US 3505824 A
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ROOF' SUPPORT oF UNDERGROUND MINES AND oPENINGs C. c. WHITE April14, 1970 4 Sheets-Sheet 1 Filed Feb. 5, 196g 3 4 s .I6 l 2 AVE-IMS m .F v B Ef 4 A 4 QA I 2 2V Emzmdgwm ATTORNEYS c. c. WHITE 3,505,824
April 14, 1970 `ROOF' SUPPORT 0F LUNDERGROUND MINES AND OPENINGS k 4 sheets-sheet 2 Filed Feb. 5, 1969 INVE @TOR C/aude 6T W/v/'fe www@ 4 Sheets-Sheet 3 lll Il i@ ude C. Wh ile M @my April 14, 1970 c.c.win1'|a ROOF SUPPORT OF UNDERGROUND MINES AND OPENINGS Filed Feb. 5, 1969 BY I 2.
ATTORNEYS April 14, 1970 c. c. wH|TE 3,505,824
ROOF SUPPORT 0F UNDERGRGUND MINES AND OPENINGS Filed Feb. 5, 1969 4 sheets-sheen;
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y Claude 6. White ATTORNEYS' United States Patent O 3,505,824 ROOF SUPPORT OF UNDERGROUND MINES AND OPENINGS Claude C. White, 3912 Cahaba Road, Birmingham, Ala. 35243 Continuation-impart of application Ser. No. 625,070,
Mar. 22, 1967. This application Feb. 5, 1969, Ser.
Int. Cl. E21d 1 I 00; E04 c 5/12 U.S. Cl. 61-45 16 Claims ABSTRACT F THE DISCLOSURE held in xed relationship with each other, the structurey further including mechanism for applying approximately equal forces to the anchor members and rods, to produce a resultant upward and inward force on the roof with respect to the opening.
This invention relates to the roof support of underground mines and openings, and is a continuation-impart of application Ser. Number 625,070, filed Mar. 22, 1967 now Patent No. 3,427,811.
OBJECTS It is an object of this invention to provide a roof support for underground mines and openings comprising a truss support utilizing the inheret compressive strength of the roof masonry, the truss support being so arranged to produce an upward and inward force on the roof above the mine opening to prevent collapsing of the roof.
Another object is to provide a roof support including anchor members installed in the mine roof above the pillars of the mine opening, and in spaced relationship to the lower limit of the roof, truss rods, one terminal of each of which is secured to an anchor member, the lower portions of said rods being bent inwardly in proximate relation to the mine roof, the lower terminals of the rods being overlapped and secured in fixed relationship to provide a unitary reinforcing member, approximately equal tension being applied to the anchor members and reinforcing member to produce resultant upward and inward forces on the mine roof.
A further object is to provide a roof support of the character described requiring a minimum of parts of simple construction, and in which installation in the mine roof is readily and quickly effected.
A still further object is to provide a roof support of the character described wherein wedge or crimping means are provided for facile securement of the terminals of the overlapping rods together.
A further object is to provide a support of the character described, with the addition of a header plate carried by the reinforcing member and in engagement with the mine roof for applying an upward force to the mine roof upon application of forces to the anchor members and reinforcing member.
Other objects Will be manifest from the following description of the presently preferred forms of the invention taken in conjunction with the accompanying drawings.
p 3,505,824 Patented Apr. 14, 1970 DESCRIPTION OF FIGURES OF DRAWINGS FIGURE 1 is a plan view of the roof support of the present .invention illustrating its application;
FIGURE 2 is a diagrammatic view of the roof support of the present invention illustrating the use thereof in an underground mine;
FIGURE 3 is a view similar to FIGURE l, and illustrating the application of the present invention across an intersecting mine passage;
FIGURE 4 is an enlarged, fragmentary plan view of the present invention, illustrating to advantage the wedge assembly forming a part of the present invention;
FIGURE 5 is a sectional view taken along the line 5 5 of FIGURE 4, looking in the direction of the arrows;
FIGURE 6 is an enlarged, fragmentary perspective View of the present invention, showing to advantage the header plate, forming a part of the present invention;
FIGURE 7 is a view similar to FIGURE 1, illustrating a rnodied form of the present invention;
FIGURE 8 is a view similar to FIGURE 7, and illustrating to advantage apparatus for crimping together the terminal portions of the rods;
FIGURE 9 is a longitudinal sectional view taken along the line 9-9 of FIGURE 8, looking in the direction of the arrows,
FIGURE 10 is a sectional view taken along the line 10-10 of FIGURE 8 looking in the direction of the arrows, and
FIGURE 11 is a perspective view of the terminals of the rods which are joined together by a crimping sleeve.
DESCRIPTION OF FIGURES 1 TO 6 In FIGURES 1 to 6, there is illustrated one form of the present invention, FIGURE 1 showing the application of the present roof support in a mine passage or opening 20 including pillars 22 and a roof 24, in which roof there is installed a plurality of spaced roof supports or roof trusses generally designated 26, which extend laterally of passage 20.
In accordance with the objects of this invention, holes 28 and 30 are drilled in mine roof 24 upwardly and outwardly at approximately a 45 angle from the lower limit of the roof, at a point spaced from pillars 22, to a point in the roof above pillars 22. Rods 32 and 34 are inserted in openings 28 and 30 respectively, the upper terminals of said rods being threaded at 36 and 38 for threaded engagement with anchor members, preferably expansion shells 40 yand 41. Expansion shells 40 and 41 may be of any suitable construction, such as set out in my previously granted Patent No. 3,104,582.
The lower terminals of rods 32 and 34 beyond holes 28 and 30 are bent inwardly towards each other to provide horizontal connecting portions 42 and 43.
Header plates 44 are interposed between connecting portions 42 and 43 of rods 32 and 34 and roof 24. As shown to advantage in FIGURE 6, each header plate 44 includes a support embodying a transverse section 46, one terminal of which issues into an upwardly extending flange 48 and the opposite terminal of which issues into a downwardly extending ange 50. Flange 50 is provided with a central aperture 52 through which reinforcing portions 42 and 43 pass to support the assembly. A block 54 of wood or other suitable material is supported by transverse section 46 of the support, the upper surface of which is engaged with the roof for exerting an upward force thereon.
The lower terminal of rod 32 is threaded at 56 for threaded engagement with one end of the turnbuckle 58, the opposite terminal of the turnbuckle being threadedly engaged with a threadedterminal 60 of an auxiliary rod 62. The upper surface of auxiliary rod 62 remote from 3 threaded end 60 is serrated, as indicated at 64, which portion of the auxiliary rod lies in overlapped relationship with the lower terminal of portion 43 of rod 34. The extreme end of portion 43 is enlarged to provide an abutment indicated at 66.
In order to secure portion 43 and auxiliary rod 62 in overlapped, xed relationship, there is provided a wedge assembly generally designated 68, and shown to advantage in FIGURE 4. Wedge assembly 68 includes a wedge box 70 including spaced planar side walls 72 and 74, an arcuate lower wall 76 and an arcuate upper wall 78, thereby providing an oval shaped opening within the box, as shown in FIGURE 5. Upper wall 78, however, lies in a lateral plane which extends at an angle to the plane of lower Wall 76, so that the cross-sectional area of the opening within the box progressively increases from one end to the other.
It will be noted from FIGURES l, 4 and 5 that p0rtion 43 of rod 34 lies in the bottom of wedge box 70 with auxiliary rod 62 on top thereof.
A wedge 80, having an upper arcaute surface complemental to arcuate upper wall 78 is adapted for insertion into the opening of wedge box 70, the lower surface of wedge 80 being flattened and serrated at 82 to complement and intermesh with the serrations of auxiliary rod 62. Therefore, upon exertion of force on rod 62 exerted by tightening turnbuckle 60, wedge 80 is drawn into wedge box 70 to hold auxiliary rod 62 and portion 43 in xed relationship with respect to each other.
In FIGURE 2 there is illustarted diagrammatically the arrangement of roof supports 26 in spaced, parallel relationship transversely of mine passages 20. Where mine passages intersect each other, a modiiied form of roof support designated 84, shown to advantage in FIGURE 3 is installed diagonally, rather than transversely of the passage. In this form of the invention, structure similar to that shown in the form of the invention illustrated in FIG- URE 1 is employed, and like parts are accordingly identitied by like, primed numbers. However, in this form of the invention, where the roof support must extend a greater distance than roof support 26 which traverses the openings, the terminal of portion 43' is threaded at 86 for engagement with a connector 88. An auxiliary rod 90 has a threaded terminal 92 for engagement with connector 88, the opposite terminal of rod 92 being provided with an abut-ment 94.
In the form of invention illustrated in FIGURE 3, where the distance between mine roof holes 28 and 30 is considerably greater than between mine roof holes 28 and 30, it is preferred to provide additional roof support means, for which purposes a pair of spaced, perpendicular openings 96 and 98 are drilled in roof 24 centrally of the passage. Conventional mine roof bolts 100 such as shown and described in my previously granted Patent No. 3,104,- 582 may be employed.
OPERATION In the use of the roof support of the present invention, rods 32 and 34 of roof support or truss 26 are installed in openings 28 and 30, and anchor members 36 and 38 tightened into expanding engagement with roof 24. The lower portion of rods 32 and 34 are bent inwardly towards each other at a point immediately below the roof-line, as shown in FIGURE 1. Header plates 44 are secured in position between the rods and roof-line following which turnbuckle S8 and auxiliary rod 62 are connected to a terminal of horizontal portion 42 of rod 32.
The rods are then in the overlapped position illustrated in FIGURE 1, wedge box 70 is engaged over the terminals of the rods with a longitudinal terminal of the wedge box in engagement with abutment 66 of horizontal portion 43. Wedge 80 is next inserted into wedge box 70 so that serrations 82 thereof intermesh with serrations 64 of auxiliary rod 62. Turnbuckle 58 is then tightened in a well known manner until the desired tension is applied 4 to the horizontal reinforcing unit comprised of members 42, 62 and 43.
In order to accomplish the objects of the present invention, approximately the same tension is applied to the horizontal reinforcing unit as is applied to anchor members 40 and 41, a tension of approximately 30,000 pounds having been found to obtain optimum results in a typical installation. l
Under this tension, resultant upward and inward Iforces indicated at A are applied to the mine roof, as well as upward forces indicated at B exerted by header plates 44. This produces a truss effect and the substantial uplift produced prevents the lower bed of the roof from separating from the main roof. The beds are therefore pressed upward and form a monolithic beam with the higher strata and prevent progressive separating of the beds which ultimately results in roof falls.
The installation of the roof support 84 of FIGURE 3 is similar to that described above in connection with roof support 6. In this form of the invention, however, it is necessary to rst install roof bolts 100 in the ceiling centrally of the passageway and to join auxiliary rod to rod 34 by means of a connector 88. In this form of the invention also, resultant upward and inward forces A are exerted as well as upward forces B. Additionally, roof bolts exert an upward force on the roof as indicated at C.
DESCRIPTION OF FIGURES 7 TO 11 -In FIGURES 7 to ll, there is illustrated a modied form of the present invention adapted .for installation in an underground mine or opening which includes a passage 102, pillars 104 and a roof 106.
In this form of the invention, holes 108 and 110 are drilled upwardly and outwardly of the mine roof at approximately a 45 angle to receive a pair of rods designated 112 and 114. To the upper terminals of the rods are connected anchor members 116 and 118 which may be similar to the anchor members illustrated in the form of invention shown in FIGURES l to 6.
The lower terminals of rods 112 and 114 are bent inwardly towards the center of passage 102 at a point imnediately below, and in substantially parallel relation to, roof 106, the horizontal sections of the rod being designated 120 and 122 respectively. The extreme terminal of section 120 is enlarged to form an abutment 124.
Header plates 126 are mounted on sections 120 and 122 and extend upwardly into engagement with roof 106. Each header plate 126 includes a horizontal support 128, the lateral edges of which are upwardly turned to for-m flanges 130 and 132. As shown in FIGURE 10, support 128 is struck to provide a pair of spaced clip members 134 engageable with opposed peripheral portions of sections 120 and 122 to retain the header plates in position. A block 136, made of wood or other suitable material is placed on support 128 for exerting an upward force on roof 106.
The terminals of horizontal sections 120 and 122 are overlapped, and an oval sleeve 138 is placed over the terminals of the horizontal portions, as shown in FIGURES Tand l1.
`In accordance with this form of the invention, power means 140, which are preferably either of the pneumatic or hydraulic type, are employed for crimping sleeves 138 to lixedly hold portions 120 and 122 in xed relationship to each other.
Power means 140 includes a mobile support 142 and a power source 144. The power means further includes a rod tensioning assembly 146 and a crimping assembly 148.
Rod tensioning assembly 146 includes a power cylinder 150 including an outlet line 152 and an inlet line 154 which are operated by a trigger unit 156.
A rod gripping unit is indicated at 159 and, as shown to advantage in FIGURE 9, includes a stationary wedge box 160 of generally cylindrical shape, the inner wall of which is tapered from one end to the other. A plurality of wedge segments .162 having teeth 164 are mounted in wedge box 160. In order to allow limited movement of wedge segments 162 within box 160, the Wedge box is provided with a plurality of stationary pins 166 which extend into longitudinal slots 168 of wedge segments 162.
Retaining assembly 146 further includes a piston 170 to the terminal of which is aliixed a sleeve-engaging member 172, which forces sleeve 138 against abutment 124 of rod 120. h
Crimping assembly 148 includes a Icylinder 174 having an outlet line 176 and an inlet line 178 which is in communication with an actuating trigger 180. Assembly 148 further includes a piston 1182 which terminates in a crimping head 184, adapted for engagement with the lower surface of sleeve 138. A clamp 186 iixedly secured to cylinder 174 engages the upper surface of sleeve 138.
OPERATION In the form of invention as illustrated in FIGURES 8 to 1l, sleeve 138 is placed over the terminal portions of the rods, following which the rod retaining assembly 146 is engaged with rod 122 in the manner illustrated in FIGURE 9. Upon actuation of trigger 156, wedge segments 162 grippingly engage rod 122 and the latter is drawn under tension through sleeve 138 by action of extension of shaft 170. After the desired tension has been exerted on the horizontal reinforcing unit, trigger 180 is actuated to move 'crimping head 184 of assembly 148 under force, which action securely holds rods 120 and 122 in fixed relationship to each other.
In this form of the invention also, approximately equal tension is applied to anchor members 108 and 110 and to the horizontal end portion unit, thereby producing a resultant upward and inward force indicated at D. Additionally, header plates 126 exert an upward force on the roof as indicated at E.
Although various sizes of rods may be employed in connection with the supports of the present invention, it has been found that very successful results are obtained by use of a three-quarters inch round steel rod which, it has been found, will support more weight than a twelve inch steel beam ten times heavier when installed in accordance with the present invention. These rods are also much easier to transport to the situs of installation and are readily installed without restricting the head room or width of the opening as is the case with beams and posts.
What I claim is:
1. A process for installing a roof support in underground mines and openings including a passage having a roof and side pillars, comprising the steps of,
(a) drilling opposed angular holes in the mine roof upwardly and outwardly of the passage, the upper limits of the holes being located over the side pillars,
(b) installing rods in the holes,
(c) the upper terminals of the rods having anchor members connected thereto,
(d) tightening the anchor members into gripping engagement with that portion of the mine roof surrounding the holes,
(e) bending the rods inwardly at a point immediately below the mine roof with the terminals of the rods in overlapped relationship, to form a horizontal reinforcing unit,
(f) exerting forces on the overlapped terminals of the rods to apply a tension on the horizontal reinforcing unit which is approximately equal to the tension of the anchor members, to produce a resultant upward and inward force on the mine roof, and
(g) securing the overlapped terminals of the rods in ffixed relationship to each other.
2. The process of claim 1 with the additional step of (a) applying vertical, upward forces on the mine roof.
3. A roof support for underground mines and openings having a roof and side pillars comprising:
(a) anchor members installed in openings in the mine roof above a mine passage in spaced opposed relationship,
(b) said anchor members extending angularly to the mine roof with the uppermost portion thereof located above the pillars of the mine passage,
(c) rods engaged with said anchor members and extending downwardly through the mine roof openings,
(d) the lower portions of said rods being bent inwardly of the mine passage into overlapping relationship to form a unitary horizontal reinforcing member in proximate, substantially parallel relationship to the mine roof,
(e) securing means for holding the overlapped portions of said rods together in fixed relationship, and
(f) means for exerting at least approximately equal tension on said reinforcing member and anchor members to effect a resultant upward and inward force on the mine roof to prevent collapse.
4. The roof support of claim 3, with the addition of (a) block means carried by the lower bent portions of said rods for engagement with the mine roof, for exerting an upward force on the latter.
5. The roof support of claim 3, wherein:
(a) said anchor members are installed at approximately a 45 angle to the mine roof.
6. The roof support of claim 3, wherein:
(a) said 1means exert substantially equal tension on said reinforcing member and anchor members.
7. The roof support of claim 3, wherein:
(a) said means comprises a turnbuckle.
8. The roof support of claim 3, wherein:
(a) a portion of the lower terminal of one of said rods is serrated,
(b) the terminal of the other of said rods being enlarged to provide an abutment,
(c) awedge box,
(d) said rods extending through said wedge box and the abutment of said other rod being in abutting engagement with a terminal of said wedge box, and
(e) a wedge block for insertion into said wedge block,
(f) a face of said wedge block being serrated for interengagement with the serrated terminal of said one rod, to prevent relative movement of said rods.
9. The roof support of claim 3, wherein:
(a) said securing means includes a sleeve through which the terminals of said rods pass,
(b) power means engageable with said sleeve, and
(c) said power means having a gripping member engageable with a terminal of one of said rods for -moving said rod longitudinally with respect to said other rod upon actuation of said power means,
(d) a second power means engageable with said sleeve,
(e) a crimping tool caried by said second power means for distorting said sleeve to hold the rod terminals in fixed relationship to each other.
10. The roof support of claim 3 with the addition of (a) spaced roof bolts installed substantially perpendicularly in the mine roof between the mine roof holes.
11. A roof support for underground mines and openings having a passage, a roof and side pillars, the roof support comprising:
(a) a pair of rods,
(b) one terminal of each of said rods being positioned in opposed holes extending upwardly at an angle to a point over the side pillars,
(c) anchor members carried by the upper terminals of said rods in gripping engagement with the roof,
(d) the lower portions of said rods being bent inwardly at a point below and proximate the roof, to form a horizontal reinforcing unit,
(e) the terminals of said rods being in overlapped relationship,
(f) means for xedly holding the overlapped termi.-
nals of said rods together,
(g) means for exerting approximately equal tension on said anchor members and reinforcing unit to effect an upward and inward resultant force on the roof, and
(h) block means interposed between the horizontal reinforcing unit and the mine roof for exerting a vertical upward force on the mine roof.
12. The roof support of claim 11, wherein said means for ixedly holding the overlapped terminals of said rods together includes:
(a) a wedge box for receiving the overlapped terminals of said rods, and
(b) a wedge inserted into said wedge box for exerting pressure on said overlapped terminals in a direction to prevent relative longitudinal movement of the latter.
13. The roof support of claim 12, wherein:
(a) opposed faces of said wedge and one of said overlapped terminals are serrated for meshing interengagement thereof.
14. The roof support of claim 11, wherein said means for iixedly holding the overlapped terminals of said rods together includes:
(a) a sleeve,
(b) the overlapped terminals of said rods extending through said sleeve, and
(c) means for crimping said sleeve after the overlapped terminals of the rods are placed therein, for xedly securing the latter against relative longitudinal movement.
15. The roof support of claim 14, wherein said means for crimping the sleeve includes:
(a) a rod tensioning assembly embodying,
(b) a power unit having a piston member,
(c) a rod gripping member fixed to said power unit,
(d) a sleeve-engaging member connected to said piston,
(e) means for actuating said piston to move one of said rod terminals within said sleeve to place said rods under tension.
16. A roof support for underground mines and openings having a passage, a roof and side pillars, the roof support comprising:
(a) a pair of rods,
(b) one terminal of each of said rods being positioned in opposed holes extending upwardly and outwardly at an angle of approximately 45 to a point over the side pillars,
(c) expansion shells secured to the upper terminals of said rods and in gripping engagement with that portion of the mine roof adjacent the holes,
(d) the lower portions of said rods being bent inwardly at a point below and proximate the mine roof to form a horizontal reinforcing unit,
.(e) the terminals of said rods being in overlapped relationship,
(f) means for xedly holding the overlapped terminals of said rods together,
(g) means for exerting aproximately equal tension on said expension shells and reinforcing unit, and
(h) header plates carried by the horizontal reinforcing unit,
(i) the upper limits of said header plates engaging said mine roof for exerting a vertical, upward force on the latter.
References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 2,667,037 1/1954 Thomas et al. 61-45 2,771,746 ll/l956 Fischer et al. 61-45 3,306,051 2/1967 Howlett 61-45 3,389,561 6/1968 Taylor 61-45 FOREIGN PATENTS 163,232 6/1955 Australia.
741,680 l2/l955 Great Britain.
407,014 8/1966 Switzerland.
DENNIS L. TAYLOR, Primary Examiner U.S. Cl. X.R. 52-223, 229