US 3511002 A
Abstract available in
Claims available in
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
May 12, 1970 G. c. Fox
LINED SWIMMING Pool.
2 Sheets-Sheet 1 Filed May 13, 1968 m T m w 1X O F 6.0. me F G D 4m 3G 2 \4 8 4 V4 FIGS Y E N R O n A May 12., 1970 G. C. FOX
LINED SWIMMING PooL 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 Filed May 13, 1968 INVENTOR GEORGE C. ,FOX
FISIO United States Patent O M 3,511,002 LIWED SWIMMING POOL George C. Fox, R.D. 3, Box 43S, Dover, Pa. 17315 Filed May 13, 1968, Ser. No. 728,601 Int. Cl. E04h 3/18 U.S. Cl. 52-146 6 Claims ABSTRACT OF THE DISCLOSURE A swimming pool having sidewalls formed from sheets of relatively rigid material connected at the ends and extending around the entire perimeter of the pool, the sheet material preferably comprising metal and the inner surfaces thereof which face the interior of the pool being covered with lining sheets of non-corrosive metal coextensive n area with the sidewall sheets and all of said sheets having end flanges extending perpendicularly thereto and abutting each other for connection by bolts or rivets. The upper edges of the sidewall and lining sheets are held in overlying condition by channel means and the lower portions of the sheets are similarly held together by interlocking members extending through holes adjacent the lower edges of the sheets, the interlocking members being embedded in concrete when it is poured within the confines of the sidewalls upon the ground circumscribed thereby. Braces comprising X-shaped frames extend perpendicularly outward from the sidewalls and are connected thereto by flange means fixed to the sidewall sheets at transversely spaced locations, the braces at their upper ends supporting a deck extending rearwardly from a coping associated with the channel means which receive the upper edges of the sheets.
BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION The present invention in some respects comprises an improvement over applicants recently issued patent, No. 3,371,455, dated Mar. 5, 1968. The preferred construction set forth in said patent comprises a pool having sidewalls preferably formed from plywood and covered by a lining preferably formed from synthetic resin such as a suitable vinyl composition which not only covers the inner surfaces of the sidewalls but also covers the bottom or floor of the pool.
Although pools constructed in accordance with the principles of said prior patent have proved highly satisfactory and permit the construction of pools for a reasonable cost, it has been found that certain customers prefer a more durable pool and especially one which will render with greater facility the periodic cleaning of the sidewalls and floor of the pool than is afforded by plastic lining material. Further, concerning increased durability, a poured concrete iloor has been found to be superior to a floor which simply comprises a sheet of synthetic resin over packed soil but nevertheless presents certain problems with which the present invention is at least partially concerned.
SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION It is the principal object of the present invention to provide a swimming pool which may be either within the ground or entirely above the ground level and comprising sidewalls preferably formed from sheet metal, such as 3,511,002 Patented May l2, 1970 galvanized sheet steel of suitable thickness and covered on the inner surface by relatively thin stainless steel lining sheets which are coextensive in area with the sidewall sheets and are secured or anchored thereto at the upper edges by channel means which receive the upper edge portions of the two overlying sheets and the lower portions of the sheets are connected by transversely extending anchoring means projecting through holes at spaced intervals in the lower portions of the sheets, at least one end of said anchoring means being embedded within the concrete or cement floor when poured upon the ground floor surface of the pool and extending into firm engagement with the inner surface of the lower portions of the lining sheets.
Another object of the invention is to provide bracing means for said sidewall sheets which are arranged at horizontally spaced intervals around the exterior surfaces of the sidewalls and are affixed thereto by vertical flange means, preferably in the form of a metal angle extending vertically and connected along one flange to the outer surface of the sidewall sheets, the other flange thereof being connectable to the bracing means which, in the preferred embodiment of the invention, comprise a pair of members which are crossed intermediately of the ends thereof to form an X-shaped frame.
-It is a further object of the invention to provide said X-shaped bracing frames with horizontally extending tension members connected at the ends thereof to the upper ends of the X-frame members for purposes of facilitating the mounting of a horizontal, preferably poured concrete deck which extends outwardly away from the edge of the pool and is supported by the upper ends of the deck bracing frames, the edge of the deck nearest to the pool being covered by a curved coping to which there is connected preferably channel means which receive the upper edges of the overlying sidewall and lining sheets.
Still another object of the invention is to provide bracing channel means which receive the aforementioned channel means associated with the coping and applicable to said coping channel means along straight or flat Wall sections of the pool, the bracing channel means being formed from rigid metal and auxiliary, laterally extending flanges preferably are formed thereon to enhance the bracing effect thereof to enable the wall sections to resist flexing by forces applied laterally against either surface thereof.
A still further object of the invention is to provide filler strips to compensate for inaccuracies in the lengthwise dimensions of the overlying sidewall and lining sheets, such filler strips being disposed between the connecting flanges on the ends of said overlying sheets to permit -rm clamping of said end flanges to corresponding flanges of adjacent sidewall and lining sheets without buckling any of said sheets and also permitting the insertion of suitable gasket strips between the flanges of adjacent sheets to render the sidewalls water-tight.
Details of the invention and of the foregoing objects,
as well as other objects thereof, are set forth in the following specification and illustrated in the accompanying drawings comprising a part thereof.
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS FIG. 1 is a top plan view of an exemplary configuration of swimming pool having sidewalls and other features embodying the principles of the present invention.
FIG. 2 is an enlarged vertical sectional view, as seen on the line 2 2 of FIG. l, showing details of the wall and deck structure of the pool and bracing means employed therewith.
FIG. 3 is a still further enlarged, fragmentary illustration of the structure shown in the upper right-hand corner of FIG. 2.
FIG. 4 is a fragmentary detail of part of the structure shown in FIG. 3 as seen on the line 4 4 thereof.
FIG. 5 is a fragmentary, horizontal sectional view of part of the structure shown in FIG. 2 as seen on the line 5-5 thereof.
FIG. 6 is a fragmentary vertical sectional view of the structure shown in the lower right-hand portion of FIG. 2 but illustrated on a larger scale than employed therein.
FIG. 7 is a fragmentary, partially sectional and somewhat exploded view of a section of the pool sidewall embodying the principles of the invention as illustrated in the preceding figures.
FIG. 8 is an enlarged, fragmentary vertical sectional view of the upper portion of the wall structure of the pool illustrated in the preceding figures and showing details of additional bracing means to prevent flexing of the straight sections of the sidewalls of the pool.
FIG. 9 is a view similar to FIG. 6 but illustrating in greater detail certain features thereof on a larger scale than in FIG. 6.
FIG. l0 is a perspective View of an exemplary sidewall sheets of the type employed in the pool illustrated in the preceding gures.
DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS The present invention is primarily directed to a type of swimming pool which may be merchandised in knockeddown condition and packaged compactly in a relatively large package capable of being handled by fork lift trucks and the like. Essentially, the pool consists of a plurality of sheets of metal comprising sidewall sheets or panels, sidewall lining sheets preferably comprising non-corrodable metal such as stainless steel and the like, components of X-shaped bracing frames, connecting bolts and tie bars, sections of coping preferably of appreciable length, and bracing channels attachable to the upper edges of the sidewall sheets which are mounted in flat and straight manner as distinguished from sidewall sheets which define curved sidewall portions of the pool.
The manner in which the various components referred to above are interconnected and arranged to form a swimming pool is illustrated in exemplary manner in FIG. 1 which, in general, is a plan view of a typical pool to which the present invention lends itself, the same being shown in slightly perspective manner. It is to be understood that various other geometrical shapes of pools may be utilized in conjunction with the invention. Essentially, the type of construction with which the present invention is concerned is of a rugged and highly durable nature and, in many respects, is superior to pools formed primarily from conventional masonry construction.
The exemplary pool 10 shown in FIG. 1 comprises sidewalls 12 and a deck 14 which is illustrated as extending around the entire periphery of the pool. If desired, however, only certain portions of the periphery of the pool may be provided with a deck. The sidewalls 12 surround a bottom or floor 16 which, in accordance with the preferred construction of the present invention, is formed from poured concrete or cement. In accordance with normal construction, one end of the pool may be provided with a deepened portion 18 to facilitate diving from the exemplary diving board 20, for example.
As explained above, the pool may be located within the ground and be formed by providing a suitable excavation, or the same may be mounted so as to be disposed substantially entirely above the ground surface but supported thereby. Such alternate arrangement of the pool is made possible by the fact that the sidewalls 12 of the pool are supported in substantially vertical position by a plurality of brace means 22 which, as best shown in FIG. 2, comprise a pair of members 24 and 26 which cross each other intermediately of the ends thereof to form an X-shaped bracing frame.
Preferably, the members 24 and 26 are formed from suitable metal, such as extruded aluminum, to form a channel-shaped configuration such as shown in cross-section, for example, in FIG. 4. The members preferably are rigidly connected together by a pair of rivets or bolts 28. Particularly if the bracing frames 22 are to be mounted within the ground, such as shown in exemplary manner in FIG. 2, it is preferred that said members be formed of non-corrosive metal such as aluminum, or, if formed from steel, they should be appropriately rust-proofed, such as by galvanizing.
The upper ends of the members 24 and 26 are provided with appropriate holes respectively to receive the opposite ends of a tension member or tie bar 30. Referring to FIG. 4, it will be seen that the ends of the tie bar 30 may be bent at right angles so as to extend through a hole 32 in each of the brace members 24 and 26. The tension members 30 very conveniently may be formed from reinforcing steel rods of the type commonly employed in reinforced concrete structures.
'Ihe deck 14 preferably is formed from poured concrete. If the pool is of the in-the-ground type, the bracing frames 22 are placed at suitable locations around the periphery of the pool, preferably by placing one end upon a suitable footer such as a large brick, stone, or cement block 34, and the other leg is preferably placed within a concrete footer 36 poured within a suitable cavity 38 dug within the surrounding ground incident to installing the pool. Said lower end of the brace member 24, for example, preferably is anchored to the footer by a suitable interlocking bar 40 which extends through suitable holes in the flanges of the channel-shaped member 24 and also projects into the soft concrete of footer 36, the footer then being permitted to set before the deck 14 is poured with respect to the upper ends of the bracing frames 22.
Also, prior to pouring concrete to form the deck 14 with respect to an in-the-ground pool, back filling of the excavation first occurs, whereby the upper surface of the filled ground is below the tie bar 30 and forms the base surface upon which the concrete deck 14 is poured. In the event the pool is an above-ground type, appropriate forms are used to support the concrete which forms the deck 14 and after the same has set, the form is removed. The concrete, when poured, preferably envelopes the upper end portions of the bracing frames 22 and the tie bars 30 thereof.
The sidewalls 12, in accordance with the present invention, are of a composite nature. As best shown in FIGS. 2, 3, 8 and 9, they comprise a series of basic sidewall sheets 42 which, for example, may be galvanized steel sheets of suitable gauge. In actual practice, it has been found that 14 gauge is highly satisfactory, the same being .078" thick. Such sheet might also be referred to as a backing sheet. Further, it is to be understood that such specified thickness is not to be regarded as restrictive but merely illustrative. For most types of swimming pools and especially those used in conjunction with domestic homes, sheets approximately 42 inches high and 8 feet long are highly appropriate and practical. However, as in regard to the foregoing examples of thickness, such dimensions are merely illustrative and not restrictive. The opposite ends of such sheets also are bent at a right angle to the plane of the sheet to form a connecting flange 44 which is provided with a series of hole-s 46, see FIG. 10, to receive connecting bolts or rivets 48 of appropriate size and length, an example of which is shown in FIG. 5.
The basic sidewall sheets 42 also are provided intermediately of the ends thereof with a series of flange members 50 which are best shown in FIG. 10. One appropriate form thereof comprises metal angle members. One flange thereof is appropriately connected to the rear face of the sidewall sheets 42, such as by a row of rivets or short bolts, the heads of which preferably are countersunk into the surface of the sheets 42 which are adjacent the pool. The other flange of the members 50 projects perpendicularly from the rear face thereof, as shown in FIG. 10, for the dual purpose of bracing the sheets 42 against bulging flexure from a vertical plane, such as might be induced by the pressure of the water in the pool against the adjacent surface of sheet 42, and also to form a means by which the bracing frames 22 may be connected to the sheets 42 and project perpendicularly therefrom outwardly.
'For purposes of connecting the frames 22 thereto, each of the perpendicular flanges of the members 50 is provided with at least a pair of holes 52, respectively adjacent' opposite ends thereof, for the reception of bolts or rivets 54, see FIG. 2, by which the upper and lower ends of bracing frame members 24 and 26 are connected thereto. It is to be understood that, in the preferred construction of the pool, one bracing frame 22 is connected to each of the flange members 50= on the basic sidewall sheets 42. The horizontal spacing between the flange members 50 is selected suitably to provide appropriate bracing for the sidewalls of the pool and two exemplary arrangements thereof are shown respectively in FIGS. 1 and 10.
To enhance the durable nature of the pool structure essentially embodied in the present invention, and notwithstanding the fact that so-called plastic linings for pools are reasonably durable for a limited number of years, it is preferred, in accordance with the present invention, that not only the durability but also the ease of cleaning swimming pools be enhanced by providing lining means in overlying relationship with the inner surface of the sidewall sheets 42 which are more durable and easily cleaned than plastic. Accordingly, the present invention provides relatively thin but reasonably rigid lining sheets 56 which are coextensive in area with the sidewall sheets 42 and preferably are formed from noncorrodable metals such as stainless steeel or the equivalent. By way of illustrative but non-restrictive illustration, stainless steel of approximately 26 gauge, which is .019" in thickness, has been found to be highly satisfactory.
Referring to FIG. 5, it will be seen that the opposite ends of the lining sheets 56 also are similarly bent perpendicularly to the planes of the lining sheets to provide connecting end flanges 58 which are best shown in FIG. 5. Said end flanges are substantially coextensive with and overlie the connecting end flanges 44 of the sidewall sheets 42 and all of the same have axially aligned holes to receive the connecting bolts 48, for example. To insure water-proof qualities for the sidewalls of the pool, an appropriate strip of gasket material 60, see FIG. 5, is disposed between the adjacent end flanges 58 of a pair of the composite sidewalls and liner sheets 42 and 56.
In view of the fact that manufacturing discrepancies are difficult to avoid, at least completely, it is contemplated by the present invention that filler strips 62, one example of which is shown in FIG. 5, of suitable material, preferably of relatively incompressible material, be provided to compensate for discrepancies in the overall lengths of the sheets 42 and 56 which result in spacings of certain thicknesses occurring between the flanges 44 and 58 at one end of such composite sidewall member. Accordingly, it is preferred that a supply of filler strips 62 be provided of different thicknesses within a limited range of such thicknesses to serve somewhat as shims. Insulating fiber-board and similar material has been found to be highly suitable for this purpose.
Further to enhance the stability of the composite sidewall sheets 42, 56, as illustrated in exemplary manner in FIG. 5, said sheets may be adhered together by appropriate cement which is illustrated as an exemplary layer 64. Suitable brands of so-called contact cement of a commercial nature is suitable for such purpose. Epoxy cements, either of a continuous or spotty arrangement, also may be utilized to secure the sheets together prior to connection of the various sheets to form the periphery of the pool 10.
Although the proposed thickness or gauge of the lining sheets 56 is suitable to render the same relatively stiff, particularly where cement is not relied upon to adhere the lining sheets to the basic sidewall sheets 42, it is preferred that the lining sheets 56 be fixed in operative position with respect to the sheets 42 especially at the upper and lower edges thereof. To accomplish this, the upper edges of the overlying sheets 42 and 56 are received within a suitable channel 66, which, in crosssection, is substantially U-shaped and preferably is integral with one edge of a coping member 68 which is best illustrated in FIGS. 2, 3, 7 and 8.
As shown in said figures, the coping member is preferably formed by extrusion, from suitable synthetic resin having at least limited flexibilty to permit the material to be curved, such as, in particular, around curved end portions of the swimming pool as indicated in exemplary manner in FIG. l. At least where the coping is associated with relatively flat and non-curved sidewall sections, if desired, the coping member 68 may be formed from metal, such as by being extruded from aluminum. It also will be seen from these figures that the coping member is curved in cross-section and is approximately semi-circular so as to afford a smoothly rounded perimeter for the upper edge of the pool from which the deck 14 extends horizontally outwardly.
The coping member `68 also preferably is provided with one terminal, inwardly directed flange 70 which extends downward from the upper edge thereof, for purposes of interlocking the Iupper edge of the coping member with the concrete of the deck 14. In opposition to the terminal flange 70 is the channel member 66, serving to interlock the lower edge of the coping member 68 with the deck 14. Such interlocking is accomplished by the flowing of soft concrete material into the confines of the coping member 68. It also will be understood that the coping member 68 is supplied in suitable extruded lengths to render the same readily capable of being shipped in packaged condition or otherwise with respect to the other components of the swimming pool referred to hereinabove, and also to facilitate installation thereof.
It will be seen particularly from FIGS. 3 and 8 that the channel member 66 has a groove which is wider than the combined thickness of the sheets 42 and 56. This is in order that the coping may serve to accommodate the upper edges of sidewall sheets of other material than sheet metal, such as plywood. However, in order to afford accurate positioning of the upper edges of the relatively thin sheets 42 and 56 relative to each other within the channel 66, which is wider than the combined thikness of said laminated sheets, a strip of appropriate filler material 72 is used. Such filler strip 72 is of suitable thickness and length that it may extend across the upper edges of the laminated sheets 42, 56 and also extend down opposite surfaces thereof a sufficient distance to conform to the inner surfaces of the channel 66 and thereby accurately position the lupper edges of the laminated sheets 42, 56, not only with respect to the channel 66 but also to firmly hold the same in overlying, flat abutting relationship with respect to each other. The filler material 72 may be of any appropriate nature and particularly some material which is at least of limited compressibility such as felt, sponge rub-ber, cork, certain forms of synthetic resin, and the like.
In regard to the coping members 68 which are disposed in the curved circumferential portions of the pool l0, and particularly where the same are subjected to a curving configuration which is permitted by the limited flexibility of the material from which they are formed, it will be apparent, particularly where the coping sections are curved about a radius with an internal center, that there is a tendency for the flange 70 to be moved vertically toward the channel 66 and vice versa. To avoid this and to maintain the desired vertical dimension of coping member `68, a series of spacing blocks '74 may be utilized, as illustrated in exemplary manner in FIGS. 3 and 7 for disposition between the upper surface of channel 66 and the lower edge of flange 70 so as to minimize if not substantially prevent such lessening of the vertical dimension Lbetween the same.
Particularly for purposes of enhancing the ability of the relatively straight and flat sidewall sheets to resist flexing tendencies imposed against the opposite surface thereof, by either the water in the pool or the earth behind the sidewalls of the pool, examples of which fiat sections are shown in the upper portion of FIG. 1, the invention additionally contemplates the use of bracing channel members 761, a typical example of which is shown in cross-section in FIG. 8. The bracing channel members 76 preferably are formed from sheet metal and have approximately the same gauge as the basic sidewall sheets 42 or possibly slightly heavier.
The width of the channel in the members 76 preferably is such that it snugly receives the channel 66 which is integral with the coping 68. Further to facilitate the stiffening capabilities of the bracing channel members 76, they preferably are provided with laterally extending flanges 78 which are integral with and project in opposite directions from the terminal edges of the, channel members 76 as clearly shown in FIG. 8. The members 76 also preferably are suitably rust-proof such as by galvanizing the same when formed from steel. The length of the members 76 preferably is substantially equal to the length of the coping members 68.
As will -be seen particularly from FIGS. 8 and 10, the connecting flanges 44 on the opposite ends of the sidewall sheets 42, as well as the companion flanges 58 on the opposite ends of the lining sheets 56, and also the bracing and connecting flange members 50, all terminate at their upper ends a limited distance below the upper edges of the sheets 42 and 56 in order to permit said upper edge portions of the sheets readily to be received within the channel 66 of the coping members 68. As indicated hereinabove, the strips of filler material 72 are of such width that when they extend around the upper edges of the overlying sheets 42 and 56, they will substantially be entirely contained within the channels 66. The arrangement just described pertains to all peripheral sections of the sidewalls of the pool 10 regardless of whether they are substantially straight or cur-ved, it being understood that at least along the straight sections thereof, the bracing channels 76 also may be employed.
As will be seen from the foregoing description, the upper edge portions of the interconnected lining sheets 56 which overlie the sidewall sheets 42 are4 effectively held in firm and flatly abutting relationship by the channel members 66 and the filler strips 72 therein. One of the. very distinct advantageous and meritorious aspects of the present invention comprises the means by which the lower edge portion of the sheets 42 and 56 are held in similarly firm and flatly abutting relationship with respect to each other, regardless of whether or not cement 64, as illustrated in exemplary manner in FIG. 5, is used therebetween or not. The means for holding the lower edge portions of said sheets in such firm abutting relationship with each other is illustrated best in FIGS. 2, 6 and 9 and the details thereof are as follows:
In the event the pool to be constructed is an in-theground type, an appropriate excavation is made and CJI suitable levels are established with respect to .the bottom of the excavation which will receive the lower ends of the bracing frames 22, the concrete which will form the floor 16, and the surfaces upon which footer bloc'ks 34 and the poured footers 36 are disposed for support. As indicated above, the footer blocks 34 may be of any appropriate nature and when they have been placed upon the bottom of the excavation at a prescribed level as determined by surveying instruments, the lower edges of the sidewall sheets 42 and lining sheets 56 are disposed against the upper and lower ends of the brace members 24 and 26 of the X-frames 22 interconnected thereto such as by bolts 54. Such arrangement will effectively dispose the sidewalls substantially in Vertical position, particularly after the coping members 68 have been disposed in operative relationship with respect to the composite sidewalls formed by the overlying sheets 42 and 56.
The lower edge portions of said overlying sheets are provided at spaced locations therealong, adjacent said lower edges with a plurality of holes 80, see FIG. 9, through which elongated anchoring members 82 extend. If desired, these may be formed from reinforcing steel bars similar to the tie bars 30. Preferably, the holes through which members 82 extend are of such diameter that they rather closely receive the same. When the members are disposed within the holes 80, as illustrated in exemplary manner in FIG. 9, the concrete which is to form the floor 16 then is poured onto the bottom surface of the excavation and such concrete also preferably extends around all sides 0f the footer blocks 34 so as effectively to position the same against lateral movement in any direction. The pressure of the fluid concrete against the exposed surface of the lower portion of the lining sheets 56 will force the same into firm, flatly abutting relationship with the sidewall sheets 42.
The opposite ends of the anchoring members 82 preferably are bent appropriately to effect locking thereof with the concrete comprising the floor 16 into which one end of each of such members extend. When such concrete has set, it will be seen that the lower ends of the engaged bracing frame members are held against lateral movement with respect to the footer blocks therefor, the lower edge portions of the lining sheets 56 are held firmly against the adjacent lower edge portions of the sidewall sheets 42, especially in view of the pressure of the concrete floor against the same, and the adjacent concrete floor portion is effectively anchored with the end portion of the anchoring member 82 which is nearest the lower edge portions of the lining sheets 56. Effective stability of all of the interconnected members just referred to therefore is established on a permanent basis. A ready visual concept of the foregoing may be obtained from FIG. 7.
In addition to the connecting and stabilizing means described hereinabove, one further aligning and interlocking arrangement is afforded in the form of a longitudinally extending tie bar 84 which preferably extends longitudinally between the upper and outer ends of the brace members 26 of bracing frames 22 and through appropriate holes formed therein, which holes are adjacent the holes 32 provided therein. The level at which the tie bar 84 is arranged in the upper ends of the brace members 26 is such that the ybar 84 is embedded within the concrete which forms the deck 14 as can be seen best from FIG. 2. The bar 84 preferably is of reinforcing steel stock such as that from which the tie bars 30 are formed, for example. The tie bars 84 not only suitably position the outer upper ends of the bracing frames 22 prior to pouring the concrete deck 14, but the same also brace the outer edge portions of the deck between the bracing frames 22 so as to resist bending stresses imposed by loads which the decks sustain in use.
In view of the use of non-corrosive metal sheet material in the form of lining sheets 56 which are disposed in contact with the water of the pool, as distinguished from non-metallic liners such as sheet plastic material and the like, it will be seen that such lining sheets, particularly where formed from stainless steel, render the entire wall structure highly durable and long lasting, resistant to deterioration. In addition, such lining surface which is afforded by the sheet metal readily lends itself to being cleansed and scoured periodically without deterioration or damage to the same as is possible when cleaning sheet plastic lining material. In addition,`the anchoring means afforded at the lower edge portions of the composite sidewall sheets between such sheets and the poured concrete oor 16 of the pool constitutes a highly practical and long lasting, effective means for preventing any appreciable leakage between the lower edges of the sidewalls and the periphery of the 'bottom or floor of the pool.
While the invention has been described and illustrated in its several preferred embodiments, it shoudl be understood that the invention is not to be limited to the precise details herein illustrated and described since the same may be carried out in other ways falling within the scope of the invention as claimed.
1. A swimming pool comprising sidewalls formed from sheets of rigid material connected together at the ends thereof and forming the interior connes of the pool, substantially X-shaped, brace means connected to and extending outwardly from said connected sheets away from the interior of the pool and engaging the adjacent ground for support thereby and operable to hold said sidewalls in substantially vertical position, lining sheets of thin and relatively rigid non-corrosive material atly overlying the inner surface of all said connected sidewall sheets and substantially coextensive in area therewith, channel means opening downwardly and receiving the upper edges of said overlying sidewall and lining sheets to clamp the same in firm engagement for at least partial -support of said lining sheets by said sidewall sheets, said channel also having a coping connected thereto, a deck extending horizontally rearwardly from said coping and said brace means being connected to opposite edges of said deck to support the same, axially aligned holes in said overlying sheets adjacent the lower edges thereof at longitudinally spaced locations along said sheets, and interlocking rod-like members extending through said holes and projecting from at least the inner surface of said lining sheets for embedment within the adjacent edge of a cement floor when poured onto the ground surface encompassed by said sidewalls to a depth adequate to extend upwardly from the bottom edges of said lining sheets and cover said holes and interlocking members, thereby to anchor said sidewalls to the cement oor thus formed and aix said lining sheets iirmly to said sidewall sheets at the lower edges thereof.
2. A swimming pool comprising sidewalls formed from substantially rigid metallic sheets, means connectmg tne opposite ends of said sheets together to form the interior confines of said pool, flange members fixed to the outer surfaces of said sidewall sheets at transversely spaced locations thereon and having anges projecting outwardly from said sheets in a direction away from the interior of said pool and said flanges also extending substantially vertically, brace means comprising a pair of members crossed upon each other intermediately of the ends thereof to form a substantially X-shaped frame, means connecting the upper and lower ends of one side of said frames to the projecting vidanges of said flange members and said frames also extending substantially perpendicularly rearwardly from said sidewall sheets in a direction away from the interior of said pool, said brace means being engageable with supporting ground surfaces adjacent said sidewall sheets to support said sidewalls in substantially vertical position, lining sheets of relatively thin and rigid non-corrosive material flatly overlying the inner surfaces of all of said connected sidewall sheets, said lining sheets being substantially coextensive in area therewith, clamping means engaging the opposite outer surfaces of the upper edges of said overlying sidewall and lining sheets to clamp the same in irm engagement for at least partial support of said lining sheets by said sidewall sheets, and means to secure the lower edge portions of said overlying sidewall and lining sheets in flatly abutting relationship with each other and in substantially sealing engagement with the periphery of a concrete bottom when poured upon the area outlined by the sidewalls of said pool to provide a floor for the pool.
3. The swimming pool according to claim 2 in which said cross frame members comprise substantially similar metal channels, the outermost lower end of said X-shaped frame being arranged to be embedded in a poured concrete footer, and said brace frames further including anchor members adapted to extend through said outermost lower ends of said anchor frames and into said footer to firmly secure said anchor frame to said footer.
4. A swimming pool comprising sidewalls formed from substantially rigid metallic sheets, means connecting the opposite ends of said sheets together to form the interior confines of said pool, iiange members fixed to the outer surfaces of said sidewall sheets at transversely spaced locations thereon and having flanges projecting outwardly from said sheets in a direction away from the interior of said pool and said anges also extending substantially vertically, brace means connected to said flange members and also extending substantially perpendicularly rearwardly from said sidewall sheets in a direction away from the interior of said pool, said brace means being engageable with supporting ground surfaces adjacent said sidewall sheets to support said sidewalls in substantially vertical position, lining sheets of relatively thin and rigid non-corrosive material atly overlying the inner surfaces of all of said connected sidewall sheets, said lining sheets being substantially coextensive in area therewith, the opposite ends of said sidewall sheets and lining sheets being bent substantially perpendicular to the planes of said sheets to form overlying connecting anges extending rearwardly in a direction away from the interior of the pool, gasket strips inserted directly between the adjacent pairs of flanges on the ends of successive overlying sidewall and liner sheets, a filler insert between the conneeting Iflanges at one end of said overlying sidewall and liner sheets to compensate for discrepancies in the relative lengths of said sidewall and liner sheets when discrepancies occur -to permit tight connection of said connecting flanges on adjacent sheets while preventing relative bulging of one of said overlying sheets with respect to the other, clamping means engaging the opposite outer surfaces of the upper edges of said overlying sidewall and lining sheets to clamp the same in irm engagement for at least partial support of said lining sheets by said sidewall sheets, and means to secure the lower edge portions of said overlying sidewall and lining sheets in iiatly abutting relationship with each other and in substantially sealing engagement with the periphery of a concrete bottom when poured upon the area outlined by the sidewalls of said pool to provide a floor for the pool.
5. The swimming pool accor-ding to claim 4 in which said brace means comprise frames of connected brace members and the ends of said brace members adjacent one side of said brace frames being connected to said end flanges on said sidewall and liner sheets to connect the same together.
l6. The swimming pool according to claim 4 in which the upper ends of said flange members and also the upper ends of said connecting end dianges of said sidewall and liner sheets terminate a limited distance from the upper edges of said sheets, and said clamping means which engage the upper edges of said overlying sheets comprising a bracing channel member of rigid metal opening downwardly and receiving said upper edges of said overlying References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS Leuthesser 52--169 X Dunn 52-584 X Miccio et al 52-300 X Raufio 52-169 Silver 52-169 X 1 2 3,239,975 3/1966 Stier 52--169 3,298,038 1/ 1967 OConnell et al 4-172 3,371,455 3/1968 Fox 52-169 3,409,916 11/1968 Billig et al. 4-172 FOREIGN PATENTS y645,967 7/ 1928 France.
ALFRED C. PERHAM, Primary Examiner U.'S. Cl. XR.