US 3511001 A
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
May 12, 197.0k w. R. MORGAN, JR 3,511,001
RESILIENT LEVELING MEANS FOR FLOORS Filed March 14, 1968 3 Sheets-Sheet 1 F|G.I
" I' 'i NVIENTOR A I2 l2 WILLIAM R. MORGAN JR.
May 12, 1970 w. R, MORGAN, JR 3,511,001
v 4 RESILIENT LEVELING MEANS FOR FLOORS Filed March 14, 1968 sheets-sheet 2 INVENTOR WILLIAM R. MORGAN JR.
May 12, 1970 w. R. MORGAN, JR
- RESILIENT LEVELING MEANS FOR FLOORS` 5 ,Sheets-Sheet 5 Filed March 14,' 1968 N m .mi
mvENToR WILLIAM RMORGAN, .1R`
United States Patent O ABSTRACT OF THE DISCLOSURE A iioor construction of the type including supporting members located above a base and having a finished floor disposed on the supporting members. The invention relates to spacer means which are associated with the supporting members whereby the position of the supporting members relative to the base can tbe adjusted. The spacer means include a bolt, a sleeve, a threaded element and spring means associated with the bolt and located between the supporting members and the threaded element on the bolt. The bolt permits movement of the support means relative to the base while the spring means provides a resilient cushion.
This invention relates to means for resilient leveling of floors. The invention vwill be described with reference to the leveling of floors in gymnasiums or the like. It Will be understood, however7 that the instant invention is directly applicable to various other uses, and the description in this case is not limited to athletic areas.
In the installation of floors in gymnasiums, it is necessary to take a great deal of care in order to insure that the floor will be level. 'I'his is, of course, necessary, for example where the floor is to be used as a basketball court.
In constructing a floor, the usual practice is to provide a concrete base. Sleepers, and/or a sub-floor are then located above this base, and the finished floor is secured thereto. Inserts may be located at some intermediate point to provide a cushioning effect. This is desirable in order to increase the give of the floor since a floor of this type is much more desirable from the standpoint of the comfort and endurance of persons running on the floor. Thus, a very solid floor without give can cause athletes to ybecome leg-weary much more quickly, and can also result in injuries.
In order to provide a level floor constructed in the manner described, it is necessary to make sure that the concrete base is exactly level. Thus, variations in the concrete -base will be directly reflected as variations in the finished floor.
Relatively expensive techniques are employed for providing a level concrete floor. Such expansive techniques are required since concrete will harden, settle, expand and contract in an unpredictable manner. After hardening of the concrete, it usually becomes `necessary to leveloff high spots in the floor, for example, by grinding, and to Afill-in lower spots byapplying additional Wet concrete, or specialleveling materials.
Various, means have been devise with a view toward adjusting floor levels even lwhere a concrete base may not be level. Examples of such devices are found in Whittaker Pat. No. Re. 16,416, ACinnamond Pat. No. 1,599,745, and Bailey Pat. No. 3,211,454. These devices are, however, considered unsatisfactory for various reasons. They are considered to Ibe difficult to insert, or unduly'difcult to operate, and this leads to additional eX- pense which tends to offset the value of eliminating the need for leveling the concrete.
It is a general object of this invention to provide an improved device for use in leveling lioor constructions Patented May 12, 1970 ACC whereby the floor constructions can be provided completely level in a relatively economical fashion.
It is a further object of this invention to provide devices of the type described which include resilient parts whereby cushioning means can be associated with a lioor in combination with the adjusting means.
These and other objects of this invention will appear hereinafter and for purposes of illustration, but not of limitation, specific embodiments of the invention are shown in the accompanying drawings in which:
FIG. 1 is a perspective View, partly cut away, illustrating a floor construction which includes devices of the type contemplated by this invention;
FIG. 2 is an enlarged fragmentary cross-sectional view taken about the line 2-2 of FIG. 1 and illustrating a device of the type contemplated by the invention;
FIG. 3 is a view corresponding to FIG. 2 and illustrating a device at a different position relative to the base and floor supporting member;
FIG. 4 is a fragmentary sectional View illustrating a modified form of the invention;
FIG. 5 is a fragmentary sectional view illustrating an additional modification of the invention;
FIG. 6 is a detail view of a spring design suitable for use in the leveling means;
FIGS. 7 and 8 illustrate alternate versions of bearing plates suitable for use in the leveling means; and
FIG. 9 is a plan view, partly cut away, illustrating application of the invention to a floor including sleepers and an overlying suboor.
This invention generally relates to a floor construction wherein floor supporting members are maintained in spaced-apart relationship above a base. The supporting members may comprise sleepers or panels which will be disposed beneath the finished floor. In the case of a hard- Wood floor for example, the hardwood strips are nailed to sleepers or panels which are in turn mounted immediately above a base construction. The base construction, in typical applications, consists of a concrete slab disposed over a gravel base.
When considering the following description, it will be appreciated that the finished floor may comprise a wide variety 0f arrangements, for example carpeting, tile, or merely a coating such as paint.
The particular improvement of the invention comprises unique spacer means which maintain the sleepers or other supporting members in spaced-apart relationship with respect to the underlying base. The spacer members each include a bolt received in an opening defined in a supporting member. A threaded element is connected to each bolt, and spring means are interposed between each -bolt and its associated threaded element. The spring means Ibear against the supporting members while the bolts are freely received in the openings defined by the supporting members.
The-arrangement of the invention provides for adjustment inv that the position 0f each bolt can be changed relative to the supporting members. Accordingly, thesupporting members can be adjusted until a completely level arrangement is provided.
The devices of this invention also provide a high degree of resilience in that the spring means permit relative movement between the supporting members and the bolts in response to applied forces. For example, a person running on the surface of the floor will apply localized forces which will result in give by the floor. This provides a cushioning effect; however, the spring action will restore the floor to a level condition.
FIG. l of the accompanying drawings illustrates a floor construction which includes devices of the type contemplated by this invention. The construction is formed by providing a layer of gravel and a concrete slab 12 over the gravel. Supporting members 14 are disposed above the concrete slab, and a finished fioor 16 is applied over the supporting members.
FIGS. 2 and 3 illustrate a device 18 employed for maintaining the supporting members 14 in spaced-apart relationship with respect to the slab 12. Although the supporting members 14 are illustrated in FIG. l as panels, it will be appreciated when considering FIGS. 2 and 3 that the devices 18 could be readily associated with conventional sleepers.
The devices 18 comprise a bolt which defines a threaded shank 20 and a head 22. The head 22 is received within a sleeve 24 which is press fit within an opening 26 defined by the supporting member 14. If desired, the exterior surface of the sleeve 24 may be knurled to insure a tight 1it of the sleeve within the opening 26.
`A nut 28 is threaded onto the shank 20 of the bolt, and a washer 30 is interposed between the nut and spring 32. The spring 32 is of modified U shape with the outer edges 34 bearing against a plate 36. This plate is situated directly against the under surface of the supporting member and against the bottom wall of the sleeve 24.
The sleeve defines an open top whereby the head 22 of the bolt is accessible from above the supporting member. An in-turned annular fiange 38 is formed at the bottom of the sleeve 24, and the shank 20 of the bolt passes freely through the opening defined by the flange. The head 22 of the bolt will, however, be restrained by the flange when the bolt is at an extreme lower position within the sleeve.
The head 22 and shank 20 are preferably snugly received within the respective openings provided by the sleeve, since this lends stability to the assembly. Gaps are shown in the accompanying drawings primarily for purposes of illustrating the relationship of the parts.
As indicated by a comparison of FIGS. 2 and 3, the device of this invention permits variations in the spacing between the supporting members 14 and the concrete slab 12. It will be apparent that the upper surface of the concrete slab need not be uniform since the supporting members can be brought to the same level by rotating the bolts of the respective devices 18.
The devices also provide an ideal arrangement for cushioning the supporting members. The springs 32, in combination with the mounting for the bolts, permit relative movement between the bolts and the supporting members in response to the application of localized forces. Obviously, the springs can be brought to a desired temper in order to provide suitable cushioning while also insuring that restoration of the supporting members to a level condition will take place.
FIG. 4 illustrates a modification of the invention wherein a device 40 is associated with a supporting member 14. The device includes a sleeve 42 secured withinv an opening 44 in the supporting member. A bolt 46 is received Iwithin the bore of the sleeve 42, and a nut 48 lis attached to the bolt shank beneath the lower end of the sleeve. A washer 50 and spring 52 function in the manner previously described. In this instance, however, the bottom surface 54 of the sleeve 42 serves as a bearing plate for the outer edges 56 of the U-shaped spring. An annular shoulder 58 is defined by the sleeve 42 to provide for positioning of the sleeve relative to the supporting member. Adjustment of the device 40 can be accomplished through the open top of the sleeve, and the spring 52 will provide the desired cushioning.
The design of FIG. 4 is especially suitable where the concrete base is very uneven. Thus, a relatively large separation of the supporting member 4 can be achieved with respect to the base even though the exposure of the shank of the bolt 46 beneath the sleeve 42 is not too great. With this minimum exposure of the shank beneath the sleeve, stability can be achieved even when the -bolt rests on a very uneven surface. The design of FIG. 4 also provides advantages where the supporting member 14 is relatively thin since the shoulder portions of the sleeve 42 extend downwardly from the supporting member thereby adding to the effective thickness.
FIG. 5 illustrates an additional modification comprising a device 60 associated with supporting member 62. A sleeve 64 is fitted within an opening 66 defined by the supporting member. Bolt 68 extends outwardly from the sleeve into threaded engagement with an opening 69 in the element 70. As shown in FIG. 6, the ele-ment 71) includes wings y72 which provide spring action. The modification of FIG. 5 thus provides for the elimination of a nut while accomplishing the advantages of the structures previously described.
The bearing plate 74 shown in FIGS. 5 and 7 is especially suitable for use in conjunction with the element 70. The bearing plate includes anchoring spurs 76 which provide for rigid attachment of the plate to the underside of the supporting member 62. The lateral flanges 78 of the bearing plate confine the element 70 to prevent the element from rotating as the bolt shank turns.
A coil spring 80 may be interposed between the head 82 of the bolt, and the annular flange 84 of the sleeve. This coil spring in combination with a bearing plate of the type shown at 74 prevents turning of the bolt which might result due to vibrations created by traffic on the fioor. A coil spring of this type may be included in devices of the type shown in FIGS. 2 and 4.
FIG. 8 illustrates a modified bearing plate 86. This bearing plate includes side walls '88 which terminate in inwardly extending fianges 90. These fianges fit underneath the spring 70 when utilized in a construction as shown in FIG. 5 to thereby hold the spring and associated bolt 68 in the raised position prior to location on the concrete.
The use of devices of the type described permits adjustment of fioor levelers without requiring any high degree of care in the formation of the underlying concrete slab or other base construction. It will be appreciated that panels or sleepers can be put into place, and then final adjustments made to insure a level arrangement. At this time, the finished floor can be laid over the supporting members with the assurance that the final construction will be level. In the event, however, that some portions, for any reason, should be out of a level plane, then the finished floor can be taken up in localized areas to provide the desired corrections. If this becomes necessary, the supporting members need not be disturbed since all of the adjusting devices are accessible from above the supporting members.
FIG. 9 illustrates application of the invention to an arrangement comprising sleepers 92 having the devices 18 associated therewith. Plywood subfloor panels 94 are supported on the sleepers and the finished floor 96 is then located on the subfloor.
The lower ends of the bolt Shanks 20 may rest directly on the concrete slab, particularly if fiat ends are provided. If desired, however, a foot plate could be situated beneath each bolt to avoid any possibility of the bolts digging into the concrete or base construction and thereby destroying a level condition.
References have been made to the provision of a finished floor immediately above the supporting members which carry the adjusting devices. In addition, as shown in FIG. 9 this invention contemplates the location of a subfloor between supporting members and a finished floor. It is also contemplated that the adjusting devices could rest on some intermediate structures rather than directly on the surface of a concrete slab or other supporting base.
It will be understood that various changes and modifications can be made in the above described construction which provide the characteristics of this invention.
That which is claimed is:
1. In a floor construction wherein floor supporting members are maintained in spaced-apart relationship above a base, and wherein a finished floor is positioned above said supporting members, the improvement comprising spacer means for maintaining said supporting members in said spaced-apart relationship with the base, said spacer means each including a bolt, openings extending completely through said supporting members for freely receiving each bolt, a threaded element connected to each bolt, and spring means extending between the undersurface of said supporting members and said threaded element, said bolt providing for adjustment of an associated supporting member relative to said base and said spring means providing a cushion beneath the supporting member.
2. A construction in accordance with claim 1 including a sleeve secured within each of the openings in the supporting members, the shank of each bolt being freely received within said sleeve.
3. A construction in accordance with claim 2 wherein the bottom of each sleeve defines an inwardly directed ange, the shank of each bolt being freely received within the opening defined by the flange, an enlarged head defined by each bolt, and wherein the heads of the bolts engage the flange when the bolts are moved to an extreme lower position relative to the sleeve.
4. A construction in accordance with claim 3 including a coil spring fitted around the shank of each bolt, said coil spring being interposed between the head of each bolt and the inwardly directed flange of each sleeve.
5. A construction in accordance with claim 3 including a shoulder defined around the exterior surface of each sleeve, the upper sections of each sleeve being press t within the openings defined by the supporting members, said shoulders engaging the underside of the supporting members to thereby position the sleeves relative to the supporting members.
6. A construction in accordance with claim S wherein said spring means comprises a U-shaped element having a central opening for receiving the shank of said bolt, the outer edges of the spring means engaging the under surface of said sleeve.
7. A construction in accordance with claim 3 wherein the bottom of each sleeve extends to a position substantially ush with the underside of the supporting members.
8. A construction in accordance with claim 7 including a bearing plate associated with each sleeve, said bearing plate having one side in engagement with the under surface of the supporting members, an opening defined by the bearing plate for receiving said bolt, the opposite surface of said bearing plate engaging said spring means.
9. A construction in accordance with claim 1 wherein said supporting members comprise sleeper elements positioned in spaced-apart locations beneath said finished flooring or beneath a subooring.
10. A construction in accordance with claim 1 wherein said supporting means comprise large sheets of material, and including openings dened by the supporting means for communication with said bolt.
11. A construction in accordance with claim 1 wherein said openings in said supporting members extend through the upper surface of the supporting members whereby said bolts are accessible from the upper surface to provide for adjustment.
12. A construction in accordance with claim 1 wherein said spring means includes a central portion defining an opening for receiving said bolt, and wherein said threaded element comprises a nut bearing against the central portion of said spring means.
13. In a oor construction wherein floor supporting members are maintained in spaced-apart relationship above a base, and wherein a finished floor is positioned above said supporting members, the improvement comprising spacer means for maintaining said supporting members in said spaced-apart relationship with the base, said spacer means each including a bolt, openings in said supporting members for receiving each bolt, a threaded element connected to each bolt, and spring means extending between each bolt and its associated threaded element, said threaded element comprising a section formed integrally with said spring means, a threaded opening being defined in said section for engagement with said bolt, said spring means consisting of wing portions extending outwardly from said section, said bolt providing for adjustment of an associated supporting member relative to said base and said spring means providing a cushion beneath the supporting member.
14. A construction in accordance with claim 13 including a bearing plate associated with each sleeve, said bearing plate having one side in engagement with the under surface of a supporting member, an opening defined by the bearing plate for receiving said bolt, and wherein said wing portions extend into engagement with the opposite side of said bearing plate.
15. A construction in accordance with claim 14 wherein said bearing plate defines downwardly extending side members for engagement with the side edges of said spring means to confine said spring means against rotary movement.
16. A construction in accordance with claim 15 including inwardly directed flanges formed along the bottom edge of each of said side members, said flanges engaging the under surface of said spring means.
17. In a floor construction wherein floor supporting members are maintained in spaced-apart relationship above a base, and wherein a finished floor is positioned above said supporting members, the improvement comprising spacer means for maintaining said supporting members in said spaced-apart relationship with the base, said spacer means each including a bolt, openings in said supporting members, a sleeve secured within each of the openings in the supporting members, the shank of each bolt being freely received within said sleeve, the bottom of each sleeve defining an inwardly directed flange, the shank of each bolt being freely received within the opening defined by the flange, an enlarged head defined by each bolt, the heads of the bolts engaging the flanges when the bolts are moved to an extreme lower position relative to the sleeves, the bottom of each sleeve extending to a position substantially flush with the undersurface of the supporting members, a threaded element connected to each bolt, and spring means extending between the undersurface of said supporting member and the threaded element, a bearing plate associated with each sleeve, said bearing plate having one side in engagement with the undersurface of the supporting members, an opening defined by the bearing plate for receiving said bolt, the opposite surface of said bearing plate engaging said spring means, said spring means comprising a U-shaped element, and wherein the outer portions of said spring means engage said bearing plate, said bolt providing for adjustment of an associated supporting member relative to said base and said spring means providing a cushion beneath the supporting member.
References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS Re. 16,416 9/1926 Whittaker 52-126 1,319,949 10/1919 Curran et al. 248-350 X 1,599,745 9/ 1926 Cinnamond 52-365 1,948,600 2/1939 Templeton 52-126 2,743,487 5/ 1956 Kuhlman 52-480 X 3,211,454 10/1965 Bailey 52-126 X 3,308,587 3/1967 Gilroy et al 52--126 3,316,680 5/1967 Chrastek 52--126 PRICE C. FAW, JR., Primary Examiner U.S. Cl. X.R.