US 3507278 A
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
April 21, 1970 w. J. WERDING I f 3,507,278
APPARATUS FOR DISPENSING PARENTERAL FLUID Filed June 22. 1967 5 Sheets-Sheet 1 April 21, 1970 w. J. WERDING APPARATUS FOR DISPENSINGPAREN'IERAL FLUID s sheets-sheet 5 Filed June 22. 1967 FIGA United States Patent U.S. 128-214 2 Claims ABSTRACT OF THE DISCLOSURE An apparatus for dispensing parenteral fluid is shown consisting of collapsible containers placed in a sealed vessel under pressure. A membrane divides the containers from communication. Rupturing means extending from the vessel are provided for tearing the membrane, thereby allowing communication between the containers.
The techniques of transfusing blood and other parenteral solutions have heretofore required the use of heavy and relatively complicated apparatus by means of which the transfusion took place slowly according to a drop by drop fiow.
It is often necessary to effect such transfusions more rapidly than drop by drop. There is then used an overpressure inside the container containing the liquid to be transfused. It is also possible to use a lift and force pump. This requires constant checking of the liquid level in the reservoir in order to avoid air injection into the blood vessels, an injection of air being liable to occasion death by embolism.
The invention has for its object an apparatus for effecting transfusion characterized mainly by the fact that it comprises a hermetically closed casing in which is placed a flexible collapsible container connected to an external conduit through an outlet valve and a valve mounted on the casing for the introduction of gas under pressure into the casing.
The apparatus is of imple design and may be made portable so as to be usable everywhere, in particular at the site of an accident.
The accompanying drawing represents by way of example two modifications of the device in accordance with the invention.
FIGURE 1 shows in cross-section an apparatus for transfusion according to a first modification.
FIGURE 2 shows a partial view of the lower part of the apparatus with the control of the valve for adjusting fiow.
FIGURE 3 shows a cross-section of an apparatus for transfusion according to a second modification.
FIGURE 4 shows the valve of the apparatus of FIG- URE 3.
The apparatus shown on FIGURE 1 comprise a casing 1 of tubular shape made of transparent rigid material, and forming a hermetic enclave inside of which it is possible to introduce a gas, for example compressed air, by a valve 3. Inside casing 1 is positioned a container 4 made of transparent or semi-transparent flexible material secured by its upper extremity 4a to the upper wall 1a of easing 1. This fastening can take place by any suitable means, in particular, by gluing. The lower extremity 4b of the reservoir communicates with the outside of the enclave by a flexible tube 5 connected to a catheter 6 at the extremity of which is secured a hollow needle 7 intended to be introduced in the view or artery of a patient.
The adjustment of the flow from the container is en- 3,507,278 Patented Apr. 21, 1970 sured by means of a valve 8 consisting of bolt 9 of which the threaded portion 9a is rotatably disposed in block 8. The latter is attached to the end of easing 1. Tube 5 passes through block 8 and the adjustment of flow is effected by screwing or unscrewing rod 8 the extremity of which crushes more or less tube 5.
The assembly is completed by cap 10 which is generally of a tapered shape extending axially to the casing 1 and serves as a storage space in which the needle and catheter are placed in sterile condition before use. Bolt 9 of the valve has a head 11 (FIG. 2), a portion of which is shaped in the form of an index 11a, movable in front of a scale 12 graduated in hours indicating the time necessary to empty the container 4. Near the extreme right-hand position, which is toward the closure of the tube, position 13 is indexed. This corresponds to a drop-by-drop flow.
The apparatus functions in the following manner:
The reservoir 4 is first filled with blood or plasma to be injected in the vessels of a patient by the catheter 6. Once the reservoir 4 is full, gate 8 is closed, then there is introduced compressed air through valve 3 in casing 1. By next placing the apparatus in the vertical position shown on the drawing, the catheter is raised to the height of the upper extremity of the casing and gate 8 is opened slightly to permit the escape of all air bubbles which may have formed during the filling of reservoir 4.
Next gate 8 is closed and the apparatus is ready to be used. The sterilized needle and catheter are placed in cap 10 and the apparatus can be transported to the place of use, in particular on the site of an accident requiring rapid action.
During use, the needle of the catheter is introduced in the vessel of the patient and gate 8 is opened by placing index 11a in front of the graduation corresponding to the flow desired. Reservoir 4 empties then under the action of the pressure of the compressed air contained in casing 1. This pressure has the advantage of being uniformly distributed over the outer surface of reservoir 4. The transparent wall of casing 1 permits constant checking of the quantity of liquid remaining in reservoir 4.
In connection with the transfusion of blood plasma, it has proven advisable, for reasons of preserving the plasma, to keep it separately in the form of a powder, and mixing it in the physiological liquid immediately before use.
The apparatus shown in FIGURES 3 and 4 will serve this purpose.
The apparatus shown on FIGURE 3 comprises a cylindrical reinforcing casing constituted by an outer metallic envelope 21, covering a cylinder 22 made of transparent or semi-transparent material closed by a disk 27 of similar material. The top of metallic. envelope 21 has a reinforced and threaded portion on which is screwed a cover 28. The tightness of the enclave is ensured by a packing ring 29 compressed between the cover and the edges of cylinder 22. The metallic envelope 21 has a window extending parallel to the axis of the cylinder permitting to check on the state of the reservoir contained in casing 20. The reservoir comprises two chambers 23 and 30 of transparent or semi-transparent fiexible material separated by an impervious membrane 31. Chamber 30 communicates with an external conduit 32 through a valve 33. Conduit 32 comprises a tube the extremity of which 32a can be connected with a catheter, not shown, at the end of which is secured a hollow needle intended to be introduced in the vein or the artery of the patient.
In the condition shown on FIGURE 3, the chamber 23 is filled with a physiological solution while chamber 30 is filled with plasma in powder form.
Reservoir 23 is first filled with a physiological solution, then a membrane 31 is attached and chamber 30 is then filled with powdered plasma. Before introducing the pressurizing gas, the air contained in chamber 30 is first evacuated as well as that in conduit 32. Then the extremity 32a of the conduit is hermetically sealed. Valve 33 is then closed, and pressurizing gas is introduced in the casing. These operations are carried out with chamber 30 located above chamber 23, in such a way as not to cause the rupture of membrane 31. This membrane is resistant enough to support the pressure of liquid in the position represented in the drawing. As for the pressure due to compressed gas in area 26, the same balances on both sides of the membrane 31. In this manner, the'plasma can be stored for a relatively long time.
When it is desired to effect a transfusion, valve 33 is first slightly opened which causes a decrease in the pressure in chamber 30 which is in communication with conduit 32. The unbalance of pressure acting on the membrane causes the rupture thereof and thus places into communication chambers 23 and 30. It then sufi'ices to shake the apparatus to bring about the mixing of the Valve 33 is shown in detail on FIGURE 4. This valve comprises a valve body 43 soldered at 35 to metallic cover 29. The lower extremity of body 34 has an inner thread 36 in which screws a socket 37 attached to an index 38. When socket 37 is turned, it closes the jaws of pincers 39 which pinch the supple tube 32 passing through the valve connected to chamber 30. The valve is made air-tight by means of a rubber packing 40 glued to tube 32 and housed in a cylindrical cavity 41 in the body of gate 34. The packing 40 is compressed by means of a nut 42 acting on a washer 43.
This apparatus functions satisfactorily when it is placed with its opening down, but when the opening is upwardly inclined, the walls or interior surfaces of the reservoir have the tendency to stick to one another in their upper part under the stress of the pressure of the gas, thus preventing extraction of the liquid from the remainder of the reservoir.
It is possible to avoid this by using a wire or cord 59 passing through the valve and maintained in place by it and which extends into the flexible reservoir in such a way as to prevent sticking together of the walls of the reservoir near the wire. This cord is preferably made of catgut or nylon.
The diameter of the cord is selected in proportion to the elasticity of a wall of the reservoir and of the cross section desired for the channels around the cord.
The presence of cord 50 permits the rupture of the membrane 31 more assuredly than by creating an abrupt unbalance of pressure irrespective of the position of the apparatus. If cord 50 is sealed to the membrane a sudden pull on it will rip membrane 31. If the conduit 32 has a sutlicient elasticity, it is possible to actuate cord 50 by pulling on the conduit itself.
Cord 50 may be arranged to extend from conduit 32 so as to be pulled directly.
The presence of the cord 50 permits use of the apparatus with the valve in upward position, which is more practical since it is not necessary to maintain the apparatus in an inverted position relative to the patient. It is thus possible to place the container 20 on the ground.
What is claimed is:
1. In an apparatus for dispensing parenteral fluid, such as plasma, for intravenous feeding: comprising a hermetically-sealed vessel under pressure, dual collapsible containers disposed within said vessel and arranged in communicating relation separated by a rupturable membrane, one of said containers being filled with the required ingredient in powder form and the other with a liquid solvent capable of dissolving said powder, an outlet tube in fluid communication with one of said dual collapsible containers, a normally closed valve connected to said vessel and operable to control the opening and closing of said outlet tube, and rupturing means attached to said membrane and extending from said vessel for rupturing said rupturable membrane to effect communication between said containers for dissolving said powder in said liquid.
2. Apparatus in accordance with claim 1 wherein said rupturing means comprises a flexible cord attached to said rupturable membrane wherein said flexible cord extends through said one of said dual collapsible containers and projects into said outlet tube, and wherein said flexible cord is positioned relative to the interior surface of said one of said dual collapsible containers to prevent adhesion thereof.
References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 2,663,298 12/1953 Rose 128-214 2,744,527 5/1956 Barrett et al 128-216 2,842,123 7/1958 Rundhaug 12s 214 2,876,768 3/1959 Schultz 128-214 3,048,171 8/1962 Grau 128-2142 3,294,227 12/1966 Schneider et al. 206-47 3,375,824 4/1968 Krakauer et al. 128-214 FOREIGN PATENTS 61,592 11/1954 France.
DALTON L. TRULUCK, Primary Examiner U.S. Cl. X.R.