US 3511000 A
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
May 12, 1970 H. P. c. KEULS 3,511,000
INTERLOGKINO HOLLOW BUILDING BLOCKS Filed Aug. 8, 1968 2 Sheets-Sheet 1 95 INVENTOR 7| :1 L 1 HENRY P C.KEULS 75 I" 95 H,.,72 90 ss 1 \[I[ ATTORNEY May 12, 1970 H. P. c. KEULS 3,511,000
INTERLOCKING HOLLOW BUILDING BLOCKS Filed Aug. 8, 1968 2 Sheet-Sheet 2 INVENTOR HENRY P. C. KEULS ATTORNEY United States Patent U.S. Cl. 52--122 Claims ABSTRACT OF THE DISCLOSURE Hollow building blocks are provided for erecting interior walls, partitions, room-dividers, etc., without the use of mortar or similar bonding means. The blocks of each course are interconnected to one another and are interlocked with the blocks of the courses immediately therebelow and thereabove, by means of male and female locking components fitted into the open lower and upper ends, respectively, of the blocks. Each component of the locking means is of a length which is a multiple of that of the blocks, and is in the form of a relatively shallow channel. The base portion of the channel constituting the male component is provided with a series of longitudinally spaced solid studs, each extending axially at a right angle to the base and the base portion of the channel constituting the female component is provided with a series of similarly spaced open sleeves or bushings, each likewise extending axially at a right angle with respect to the base, for receiving and interlocking with one of the studs on a male component.
Means are also provided for installation at the bottom of walls or partitions in rooms whose heights exceeds the aggregate height of the assembled courses of blocks by an amount somewhat less than the height of the individual blocks, to enable the assembly to be raised a sufiicient distance for disposing the upper end thereof at the ceiling or within a channel member secured to the ceiling.
This invention relates to building blocks and to walls, partitions, room-dividers, and the like, erected therewith.
The invention is directed to improvements in the building blocks described and claimed in the patents to George Persak, Jr., Nos. 3,180,059 and 3,180,060, each assigned to the present applicant.
More particularly, the invention is concerned with hollow building blocks so constructed as to render them especially suitable for erecting walls, partitions, roomdividers, and the like, without the use of mortar or other cementitious bonding material, but wherein the blocks of each row are interconnected with each other and also interlocked with the blocks of the adjacent rows thereabove and therebelow.
Although the hollow blocks described and claimed in the above-mentioned patents to Persak may be utilized for erecting walls or partitions without using mortar or the like for bonding the blocks to one another, the walls or partitions do not possess the requisite strength and stability to meet the tests established in those respects by the building codes of some states and municipalities. It has been found by the present applicant that the aforementioned shortcomings of the blocks disclosed in the Persak patents stem primarily from the structure of the means therein utilized for interlocking the blocks of each row with the vertically adjacent blocks of the rows immediately therebelow and immediately thereabove.
Accordingly, it is a principal object of the invention to provide a building block of the type above mentioned, having means for enabling the blocks in each row of blocks of a wall or partition erected therewith, to be readily and firmly connected to, i.e., integrated with, one
another, and to interlock the blocks of each row with the vertically adjacent blocks of the rows immediately thereabove and immediately therebelow. In particular, it is an object of the present invention to provide a building block as aforesaid, wherein the means utilized for integrating and interlocking the blocks are so formed that a wall or partition constituted of an assembly of such blocks will possess the strength and stability to satisfy the requirements of state and municipal building codes.
Another object of the invention is to provide a hollow building block of the character above set forth, whereby to facilitate assembly of the blocks to form a wall, partition, or room-divider, and which may readily be disassembled or demounted when it is desired to re-locate the same, as when there is a need for a change in space utilization. As will be apparent, the readily assembled and demountable walls, partitions and room-dividers that may be erected from the blocks hereof are adaptable for use in houses, offices, factories, schools, stores, showrooms, institutional buildings, etc.
Another object of the invention is to provide a hollow building block of the type set forth above, so constructed as to enable it to be manufactured by automation processes.
Still another object of the invention is to provide a hollow block of the character aforesaid, so constructed as to enable it to be easily and quickly assembled with other like blocks in erecting a wall, partition, or roomdivider, and to permit such wall, partition or room-divider to be likewise easily and quickly disassembled or demounted.
Still a further object of the invention is to provide a simple and readily operated means incorporated in a wall or partition erected from the blocks, for vertically raising the wall or partition as a unit or assembly, where necessary, as in the case of a wall or partition extending from floor to ceiling. In such walls or partitions, it frequently becomes necessary to elevate the same a considerable distance in order to bring the top surface of the uppermost row of blocks in the wall or partition into contact with the ceiling or with the horizontal surface of a suitable metal channel affixed to the ceiling.
Although the features which are believed to be characteristic of this invention will be particularly pointed out in the claims appended hereto, the foregoing and other objects and advantages of the invention, and the manner in which it may be carried out, may be better understood by reference to the following detailed description and to the accompanying drawing, in which:
FIG. 1 is a view in elevation, with a portion broken away, illustrating a wall or partition erected from an assembly of the blocks embodying the invention;
FIG. 2 is a fragmentary view in perspective, illustrating a number of blocks of several rows, and the manner of assembling the same to form a wall or partition therewith;
FIG. 3 is a view in cross-section, and on an enlarged scale, taken along line 33 of FIG. 1;
FIG. 4 is an exploded fragmentary view, in vertical cross-section, illustrating the means for interlocking adjacent blocks one to another;
FIG. 5 is a view in perspective, illustrating a clip member utilized in and constituting an auxiliary feature of the invention; and
FIG. 6 is a perspective view of one of the blocks.
Referring more in detail to the drawing, the building block of the invention is indicated as a whole by numeral 5. It comprises a hollow, rectangular body portion 6, open at its upper and lower ends, and separate and separable top and bottom members 8, 9, respectively. The members 8, 9, when properly associated with the body portions of the blocks and with each other, as more fully hereinafter described, constitute the gripping or interlocking strips of the block construction of the invention. As will be more apparent from the description herebelow, the unique constnuction and co-action of these interlocking strips in a wall, partition, or room-divider erected with the blocks hereof achieves an integration or tieing together of adjacent blocks in each horizontal row of blocks, and a sturdy interlocking of the blocks of each horizontal row with the adjacent blocks of the rows immediately thereabove and therebelow, to provide a wall, partition, or room-divider of high structural strength.
The body portion 6 of the block comprises a pair of parallel side walls 10, 11, and a pair of parallel end walls 12, 13, each of the latter extending at a right angle to the side walls 10, 11.
The body portion 6 of the block, as well as the members 8, 9, may be made of any suitable sheet metal, such as steel of, say, 20 to 28 gauge. If desired, the body portion 6 may be made of material other than metal, such as glass, synthetic resinous material such as polystyrene, polypropylene, phenol-formaldehyde and other suitable thermoplastic or thermosetting resins which may be formed in the desired shape by injection molding, extrusion, or vacuum-forming methods.
In practice, the length of the block is preferably twelve inches. In order, however, to make possible and to simplify the erection of partitions, etc., wherein the vertical joint line between the blocks of adjoining rows will be staggered or ofiset relative to one another, blocks of six and three inch lengths are desirably also provided. The width of the blocks may be from two to six, preferably three, inches. Their height may be from five to ten, preferably, six, inches.
At their upper longitudinal edges, the side walls 10, 11 are each formed with an inwardly extending right angular return bent portion 15, having a horizontally extending terminal flange 15a constituting a seat or stop for the flanges 16 of the female member 8 of the interlocking strips. At their lower longitudinal edges, the side walls 10, 11 are each formed with a similar but reversely directed return bent portion 17, terminating in a horizontally extending flange 17a constituting a seat or stop for the flanges 18 of the male member 9 of the interlocking strips.
End walls 12, 13 of the body portion are each provided adjacent the vertically extending legs of the return-bent portions 15, 17 with vertically disposed slots 19 extending inwardly from the horizontal edges of the end walls, such as to enable members 8, 9, to be seated in the open upper and lower ends of the bodies of the blocks in a position to span the vertical joints between horizontally adjacent abutting blocks. As will be noted, particularly from FIG. 3, the horizontal edges of flanges 16 rest in contact with flanges 15a in the fully and properly seated position of member 8, the edges of flanges 18 rest in contact with flanges 17a in the fully and properly seated position of member 9, the flanges 16 and 18 being received in the slots 19 at the upper and lower ends, respectively, of the walls 12, 13.
The body member '6, particularly when made from sheet metal, is preferably fabricated, as by stamping the same From two separate pieces thereof. One of these pieces is Formed to provide a central portion constituting the side wall of the body, which is bent at a right angle at one and thereof to provide a portion of the end wall 12, and ikewise bent at its opposite end to provide a portion of :he end wall 13. The other piece is similarly formed to arovide the side wall 11 of the body, and the remaining portions of end walls 12, 13.
Adjacent the marginal edge of one of the right angular )ent portions, each of these pieces is formed with an invardly directed groove or channel 21 extending the full ieight of the block. At the marginal edge of the other right angular bent portions of each of these pieces, there ls formed an outwardly extending flange or tongue 22, extending the full height of the block, and preferably in a plane slightly offset with respect to the axis of the groove The two pieces as thus formed may be joined as by spot welding, at the margins of the overlapping bent end portions at the opposite ends thereof, to form the hollow rectangular body 6. As will be evident, in a partition or wall erected with the blocks, the latter being disposed with the end walls thereof abutting the end walls of adjacent blocks in a horizontal row thereof, the flanges or tongues 22 of each block will be disposed in juxtaposed relation within the grooves 21 of the adjacent blocks in the same row. The thus positioned tongues or flanges in the vertical joints between the adjacent blocks preclude light from passing through the joints, from one side of the wall or partition to the other.
The body portion of the blocks may be provided along each of the end walls 12, 13 thereof with holes or knockout plugs 24, to permit the interior of the blocks to function as raceways for the passage of electrical conduits or wiring therethrough.
One of the end walls 12, 13 of the blocks is formed with a suitable orientation mark 25 in the form of a circle, cross, or the like, adjacent the upper or lower end thereof. The purpose of such a mark is to indicate to the person erecting a wall or partition from the blocks, whether or not the blocks of successive rows are correctly oriented with respect to one another in the course of assembling the wall or partition. The interlocking of the blocks may be effected only when they are oriented in the same relative position in the assembly.
For a purpose to be hereinafter set forth, the vertical legs of the return bent portions 15 and 17 are each provided with a series of circular holes 26, spaced at equal distances from one another, along the longitudinal median line of the legs.
The body portion of the blocks may be formed, pierced and marked in precision dies, thus assuring uniformity of dimensions, and hence eflicient assembly of the blocks in erecting a wall or partition, without requiring the use of skilled or even unskilled labor.
If desired, insulation material such as sheets of foamed polystyrene, mats of glass fiber or the like, indicated at 30, may be sealed into the blocks, during manufacture thereof, as by adhering the same by suitable adhesive to the inner surface of the side walls 10, 11 of the blocks. Insulation material thus incorporated will serve to make the wall or partition erected with the blocks soundproof and fireproof.
The exterior of the side walls 10, 11 may be provided with any desired ornamental finish, as by applying thereto enamel or other suitable decorative coating material in the course of production of the blocks. Alternatively, these surfaces may be bonderized and prime-coated at the factory, for finishing with the decorative coating after the wall or partition has been erected.
Referring now more in detail to members 8 and 9, these constitute, when properly associated for coaction with each other and with the blocks of a pair of adjoining rows of blocks, the interlocking means hereinabove referred to and described in greater detail herebelow. As will be seen, the strips 8 and 9 are each in the form of an elongated relatively shallow channel, comprising a base portion 31, 32, from the longitudinal edges of which the flanges 16, 18, respectively extend.
The transverse dimension of the members 8, 9 is such that when they are inserted at the open tops and bottoms of the block bodies 6, the flanges 16, 18 will be received with a tight fit in the slits 19 at the upper and lower ends of the blocks.
Locking strips 8 and 9 are desirably made in lengths of 36 inches, i.e., an even multiple of the length of the body 5, although to facilitate assembly of the blocks in a wall or partition, and in order to permit use of different size blocks in one or more rows thereof, factory-cut strips of six, twelve, eighteen and twenty-four inch lengths may be supplied for use with the thirty-six inch length strips. However, the latter would be used whenever possible in the assembly of a Wall or partition, as this longer strip provides the maximum structural strength and stability.
The flanges 16, 18 on members 8, 9, respectively, are each formed with a series of longitudinally spaced knobs 35, 36, respectively, extending outwardly from the outer surfaces of the flanges. These knobs are preferably of semispherical shape and are spaced on centers from one another equal to the spacing, on centers, of the holes 26 formed in the vertical legs of the return-bent portions 15, 17. Thus, when the members 8, 9 are installed at the upper and lower open ends, respectively, of the blocks 5, each of the knobs 35, 36 will be aligned with one of the holes 26 and will enter the latter when the members 8, 9 are disposed with their flanges 16, 18, respectively, fully seated on flanges a, 17a, respectively. Thus, the frictional engagement between the knobs 35, 36 and the holes 26 helps to retain the members 8, 9 in their respective positions at the upper and lower ends of the block bodies, for effecting the herein referred to interlocking of the blocks when the locking members are properly associated with one another.
As will be evident, the aforesaid positioning of the members 8, 9 serves as a coupling means for tieing together two or more adjacent blocks in a row of blocks of a wall or partition assembled therewith.
In accordance with the invention, the base portions 31, 32 of members 8, 9 are formed with means for effecting the interlocking of each block of a row of blocks in a wall or partition, with the adjacent blocks in the rows immediately thereabove and immediately therebelow.
To that end, the 'base portion 31 of members 8, is pro vided along the longitudinal median line thereof with a series of round openings, at the rim of each of which there is mounted one end of a cylindrical sleeve or bushing 41. The sleeves are of the split type, formed by providing slits or slots 42 extending inwardly from the outer edge of the cylindrical sleeves, preferably in a direction parallel to the axis thereof, at diametrically opposite locations.
As will be noted, the sleeves 41 extend, with respect to the base portion 31, in the same direction as that in which the flanges 16 extend with respect to the base portion.
The base portion 32 of members 9 is provided along the longitudinal median line thereof with a series of round solid studs 51, riveted thereto and extending in a direction with respect thereto opposite that in which the flanges 18 extend from the base portion 32.
The spacing (on centers) between adjacent ones of the sleeves 41 on member 8 is the same as that between adjacent ones of the studs 51 on member 9.
Each of the studs 51 is provided adjacent the free outer end thereof with a peripheral enlargement 52, and each of the sleeves 41 is provided adjacent its outer end with an inwardly extending groove 43 for receiving and retaining the enlargement 52 of a stud on the mating member 9.
The outside diameters of the studs 51 and of the enlarged portions 52 thereof are slightly or minutely less than the inside diameter of the sleeves 41 and grooves 43, respectively, and are so related to the inside diameters of the sleeves and the grooves as to require the application of substantial force to cause the studs to be fully received within the sleeves so as to enable the enlargements 52 of the studs to be seated in and retained by the grooves 43. The flexibility imparted to the sleeves 41 by the slots 42 serves to assist the studs with their enlargements 52 to enter and be removed from the sleeves.
It is by virtue of the aforementioned coaction between the studs 51 on members 9 and the sleeves or bushings 41 on the members 8 that the firm interlocking between blocks of one row and the adjacent blocks of the rows thereabove and therebelow is achieved. This makes possible a rapid assembly of the blocks in erecting walls, partitions or roomdividers of high structural strength and stability. At the same time, the construction and coaction of the studs 51 and sleeves 43 is such that 'by exerting a relatively moderate prying force between the members 8, 9 the assembled wall or partition may readily be disassembled or demounted without causing damage to the blocks or to the locking members, which may then or subsequently be re-assembled into a wall or partition at another desired location.
Each of the members 8, 9, is also formed along the longitudinal median line of the base portion 31, 32 thereof with a series of uniformly spaced relatively large sized hollow, frusto-conical bosses or extensions 58, 59, respectively. As will be noted, the bosses 58 on member 8 project from the same surface of base 31 as do the sleeves 41; and bosses 59 on member 9 project from the same surface of base 32 as do the studs 51. The bosses are accordingly positioned so that when the locking member 9 installed at the lower ends of the blocks in one row or course of blocks is mated with the locking member 8 installed at the upper ends of blocks in the preceding course, the downwardly extending bosses 59 of members 9 will enter and be disposed within the downwardly extending bosses 58 of the subjacent members 8. This interfitting of the bosses 58, 59 not only provides additional lateral strength to the assembled wall or partition, but also serves to act as a guide to assist the positioning of the studs 51 in their respective bushings 41. In addition, the bosses 58, 59 serve to accommodate electrical wiring or conduits which may desirably be passed vertically through the blocks of an assembly.
The manner of utilizing the blocks and the interlocking members embodying the invention in erecting a wall or partition will be readily apparent, particularly from the illustrative example set forth hereinbelow.
When such wall or partition is of full room height, i.e., when it extends from floor to ceiling, it is desirable to incorporate therein a means for elevating the assembled wall or partition, as a unit, a sufiicient distance to take up the difference between that height and the aggregate height of the total number of courses of blocks utilized to erect the wall or partition. This also serves to stabilize the wall or partition by causing the upper portion of the uppermost course of blocks to be disposed within a channel strip secured to the ceiling. The herein described elevating means and the manner of incorporating the same in a wall or partition constitutes an auxiliary feature of the invention.
The aforesaid elevating or lifting means comprises a jack strip, indicated generally by numeral 70. In the illustrative embodiment shown, the jack strip comprises an H-shaped, relatively elongated upper plate 71, formed by securing two channel members in back-to-back relationship at the base portions thereof; a lower plate 72 in the form of a relatively elongated channel having an indented portion 73 intermediate the side flanges 75 thereof; and a series of vertically disposed threaded bolts 77, mounted along the indented portion 73 at suitably spaced distances from one another. The heads 78 of each of the bolts are disposed within the indented portion 73, and the opposite ends thereof pass through vertically aligned openings in plate member 71.
The aforementioned openings in upper plate member 71, as also the threaded bolts 77 mounted on the lower plate 72, may be spaced from one another on, say, twelve inch centers. The openings in member 71 are each of a diameter to enable the member 71 to float vertically along the length of the bolts or studs 77, so that the location of member 71 may readily be altered merely by adjusting the position of the nuts 79 along the bolts 0r studs. In this manner, the assembled wall or partition with which the jack strip 70 is associated may be raised or lowered, a distance corresponding substantially to the effective length of the bolts or studs.
As will be noted from FIG. 3, the first course of blocks is disposed with the lower open ends thereof positioned between the flanges 71a of plate member 71. The flanges 71a and the oppositely directed flanges 74 of member 71, as well as the flanges 75 of the bottom member 72 may be given a finish or trim by mounting any desirable form of trim moldings along each side of the jack strip so as to conceal those flanges as well as the opening between members 71 and 72.
As illustrated in FIG. 3, the trim moldings may be in the form of elongated metal plates 80 having a return bent flange 81 along the upper longitudinal edge thereof for bearing against the outer vertical surface of flanges 71a, and a flange 82 at the lower longitudinal edge thereof and extending at a right angle thereto, for bearing against the outer vertical surface of flanges 75.
When the jack strips are positioned on and anchored to the floor, and the first course of the blocks has been positioned thereon, the upper ends of the threaded bolts 77 extend a substantial distance into the interior of the blocks through the lower open ends thereof, since the blocks of that row do not have locking members 9 positioned at the lower ends thereof.
The moldings 80 at each side of the base of the wall or partition are fastened to the jack strip 70 by means of clips 90. As illustrated in FIGS. 3 and 5, each of the clips comprises a rectangular back plate 92 to which is secured an outer plate 93. The latter is formed with a centrally depressed portion '94, from the opposite ends of which there extend wings 95 bent with respect to the back plate 92 so as to provide a substantial degree of resilience between each of these wings and the back plate 92. Thus, the downwardly extending flanges 74 on upper member 71 f the jack strip may be received and gripped between the back plate 92 and the upper wing portion 95 of the clip. Similarly, the upwardly extending flanges 75 of the bottom member 72 of the jack strip may be received and gripped between the back plate 92 and the lower wing 95 of the clip.
The clips are positioned along the jack strip and the moldings 80 are set and fastened to the jack strips by any suitable means, such as sheet metal screws 96 passing through openings in the moldings 80 and registering with openings 97 formed centrally of the clips 90.
The manner of using the blocks and the strips for interlocking them in erecting a wall, partition or roomdivider, may conveniently be exemplified and described with reference to the construction of a wall or partition having a length of eight feet and a height of eight feet five inches from floor to ceiling.
The blocks preferably utilized are of a length of twelve inches. However, in order to provide in the erected wall or partition a staggering of the "vertical joints between abutting blocks in one row or course with respect to the vertical joints in the adjacent courses, blocks of a length of six inches are utilized in alternate courses of blocks.
The blocks are each of the same height, preferably six inches. Since sixteen courses of blocks of that height will aggregate a height of eight feet, the above-mentioned room height of eight feet five inches will require suitable treatment to compensate for the excess of five inches in the room height. This treatment may be effected by raising the erected wall or partition the required distance, and providing a suitable molding or other trim along the base of the erected wall or partition.
Assuming the partition or wall abuts an existing wall, a shallow U-shaped channel member 101, of a height corresponding to that between floor and ceiling, i.e., eight feet, five inches, is mounted vertically on a plumb line to the existing wall, as by means of mollie bolts, cut nails or power-shot rivets.
One of the base jack strips 70, cut to a length of approximately seven feet, nine inches, is placed on the floor in alignment with the channel of the mounted strip 101, leaving a gap of approximately one-half inch between member 101 and the base jack strip. The jack strip is then anchored to the floor by means of any suitable fasteners.
A U-shaped channel strip 102 similar to strip 101 but of a length of seven feet, ten inches, is aflixed to the ceiling in abutment with strip 101 and in such position that the legs thereof are disposed in the same vertical planes 8 as are the legs of the strip and the legs or flanges 71a of the jack strip 70 anchored to the floor.
The longitudinal edges of the downwardly extending legs of the ceiling channel strip 102 will be disposed so as to leave a clearance of 1 /2 inches, for placing and assembling the uppermost course of blocks.
Placement of the blocks in the erection of the wall or partition preferably begins at the wall to which the channel strip 101 is aflixed. The first block, oriented so that the opening between flanges 15 faces upwardly, is placed so that one of its ends is disposed in the channel strip 101. It is then brought down until it is fully seated on the upper plate 71 of the jack strip, with flanges 71a bearing against the outer surfaces of the block at the lower margins of side walls 10, 11. The next horizontally adjacent block of the first course of blocks is then placed so that it is similarly seated with respect to the jack strip and moved, as by tapping it with a rubber mallet, until the confront-ing end walls of the two blocks are in vertical abutment. This procedure is continued until the required number of blocks (in this example, eight) has been placed on the base jack strip. The last of these blocks set in place will protrude approximately 1 /2. inches beyond the corresponding end of the jack strip, for reception within a vertical channel strip applied to cap that end of the assembled wall or partition. As will be understood, the blocks at each end of each succeeding course will be similarly disposed with respect to the corresponding end of the jack strip.
The female member 8 of the locking strips is then installed at the upper open ends of the blocks in the first course. In this connection, it may be pointed out that the length of these strips, relative to the length of the blocks utilized, is such that the end edges of the strips should not, in the assembled wall or partition, coincide with a vertical joint between two blocks in the course immediately therebelow. On the contrary, they must always overlap, i.e. occur intermediate those joints. Accordingly, starting at the end of the first course, which extends into channel 101, a female member 8 of a length of eighteen inches is assembled with the blocks at that end of the course, is position such that the knobs on the flanges 16 will register with the holes 26 in the legs of return-bent portions 15 of the blocks. The member 8 will cover the first block and terminate at approximately the vertical median line of the second block in the course. When the knobs of the locking strip are in registry with the holes 26 of the blocks in the first course, the strip may be tapped down gently, as with a rubber mallet, until it is fully and properly seated on flanges 15a, with the knobs on member 8 received and held within the holes 26.
Following the installation of the first female gripping strip 8 at the end of the partition adjacent the wall on which channel member 101 is mounted, additional female locking members 8 are similarly installed with relation to the remaining blocks of the first course. The additional locking members are desirably of the full length of thirty-six inches, in order to impart maximum longitudinal strength to the wall or partition. Two such members, each thirty-six inches long, and one having a length of six inches will suflice to complete the closure of the upper end of the blocks making up the course, by the female component 8 of the locking means.
It will be noted that the lower end of the blocks in the first course is left open, and is disposed, as above stated in seated relation to the upper plate 71 of the base jack strip. Thus, the upper portions of the threaded bolts 77 are enabled to extend into the interior of the blocks of this course.
The next course of blocks is then started, likewise at the vertical channel .101. Since it is desirable that the vertical joints between the blocks of adjacent courses be staggered relative to one another, the second course may be started with a block which is six inches long. correspondingly, as will be understood, when the first course is started with a half-length block, the second course would be started with a full-length block, viz, in this instance, a block of the twelve inch length.
The male member 9 of the locking means is now inserted at the lower end of the initial block of the second course.
Depending upon the orientation of the blocks assembled in the first course, the initial block of the second course is held with the orientation mark in the same relative location thereon, and then turned face-to-face through an arc of 180. The block may then be placed on a bench or table and the male locking member 9 pressed into proper position in relation to the block.
The block, which now carries the locking member 9, is then assembled with the subjacent block or blocks of the first course by locating the downwardly extending studs 51 on the strip 9 directly above the sleeves or bushings '41 in the female member 8 of the subjacent block or blocks. Any suitable means may be utilized to force the studs fully into position in the sleeves 41 so that the enlargements 52 will extend into the grooves 42. For that purpose, a piece of wood approximately one and one-half inches square in cross-section and nine inches long may be positioned inside the block so as to lie directly over one or several of the studs 51, and firmly tapped, as with a rubber mallet, until the studs 51 are fully positioned within their respective sleeves 41. This will be evidenced by an audible snap when the enlargements 52 on the studs become seated in the grooves 42 of the sleeves.
The additional blocks of this and succeeding courses may be pro-assembled in groups, each composed of, say, three blocks. Such pre-assembly of the blocks, as on a table or bench, further speeds up the erection of the wall or partition. The above described procedure of utilizing the orientation mark and turning the blocks through an arch of 180 before inserting the male locking member 9, will assure that the blocks of the pre-assemblies will be positioned in the wall or partition in correct relation to the blocks already installed in the wall or partition.
The entire wall or partition is completed by repeating the aforementioned procedure.
After the final course (the sixteenth in the present example) is in place, the wall or partition may be raised so that the upper portion of the topmost course of blocks will be disposed between the flanges of the ceiling channel 102. This may be achieved by progressively turning the jack screw nuts 79, thus causing the floating plate member 71 to move upwardly and elevate the wall or partition as a unit. If desired, the raising of the wall or partition may be achieved by means of a ratchet type riggers jack, having a horizontal plate extending out from the body of the jack and which can be lowered to with-in one inch of the floor. In use, these jacks may be placed on the floor, say five to six feet apart, with their horizontal raising plates inserted under the plate member 71. By working the jacks in unison, the entire wall may be raised until the upper end thereof is located between the flanges of the ceiling channel 102. The nuts 79 on the jack screws may then be tightened and the jacks removed.
As will be apparent, in the assembly of the blocks in superposed courses, there will at times occur places along the horizontal joints between adjoining courses, where the joint is not tight, notwithstanding the interlocking of the juxtaposed blocks by the mating members 8, 9 and their respective interlocking elements 41, 51. The raising of the wall or partition by the above-described jack means serves also to tighten up any such looseness in the joints.
The vertical edge of the wall or partition at the end thereof opposite that which adjoins member 101 may then be capped with a channel member 103 similar to member 101.
The base trim or molding may then be set in place and connected to the jack strip 70 by means of screws 96 passing through the openings spaced longitudinally along the molding strip, and through the openings 97 in the clips 90, positioned along the jack strip at locations such that the openings 97 are in longitudinal alignment with the openings in the molding strip. As will be noted, especially from FIG. 3, when screws 96 have been fully driven home, flanges 81 of the molding strip will bear firmly against the outer vertical surface of flanges 71a, and the edges of flanges 82 will bear firmly against the outer vertical surface of flanges 75.
What is claimed is:
1. A partition or like structure comprising a plurality of superposed courses of individual hollow blocks disposed in end to end abutment in each of said courses, each of said blocks being of rectangular configuration and having open upper and lower ends, the upper ends of the blocks being closed by an elongated channel strip comprising a base having a flange at each of its longitudinal edges and a series of cylindrical hollow sleeves spaced along the longitudinal median line of the base of the channel strip and extending axially in the same direction with respect to the base of the channel as the said flanges, the lower ends of said blocks being closed by an elongated channel strip comprising a base having a flange at each of its longitudinal edges and a series of round solid studs spaced along the longitudinal median line of the base of said second-named channel strip and extending axially in the direction with respect to the base of said second-named channel strip opposite to that in which the flanges thereof extend, each of said studs on a channel strip closing the lower end of a block in one of said courses being disposed internally of and interlocking with one of said sleeves on a channel strip closing the upper end of a block in a course superposed by said first-named course.
2. A partition or like structure as defined in claim 1, wherein each of said studs is formed adjacent the outer end thereof with a peripheral enlargement, and wherein each of said sleeves is formed adjacent the outer end thereof with an annular inwardly extending groove, the enlargement on each of said studs on the channel strips closing the lower end of a block in one of said courses being disposed within a groove in one of said sleeves on a channel strip closing the upper end of a block in a course superposed by said first-named course.
3. A partition or like structure as defined in claim 1, wherein the base portion of each of said channel strips is formed with a series of hollow, frusto-conical bosses spaced longitudinally from one another so as to be disposed substantially midway of said studs and sleeves on the respective channel strips, said bosses on each of said strips extending in the same direction relative to the base of the strip as do the said studs and sleeves, respectively, the bosses on the channel strips at the lower end of the blocks in said one course being disposed with the lower surface thereof in engagement with the upper surface of the bosses at the upper end of the blocks in the course superposed by said first-named course.
4. A partition or like structure as defined in claim 1, wherein the blocks constituting the lowermost of said courses are each disposed with the lower open end thereof seated on an H-shaped member spaced from the floor and from a base channel member anchored to the floor, a series of threaded studs extending vertically from said base channel member and through openings formed in said H-shaped member, said openings being of a diameter to enable said H-shaped member to float along the length of said threaded studs, and threaded nuts mounted on said studs, whereby adjustment of the position of said nuts upwardly along the length of said studs serves to raise the partition, and adjustment of said nuts downwardly along the length of said studs serves to lower the partition.
5. A structure as defined in claim 4, wherein a series of spring clips, each having its opposite ends bifurcated, are disposed so as to grip vertically extending flanges on said base channel and on said H-shaped member, and wherein said flanges are concealed from view by molding strips secured at the base of the partition by screws passing through openings therein and through openings formed in each of said clips and registering with said openings in the molding strip.
6. A partition or like structure comprising 1) individual blocks assembled in a plurality of superposed hori- Zontal rows, said blocks each being of hollow, rectangular configuration and having open upper and lower ends, and (2) interlocking means installed in the horizontal joints between the upper open ends of blocks in each of said rows and the lower open ends of blocks in the row superposing each of said rows, said interlocking means comprising relatively elongated coacting male and female members each of relatively shallow channel-like configuration, the members installed in the upper open end of the blocks in one row constituting female members and comprising a series of longitudinally spaced cylindrical sleeves extending from the base portion of said members, and the members installed in the lower open end of the blocks in the row which superposes said first-named row constituting male members and comprising a series of longitudinally spaced studs for mating engagement by said sleeves on the female members disposed at the upper end of blocks in the superposed row.
7. Means for interlocking hollow building blocks disposed in superposed courses, said means comprising a pair of mating strips, each of relatively shallow channel configuration, the base portion of one of said channel strips being provided along its longitudinal median line with a series of longitudinally spaced round studs each projecting at a right angle from said base portion and extending in a direction opposite that in which the flanges of said channel extend, the base portion of the other of said channel strips being provided along its longitudinal median line with a series of longitudinally spaced cylindrical sleeves each projecting at a right angle from the base portion of said other channel strips and extending in the same direction with respect thereto as the flanges of said other channel strips, the outside diameter of said studs being so related to the inside diameter of said sleeves as to require application of substantial force to enable each of said studs to become fully seated within one of said sleeves for interlocking the blocks disposed in superposed courses.
8. The interlocking means defined in claim 7, wherein each of said sleeves is a split sleeve.
9. The interlocking means defined in claim 7, wherein each of said studs is formed with a peripheral annular enlargement adjacent the outer end thereof, and wherein each of said sleeves is formed with an annular inwardly extending groove adjacent the outer end thereof.
10. The interlocking means defined in claim 7, wherein the 'base portion of each of said strips is formed with a series of spaced, hollow, frusto-conical bosses along the longitudinal median line thereof, said bosses on each of said strips extending in the same direction relative to the base of the strips as do the said studs and sleeves, respectively, whereby the bosses on the strips carrying said studs will be in surface engagement with the bosses on the strips carrying said sleeves when said strips are disposed to enable the studs and sleeves to be interlocked with one another.
References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 683,442 10/1901 COOley 52585X 1 1,250,971 12/1917 Converse 46-25 X 2,005,301 6/1935 Rafter 52-591 2,881,876 4/1959 Williams 52 122 3,180,059 4/1965 Persak 52- 585 3,189,140 6/1965 Luss 52 242 x 3,192,738 7/1965 ChaflCS et al. 4625 X FOREIGN PATENTS 795,078 5/1958 Great Britain.
ALFRED C. PERHAM, Primary Examiner