube 13. A rack 44 is formed on the exterior of tube 43 engaged by a pinion 46 supported on tube 13 by bracket 47. By turning pinion 46, the tube 43 may be moved in and out relative to tube 13. A focusing lens 48 is installed in the upper end of tube 43. In the bottom of tube 43 is a slide 49 to which is fixed a crosshair 51. Other means may be used to locate the crosshair or other indicia. The effect of lenses 42 and 48 as adjusted by pinion 46 is to focus the image of the crosshair 51 on the ceiling to display mark 12.

In use, the plumb bob 17 is centered relative to mark 11, switch 37 turned on, and pinion 46 moved until the spot 12 is accurately focused on the ceiling. Since the tube 13 is in accurate vertical position, the mark 12 is accurately located in vertical alignment with mark 11. The workman 3 then mounts a ladder and marks the image 12 on the ceiling.

FIG. 4 shows a construction similar to FIGS. 1-3 except that a battery 56 is installed in the bottom of tube 13a, the battery being changed by removal of a plug 57 in the bottom of the tube to which sleeve 14a is attached. Switch 37a is installed on tube 13a, or remote therefrom. In other respects, the construction of FIG. 1 is similar to that previously described and the same reference numerals followed by the subscript a are used to designate corresponding parts.

FIG. is similar in construction to FIG. 4 except that the light 35b flashes intermittently. The electrical circuit for the flasher is shown in FIG. 6, it being understood that such circuit is one of many which may be employed and is of a type used commercially in highway flasher warning lamps.

Specification of components of the circuit of FIG. 6 is as follows:

The other parts correspond to the previous modifications and the same parts are indicated by the same re erence numerals followed by the subscript b.

FIG. 7 illustrates an alternative means for holding the tube 130 in vertical alignment. A base plate 61 is formed with a central aperture 62 through which the marking 11b may be observed. A pair of bubble sights 63 is mounted on plate 61 at right angles to each other. At the corners of plate 61 are three or more adjustable legs 64 threaded into tapped holes in plate 61. By adjustment of leg screws 64, the bubbles 63 may be brought into the centers of their respective mountings indicating that plate 61 is horizontal. Fixed to plate 61 are legs 66 which are in turn fixed at their opposite ends to tube 130. The illumination of the apparatus may be in accordance with any of the means previously described in FIGS. 1-5, inclusive, or other means. Focussing of the light is accomplished in a similar manner and corresponding parts are indicated by the same reference numerals followed by the subscript c. As a means of locating the central axis of tube 130 over mark 110, a pointer 67 which may be a steel rod or the like is fixed to the bottom of tube 13c directly below its axis. The lower end of rod 67 is aligned with mark 110.

FIGS. 8 and 9 show an alternate means for transmissing the marking to the ceiling. Tube 130! is accurately held in vertical position by the means shown in FIG. 1 or, alternatively, by the means shown in FIG. 7. The same reference numerals followed by the subscript d are used to designate corresponding parts. The propelling means is by a compressed air or compressed carbon dioxide capsule 71 contained in a chamber 72 in tube 13a. An abutment 73 limits inward movement of the capsule. The cap 74 on the bottom of tube 13d to which eye 14d is attached has a pin 76 on its interior which penetrates the lower end of capsule 71 allowing the compressed gas to fill chamber 72. An elongated bore 77 is formed in the upper end of tube 13d, and said bore may be rifled if desired. The lower end 78 of bore 77 is of constricted diameter to provide a shoulder 79 against which a felt or other suitably fabricated ball 81 may be forced as by a ramrod (not shown). Preferably ball 81 is impregnated with a dye. A trigger arrangement is shown more or less schematically in FIG. 9, it being understood that such trigger arrangement is subject to wide modification and may resemble that of compressed air B-B gun. In the simple system shown, a trigger lever 82 is pivoted by pin 83 to bracket '84 attached to tube 13d. A flexible cable 86 is connected to lever 87 on lever 82. By pushing the plunger 88 at the opposite end of flexible cable 86, the lever 82 may be pivoted from the solid line position shownin FIG. 9 to the dotted line position. Connected to the lower end of lever 82 is a slide 91 which, when in the position shown in solid lines in FIG. 9, closes off communication between chamber 72 and restricted diameter bore 78. Connected to the upper end of lever 82 is a second slide 92 which closes off the bore 77 immediately above pellet 81. Slides 91 and 92 reciprocate in tube 13d in suitable transverse slots. Pellet 81 is loaded into bore 77 from the top when the slides 91, 92 are in the position shown in FIG. 9. Thereupon, the plunger 88 is pressed, closing the slide 92 and opening the slide 92 so that the bore 78 behind pellet 81 is pressurized from the capsule 71. When the plunger 88 is released, spring 93 acting on lever 82 returns the slides 91, 92 to the position shown in FIG. 9 whereupon the pressure behind pellet 81 propels it up to the ceiling and the dye impregnated therein leaves a mark on the ceiling. The slide 91 has meanwhile closed off the chamber 72 to conserve gas.

What is claimed is:

1. Apparatus for use in transferring a mark on a floor to a point on the ceiling directly above said mark comprising a casing, a gimbal in which said casing is mounted, a plumb bob depending from said casing in line with the longitudinal axis of said casing, the weight of said plumb bob holding said casing vertical and in line with said mark, a light bulb in said casing aligned with said axis for projecting along a prolongation of said axis onto said ceiling an intelligible indicator of said mark, a battery centered along the axis of said casing, a blinker electric circuit interposed between said battery and said light bulb whereby energization of said light bulb is intermittent and energy of said battery is conserved, said circuit including a condenser and means for discharging said condenser, and focusing means for focusing beams of light on the ceiling and an image screen between said light bulb and focusing means, said image screen having a mark which is projected onto the ceiling.

2. Apparatus according to claim 1, which further comprises a sleeve on the bottom end of said casing and a rod slidable in said sleeve aligned with said axis, said plumb bob located on the lower end of said rod, said rod extensible relative to said gimbal until said plumb bob contacts said mark on said floor.

3. Apparatus for use in transferring a mark on a floor to a point on the ceiling directly above said mark comprising a casing, a gimbal in which said casing is mounted, a plumb bob depending from said casing in line with the longitudinal axis of said casing, the weight of said plumb bob holding said casing vertical and in line with said mark, a compressed gas gun, said gun located within said casing and having a bore in alignment with said axis, a chamber at the bottom of said bore shaped to receive a projectile, a source of compressed gas for said gun located in said casing, valve means cutting off communication between said source and said chamber, and an externally operated trigger means for opening said valve means to project said projectile out of said chamber along said bore in line with said axis.

References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 2,517,295 8/1950 Esher 3346 3,044,173 7/1962 ONeal et al. 33-46 3,162,957 12/1964 OConnell et al. 33-189 3,354,549 11/1967 Fisher 3374 FOREIGN PATENTS 1,162,395 9/1958 France.

SAMUEL S. MATTHEWS, Primary Examiner US. Cl. X.R. 33-1 89

Patent Citations
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FR1162395A * Title not available
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US3635565 *Feb 16, 1970Jan 18, 1972Engineering Field ServicesLaser vertical collimator
US3772797 *May 30, 1972Nov 20, 1973Gleba JOptical plumb bob and method
US3909952 *Apr 29, 1974Oct 7, 1975Lagasse GuyPlumb light
US3911588 *May 7, 1973Oct 14, 1975Minolta Camera KkOptical marker
US3988837 *Mar 21, 1975Nov 2, 1976Benson George EOptical plumbing device
US4106207 *Aug 9, 1976Aug 15, 1978Vernon Hugo BoyettPoint to point self-leveling plumbing device
US4206550 *Aug 14, 1978Jun 10, 1980Boyett Vernon HPoint-to-point self-plumbing apparatus and method
US4438567 *Dec 7, 1981Mar 27, 1984Raiha A PCenter locator for alignment of work to machine spindle
US4517749 *Aug 15, 1983May 21, 1985Sperry CorporationStable plumb beam optical projector
US5012585 *May 7, 1990May 7, 1991Dimaggio Charlie JLaser plumb-bob apparatus
US5027521 *May 17, 1989Jul 2, 1991Martin Del GiorgioSurveying apparatus
US5163229 *Sep 5, 1991Nov 17, 1992Cantone Giovanni FPlumb and horizontal locating device
US5184406 *Jun 18, 1991Feb 9, 1993Thomas SwierskiProjected light plumb device
US5509209 *Jun 27, 1994Apr 23, 1996Gail Marie TartaroLaser plumbing device
US5537205 *Nov 15, 1994Jul 16, 1996Costa; George J.Self leveling laser plumb assembly
US5754287 *Jan 6, 1997May 19, 1998Clarke; Douglas A.Beam projecting plumb apparatus
US5912733 *Nov 5, 1998Jun 15, 1999Dunlop; RonaldLaser plumb line
US6028665 *Sep 9, 1998Feb 22, 2000Mcqueen; JohnSelf-leveling laser plumb
US6035540 *Feb 17, 1998Mar 14, 2000Wu; Chyi-YiingAutomatic optical levelling, plumbing, and verticality-determining apparatus
US6379071 *Nov 18, 1999Apr 30, 2002Raytheon CompanySelf aligning connector bodies
US7107980 *Apr 30, 2004Sep 19, 2006Donald Lee CraigCarpenter's marking device
US20090246722 *May 20, 2008Oct 1, 2009David Damon FranklinCandle holder with a consistent upright candle
US20120077134 *Mar 29, 2012Franklin Damon LCandle Holder with Consistent Upright Candle
WO1992022787A1 *Jun 17, 1992Dec 23, 1992Thomas SwierskiProjected light plumb device
U.S. Classification33/227, 33/366.24, 33/666
International ClassificationG01C15/10, B25H7/00, B25H7/04
Cooperative ClassificationB25H7/04, G01C15/105
European ClassificationB25H7/04, G01C15/10A