US 3513533 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
May 26, 1970 H. J. NAUTA 3,513,533
METHOD OF MAKING BAILED CONTAINER Filed Aug. 9, 1967 2 Sheets-SheefJ l Inventor Howard (LNauicL H. J. NAUTA METHOD OF MAKING BAILED CONTAINER 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 May 26, 1970 Filed Aug. 9, 1967 s2 l. 7l ,A IH'HW 1H 7,2 L
Inventor* Ic Nou ta,
United States Patent O 3,513,533 METHOD OF MAKING BAILED CONTAINER Howard J. Nauta, Waukegan, Ill., assignor to Abbott Laboratories, North Chicago, Ill., a corporation of Illinois Continuation-in-part of application Ser. No. 549,027, May 10, 1966, now Patent No. 3,341,047, dated Sept. 12, 1967. This application Aug. 9, 1967, Ser.
Int. cl. Imp 11/00 U.S. Cl. 29-437 9 Claims ABSTRACT OF THE DISCLOSURE This invention relates to a method for making handles and assembling them upon containers and is a continuation-in-part of U.S. Pat. 3,341,047 issued Sept. 12, 1967. More particularly, this invention is directed to methods for making a handle which has a high resistance to bending and removal from the container to which it is attached by virtue of reshaping of the handle cross-section in the area subjected to the greatest bending stress. Especially, this invention relates to a process for shaping the handle by fabricating wire to the handle outline, securing the shaped wire to the container and forming the wire handle between dies to produce a non-circular cross-section segment of the handle having rigidity in the plane of the handle.
The bottles or containers with which this invention deals are used in medical practice for the purpose of containing blood and other liquid parenteral solutions. The dispensing apparatus for transferring the liquid from the bottle to the patient is usually fastened to the neck or finish of the bottle by means of a screw-on cap. In normal practice, the bottle is suspended in the inverted position at a height several feet above the patient, and uid in the bottle is administered by gravity flow. Secured to the base of the bottle isa means for suspending the inverted bottle. Formerly this means commonly comprised a semicircular metal handle or bail of round cross-section secured to a circular band girdling the bottle proximate its base. The bail was attached to the girdle at diametrically opposed points by means of the ends of the bail extending through apertures in opposed nipples in the girdle and hooked to prevent removal therefrom.
There are among the shortcomings of prior art apparatus the requirement of several expensive, time-consuming steps to construct the h'andle assembly vand secure it to the bottle; the. large quantity of material comprising the handle assembly; andthe unreliability of the assembly for securely supporting the bottle. This latter disadvantage is of paramount importance because a bottle of parenteral "ice uid or blood falling from a stand during infusion can dangerously complicate and delay medical procedures.
The present invention overcomes these shortcomings by providing a bail having very high resistance to bending moments caused when the container is suspended by the bail. This bail is nonetheless easier to fabricate and assemble and is less expensive in terms of quantity of material used in making the bail.
In practice, the invention comprises a malleable metal bail having a substantially arcuate planar configuration and having a non-circular cross-section extending over a substantial length of the bail. The bail is formed by shaping-wire to the desired outline, engaging the ends of the wire to the container to be supported and cold forming a substantial .portion of the length of the wire to a crosssectioned shape having the desired rigidity.
Accordingly, an object of this invention is to provide a method for making a strong bail structure having high resistance to bending moments which is nonetheless reliv able, simple, and inexpensive to fabricate.
Another object of this invention is to provide a method for making a bail that has no tendency to disengage from the container it supports. v
Yet another object of this invention is to provide a process for forming and strengthening a bail while in an assembled position on the container.
Other objects and advantages of this invention will be apparent by reference tothe following detailed description when considered in connection with the accompanying drawings in which like reference numerals designate like parts throughout the figures thereof, and wherein:
FIG. 1 is a cross-sectional view of a container base having a bail blank depending therefrom, being shown at a time prior to subjecting the bail blank to the forming process of this invention;
FIG. 1A is a partial view similar to the view of FIG. 1, but showing an embodiment wherein the hooked end of the bail blank is fitted loosely to the container prior to forming;
FIG. 2 shows the container with the attached bail being formed from the bail blank shown in FIG. 1 into the bail shown in FIG. 3;
FIG. 3 shows a view of the bailed container of FIG. 1 after subjected to the forming process of FIG. 2;
FIG. 4 shows a container and bail blank that is to be processed by an alternate embodiment of this invention;
FIG. 5 shows the container and bail blank of FIG. 4 being pressed between dies;
FIG. 6 shows the container and bail blank of FIG. 4 after the pressing operation of FIG. 5;
FIG. 7 shows the bail of FIG. 6 being pressed again between dies; and
FIG. 8 shows the finished bail on the container.
Referring now to the drawings and particularly to FIG. 1, there is shown a more or less cylindrical container 20 having a bottom 22 and a sidewall 23. Not shown at the top of container 20 is an attachment means such as, for example, a screw-type coupling for securing an administration set thereto. Proximate bottom 22, a bail blank 21 is attached to container 20 at hook ends 40, 41. Hook ends 40, 41 of bail blank 21 fit into diametrically opposed dimples 26, 27 that are-spaced slightly above basewall 31 in sidewall 23.
A bail blank, in the preferred embodiment, is formed from a malleable, resilient material, and as is usual for bails for bottles of this type, from a stock roll of wire of suitable gauge cut to the desired length at ends 24, 25. This piece is then bent to the desired shape and inserted into dimples 2'6, 27. The shape of the bail blank is arcuate in general contour, planar, and opposing sections thereof preferably symmetrical with respect to its midpoint. The shape is not a critical factor of this invention; although generally arcuate, it may be described as an arc of a circle, an arc of an ellipse or as a portion of some other closed figure. Whatever its shape after bending, compressive and expansive forces may be created within the wire that would tend to cause it to relax and spring out of dimples 26, 27 when subjected to the later described pressing operation. The pressing operation gives sufficient rigidity to the bail so its ends cannot easily be pulled apart. Therefore, some looseness of the finished bail is tolerable, so long as the bail ends are well within the dimples. If a tighter fit of the bail to the container is desired, one can use the especially desirable shape of bail blank 21 which has a pair of inwardly curved sections 32, 34 immediately adjacent midpoint 44. These sections are of a length sufficient to counterbalance the tensions created within the |bail that, in the absence of sections 32, 34, tend to open ends 24, 25 of the bail outwardly from dimples 26, 27 during the pressing operation.
In this embodiment curved sections 32, 34 together occupy about one-third of the total length of bail blank 2-1. The remaining two-thirds of Vthe length are taken up about equally by substantially straight sections 36, 38 and locking sections 28, 29. By the term substantially straight," it is intended to describe a section that follows the general arcuate shape of bail blank 21.
For fabrication of bail blank 21, rod or wire is cut into suitable lengths. These lengths are formed in a conventional wire-forming machine (not shown) to the contour of bail blank 21. The entire cross-section of the wire remains substantially unchanged. In forming the wire to this configuration, the distance directly between the bail blank ends 24, 25 is made somewhat less than the normal distance A between the bottoms of dimples 26, 27. Inasmuch as the bail blank is resilient and the distance between the ends is less than the distance A, the ends, when inserted into dimples 26, 27 can be snaptted into place and will apply a compressive force to the bases of the respective dimples.
Alternatively, as shown in FIG. 1A, locking section 29' can fit loosely onto container 20. In this embodiment the closing force of the dies in the forming operation together wit-h the angle the die edges make on the bail blank turn hook end 41 and section 29 inwardly to tightly grip dimple 27. Such an embodiment can make assembly easier since less force is required to slip bail blank 21' upon container 20.
As shown in FIG. 2, after the formed bail blank 21 has been attached to container 20, the bottle is placed in a cradle 70 on a conveying apparatus (not shown) of conventional design and transportated to a hydraulic press 71. The hydraulic press consists of upper and lower platens 72, 73, platen 73 being mounted on a rigid base and platen 72 being dependingly mounted on the movable piston 74 of the hydraulic press cylinder assembly. Mounted in the opposing faces of the respective platens are opposed dies 75, 76 which are formed of a suitably hard material with flat, smooth, highly-polished surfaces 77, 78. The front edges of the respective dies have chamfers 79, 80 formed along the front faces thereof. The contacting surfaces are inclined convergingly in straight lines from front to back to define a V-shaped space therebetween when the die 75 reaches the downward limit of its movement.
When the conveyer transports the cradle 70 with the container 20 and bail blank 21 mounted therein to the hydraulic press, the bail is placed between the opposing dies, with the front faces of the platens 72, 73 in close proximity to bottom wall 22.
At this time, the hydraulic press is actuated and piston 74 lowers platen 72 and die 75 with sufcient force to cold work a portion of bail blank 21 between hook ends 40, 41 to a non-circular cross section. As shown here, bail blank 21 is cold worked to form sections 32, 34, 36, and 38 into a rounded triangular cross-sectional shape. Because of chamfers 79, on dies 75, 76, crimps 65, 69 are formed at the juncture of the cold worked sections 37, 39 and locking sections 28, 29. When the bails have passed the hydraulic press, they can be rotated upwardly until the locking sections are forced over protuberance 49 thereby holding bail 30 in a locked position above basewall 31.
The dies are chosen so that the portion of the bail blank flattened between the dies is given a non-circular cross-section having its major dimension in the plane of the bail and its minor dimension in another plane. In finished bail 30, as shown in FIG. 3, the cross-sectional shape of sections 33, 35, 37, and 39 of the bail are of rounded triangular configuration, the wider face of the triangle extending inwardly toward the bottle and more narrow face extending outwardly from the bottle. Although the rounded triangular cross-section is preferred, these sections can also be rectangular, I-shaped, or T- shaped as well.
As previously stated the inwardly-curved sections prevent the portion of the bail blank 21 not pressed between the dies, namely locking sections 28, 29 and hook ends 40, 41 from relaxing and turning outwardly during the forming process. Nevertheless, it is highly desirable that die chamfers 79, 80 produce crimps 6 5, 69 such that the angle indicated in FIG. 3 between the line of the crimp and the outside edge of the bail 30 just outside the dies is 90 or less. An angle of more than 90 turns that portion of bail 30 extending outside the dies outwardly, hence drawing hook ends 40, 411 from the dim-ples.
Referring now to FIGS. 4 through 8, a process will be described that is suitable for bail blanks that do not have any compensation included in their design against relaxing of the ends during pressing.
In FIG. 4 there is shown a container 50 of cylindrical shape having a bottom 52, a sidewall 53, and a basewall 59. In sidewall 53, above basewall 59, are diametrically opposed dimples 56, 57. Mounted within the dimples are hook ends 54, 55 of bail blank 51.
Bail blank 51 is made of a material like that previously described for bail blank 21 and is cut and bent to the semi-elliptical shape symmetrical to midpoint 58 as shown. It `should be emphasized that for the process of this lnvention the particular configuration of the bail blank is not material, a semi-circular bail blank being suitable. The preferred process of this embodiment will produce a bail having hook ends that fit tightly against the side wall of the container and having desired rigidity.
Referring to FIG. 5, container 50, having the formed bail blank 51 attached thereto, is carried on cradle 70 into hydraulic press 71.
Cradle 70 carries container 50 only partway into press 71, so that bottomwall 52 is spaced apart from press 71. This is a matter of convenience with the press used, and the area of bail blank 51 subjected to pressing can be adjusted also by the size of dies 85, 86, as well as by the extent of penetration of bail blank 51 into the press.
When piston 74 is lowered, the bail is pressed between the surfaces 87, 88 of dies 85, 86 held in platens 72, 73.
A portion of bail blank 51 between hooks 54, 55 is pressed to a non-circular cross-section such as previously described. The front edges of dies 85, 86 have chamfers 81, 82 that bite into bail blank 51 to form crimps 62, 63.
It should be noted that in the preferred embodiment the crimps are equidistant from each hook end. This, although desirable, is not necessary to an operative device.
If the crimps are not equidistant, the indicated angle of the crimp line and bail will need to be adjusted separately by experimentation to get uniform inward turning of the hook ends. Y
The preferred angle between the crimp line and the outside edge of the bail extending just beyond the die chamfer is 90 or less as is indicated at crimp 63.
Bail 64 now has the requisite rigidity and is suitable for use but can tit loosely upon the container as shown in FIG. 6. If the loose fit'is'not entirely desirable, then the following additional steps are undertaken. To turn the hook ends 54, 55 inwardly so that the ends of the bail it tightly against dimples 56, 57, the bail 64 is subjected to a second pressing operation as shown in FIG. 7.
In this second pressing a portion of the bail between hook ends 54, 55 is flattened to the non-circular crosssection such as previously described.
This second pressing attens some additional portion of bail 64 to the non-circular cross-section between crimp 62 and hook end 54 and crimp 63 and hook end 55. The edge of the die bites bail 64 so the crimp line at crimps 66, 67 forms an angle of less than 90 with the outside of the bail, as indicated in FIG. 8. As shown in FIG. 7, cradle 70 positions the bottom 52 of container 50 ush against press 71. Dies 9S, 96 tit into platens 72, 73 respectively. Dies 95, 96 have surfaces 96, 98 and front faces have such that the bite of the die flattens an additional area of the bail y64 above crimps 62, 63 and produces new crimps 66, 67.
The second pressing can produce a cross-section like or different to that of the rst pressing. The second pressing need not necessarily include that area pressed by the rst pressing operation.
The finished bail is shown in FIG. 8, and it will be noted that the hook ends 54, 55 now -iit tightly against the container basewall 59 and dimples 56, 57.
The paramount benefit obtained be this process is the great increase in moment of inertia and consequent increase of resistance to ibending moments which is obtained by altering the cross-section of the wire from the rounded cross-section wire normally used in the manner of this invention. For example, a .1055 inch diameter wire has a moment of inertia of .000006, whereas the same size wire flattened into a rectangle having dimensions of .042 x .218, which is equivalent in cross-sectional area, increases the moment of inertia of the crosssectional area, increases the moment of inertia of the cross-section to .000036, producing 600% increase in the strength and rigidity of the wire. This improved moment of inertia characteristic increases the resistance of the handle to bending moments to such an extent that the likelihood that the weight of the container and its content will cause the bail to fail and release the container is negligible.
The cold working of the bail during the cold forging operation also serves to increase the tensile strength of a steel bail. For example, when a round wire of 1030 carbon steel is utilized for the bail, this material will have a normal tensile and yield strength of approximately 100,000 pounds per square inch. After this material is subjected to the cold working operation incident to the forming of the cross-section of the bail material, the tensile and yield strengths are both increased to about 125,000 pounds per square inch. This enables the -bail t withstand 25% greater load and deflection than otherwise, without failure or taking a permanent set. This feature also enables the use of a smaller diameter wire than would otherwise be utilized, with a concomitant cost saving due to the lower cost of smaller diameter wires of the same material.
In order to prevent corrosion of the handle in the event that a metal handle is desired, the handle material can be plated after it is cold formed, with a non-corrosive coating or a plastic material.
The preferred material from the standpoint of cost and ease of use would be a low carbon steel such as 1040 plain carbon steel. However, other malleable cold workable materials such as aluminum or stainless steel can be used, as well'as utilizing plastic material such as thermoplastics, like polyethylene, nylon and styrenes, for example. When plastic materials are used, and deformation cannot readily be accomplished by cold working, a hot forming process useing heated dies may be satisfactory.
Although the method of this invention has been specifically described with regard to its use to form a bail for glass containers for medical solutions, it will be appreciated that the principles of this invention will be equally applicable to glass containers utilized for other purposes, such as glass bottles for carrying milk, and that the principles can be applied to containers of other materials such as metal paint containers. In the manufacture of paint containers, the cost of the metal of the handle is particularly significant in this highly-competitive area where large numbers of containers are sold, and consequently large amounts of money expended buying the metal for the handle. By applying the principles of this invention, a length of metal of smaller diameter can be utilized to provide the same strength handle as would otherwise be used, utilizing prior art constructions and techniques. Consequently, a significant cost saving is effected by virtue of the smaller quantities of material.
Other modifications are contemplated and may be resorted to by those skilled in the art without departing from the spirit and scope of the invention as hereinafter defined by the appended claims.
1. A method of bailing containers comprising the steps of mounting a bail blank on to a container and pressing a portion of the blank intermediate the ends of said blank to a non-circular cross-section having a major dimension in the plane of the bail, and a minor dimension in another lane. p 2. A method according to claim 1 in which said bail is subjected to a second pressing in which an area intermediate each end of said bail and that area flattened by the rst pressing is pressed to non-circular cross-section having a major dimension in the plane of the bail and a minor dimension in another plane.
3. A method according to claim 1 in which a second pressing operation forms a crimp in the bail and the line of said crimp between the pressed portion and the outside edge of the unpressed portion of the bail forms an angle of no greater than 4. A method according to claim 2 in which the second pressing operation forms a crimp in the bail and the line of said crimp between the pressed portion and the outside edge of the unpressed portion of the bail forms an Iangle of no greater than 90.
5. A method for bailing a container, said container having two diametrically opposed dimples impressed in the sides thereof comprising the steps of forming an elongated rod of malleable material having a substantially uniform circular cross-section into an intermediate bail blank structure having two inwardly hooked ends and at least three apexes; curved end sections proximate each end of the intermediate b-ail structure, each end section being a segment of the same ellipse; a plural series of curved intermediate sections joining one another at an apex the rst and last members of the series connected to the curved end sections at an apex, fitting the hooked ends into the dimples and pressing said intermediate bail setcion into a cross-Q sectional shape resistant to bending.
6. A method according to claim S in which the hooked ends of the intermediate bail structure are fitted loosely into said dimples and the crimping action in a line across the bail in a line parallel to the ends of the container turns the ends into said dimples to achieve a secure t.
7. A process for bailing a container comprising the steps of cutting a length of wire from a stock supply, bending said cut piece into the shape of a bail blank, fitting the ends 7 of said piece on to receptacles on a container and flattening i Y References Cited a portion of the bail blank intermediate the ends of said UNITED STATESPATENTS bail blank.
8. A method according to claim S comprising a second 2,122,082 6/ 1938 Bertram 140-75 step of pressing the bail between dies so that a crimp line 5 2162327'4 12/1952 4IIfmcheftiS fOrmed in the bail, Said crimp line forming an angle 73:1192960' '7l/ 19,65* WOOdWaId 14C-75 With the Outside of the bail intermediate the crimp line and 3,1951228 1 7/ 19651" Beacham 29-430 the end of the bail of less than 90 thereby turning the ends THOMAS' AGR primar Examiner of the bail inward to more tightly grip the container. f l y 9. A method according to claim 8 in which the crimps 10 ff r d' ,.U.S. C1.X.R. are equidistant from the dies of the bail. 29-208; 140`75 i