|Publication number||US3514110 A|
|Publication date||May 26, 1970|
|Filing date||Nov 30, 1967|
|Priority date||Nov 30, 1967|
|Publication number||US 3514110 A, US 3514110A, US-A-3514110, US3514110 A, US3514110A|
|Inventors||Avon B Thomander|
|Original Assignee||Avon B Thomander|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (9), Referenced by (14), Classifications (8)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
May 26, 1970 1 85, THOMANDER 3,514,110
BOARD GAME APPARATUS WITH PLAYING PIECES TOKENS AND MARKERS Filed Nov. 30, 1967 2 Sheets-Sheet 1 SCORE HITS 3O OOOOOOO OOO i:
456789) as CDOOOOOOQGC) I 32 a5 a H 80000000000 & 03 000 0 OOOOOOOO r-O 00 54 00633 E OOOOOOOOO '0 8000000000f 23 0OOOOQQO@Q AOOO B000 'OOOOGGOO 0 COO OOOOOOOOOG OOOO HOME FLEET+ EQOOQOOOOOO QS 80000000000 8888888888 E BATTLE ROYAL H 26 ENEMY FLEET AVON B. THOMANDER INVENTOR y 25, 1970 A. B. THOMANDER 3,514,110
BOARD GAME APPARATUS WITH PLAYING PIECES TOKENS AND MARKERS 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 Filed NOV. 30, 1967 O O 0 0 0 O 0 0 0 O 0 f 0 0 0 0 0 O O 0 Q O m0 0 0 O 0 O O O O 0 0 40 0 0 0 0 O O 0 0 0 O SOODOO 00000 g o 0 m 0 0 00 oooooo 890 QOOQQQ :0 yo 0 0 O D O O 0 0 FIG 5 AVON B. THOMANDER INVENTOR United States Patent 3 514 110 BOARD GAME APPARATUs WITH PLAYING PIECES, TOKENS AND MARKERS Avon B. Thomander, Los Angeles County, Calif.
ABSTRACT OF THE DISCLOSURE A boxed game board divided into a pair of identical board sections adapted to be arranged adjacent each other and separated by an upright barrier formed from the box lid so as to obscure the selected placement of ferruled game pieces on each of the boards from the view of opposing players. Each game board is provided with areas having an apertured grid pattern thereon for receiving certain ones of the game pieces on selected coordinates. The ferruled game pieces are adapted to receive spherical tokens of various sizes and colors for registering and recording selected coordinate intersections called for by the opposing players.
BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION Field of the invention This invention relates to a novel game apparatus utilizing a pair of identical game boards bearing action and record areas composed of intersecting coordinates where by various combinations of selected coordinates are called for and recorded by the players by means of novel markers or tokens. The outcome of the game is determined by appropriate interposition of the game tokens or game pieces and permits original, unique, and instructive games combining skill and chance to be devised.
Description of the prior art Game boards have been provided in the past which have included single or multiple courses or paths which are shared by many players as the players position or move token indicative of their play in response to some form of chance determining means such as a spinner, cards, dice, etc. The chance determining means usually indicates the length of move along the path or course and the player first reaching the end of the course is declared the winner. However, such conventional games do not allow for a high degree of players skill to be employed in determining the players length of move along the path or course in order to reach the terminating end of the path or course with the highest score.
Also, all of the players tokens engaging in the game are visible to the players so that the position or score of any one player is known to the rest of the players during the course of the game. As one player may move faster along a given path or course and approaches the goal, the other players are likely to feel frustration which detracts from the overall enjoyment of the game.
Furthermore, inasmuch as a single path or course is provided, the outcome of conventional games does not depend on a winning combination of values or events such as may be provided by employing multiple coordinate intersections that are selected by each of the individual players upon the occasion of taking their turn and which are related to predetermined selected coordinate intersections that are secretly withheld from the opposing players. Consequently, most conventional games fall short of achieving intellectual stimulation in combination with chance determining means which will al- "ice low for a wide variety of games to be played upon a surface of aboard.
One popular game which has been played for many years is commonly known as Battleship and employs playing areas which are defined by coordinate information so that opposing players can simulate a naval engagement. However, such a conventional game is played with pencil and paper wherein the coordinates for the playing areas are laid out by each player and certain selected intersecting coordinates are marked so as to represent ships of each players fleet. As one player verbally calls out a particular coordinate intersection, the other player employs the pencil to indicate or mark a hit or miss on his playing area. Although this game is still popular and has great appeal for youngsters and adults, the game does not employ any apparatus or players tokens which would make the game more realistic and enjoyable for the players. Prior to commencement of play, a great deal of time is required to prepare the playing areas on the paper which adversely affects the enthusiasm for the game, particularly when subsequent games or rounds are to be played.
SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION Accordingly, the shortcomings and difliculties encountered with conventional gaming devices and apparatus are obviated by the present invention which provides a game board separated into individual players sections by an upstanding barrier intended to obstruct each players view of his opposers game board section. Each section is provided with an action area and a record area composed of coordinate intersections arranged in a gridlike pattern which are identical to each other and which are adapted to receive the game pieces and tokens. The game pieces may be removably arranged on each action area to represent targets intended to be hit by imaginary missiles or shells launched by the opposing players and game tokens are employed not only to register such hits in the action area as determined by a players verbal callout of a selected coordinate intersection but to record the selected coordinate intersection on the record area associated with the player advancing the call-out. The game tokens are adapted to mate with the game pieces to permit multiple registration at any given coordinate position. The outcome of the game may be determined by the number of a players hits on his opponents targets.
A feature of one embodiment of the invention resides in packaging the game apparatus in a container wherein the cover therefor may be folded mid-way between its opposite ends so that the halves of the exterior surface thereof are arranged back-to-back and the side edge marginal regions are engaged by the adjacent ends of the game board sections for the purpose of supporting the folded cover which then constitutes an upstanding barrier. An alternate embodiment employs separate containers for each pair of game boards, with the cover therefor being hinged to provide the desired upstanding barrier.
Each player has the opportunity to exercise his talent in analysis and prowess in selecting his choice of coordinate intersections based on previous hits and misses attained. However, chance is introduced into the game since coordinate intersection selection may be made arbitrarily based on whim or hunches.
Therefore, it is a primary object of the present invention to provide a novel game apparatus employing a pair of game boards, each of which is divided into sections having an action area and a record area defined by gridlike patterns, of intersecting identifiable coordinates, the action area being adapted to removably mount game piece targets. The apparatus further employs a plurality of game tokens for recording hits on said targets and for 3 recording the players selected coordinate intersections on the record area.
Another object of the present invention is to provide a novel game apparatus having a pair of separable game board sections which are arranged so as to be separated by upstanding barrier means adapted to obstruct the players view of predetermined game piece locations on the respective game board sections.
Still another object of the present invention is to provide a novel game board apparatus displaying an action area composed of a number of alphanumeric characters arranged in rows and columns on which targets are placed and which are locatable by coordinate call-outs by an individual player which serves as a basis on which the outcome of the game depends such as by chance and players skill to develop a winning combination of coordinate intersections.
A further object of the present invention is to provide a novel game apparatus having multi-part means for recording various combinations of coordinate intersections representative of hits and misses achieved by individual players as the game progresses.
Still another object of the present invention is to provide apparatus for playing games, the outcome of which is not entirely dependent upon the skill of the respective players in that certain elements of chance are involved in the playing of the game.
A further object of the present invention is to provide a novel game board having playing areas which are shielded so that they cannot be observed by opposing players, and which game board may be employed to play a variety of highly amusing and interesting games and which at the same time involves sufiicient players skill to render attention, alertness and resourcefulness a large factor in the playing of the game.
Yet another object of the present invention is to provide a novel game apparatus to provide a novel parlor game for two, three or four players having substantial amusement or recreational value and combining with it elements of skill serving to develop the players powers of concentration and analysis.
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS The features of the present invention which are believed to be novel are set forth with particularity in the appended claims. The present invention, both as to its organization and manner of operation, together with further objects and advantages thereof, may best be understood by reference to the following description, taken in connection with the accompanying drawings, in which:
FIG. 1 is a perspective view of the novel game apparatus of the present invention illustrated in its set-up condition preparatory to commencing play of the game;
FIG. 2 is an enlarged plan view of one of the two game board sections employed in the game apparatus of FIG. 1;
FIG. 3 is a fragmentary, perspective view of a portion of the game board section shown in FIG. 2 as taken in the directions of arrows 33 thereof;
FIG. 4 is a side elevational view of a special game piece or token employed in the game apparatus having a predetermined value designation greater than those of other game pieces or tokens;
FIG. 5 is a perspective view of another embodiment of the present invention illustrating the game apparatus arranged for a typical course of play; and
FIG. 6 is an enlarged perspective view of the game pieces employed in the game apparatus of FIG. 5.
DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS Referring to FIG. 1, the game apparatus in accordance with the present invention is indicated generally by arrow 10 and includes a game board divided into board sections 11 and 12 which are arranged on a flat, supporting surface, such as a table, for example, preparatory to commencement of play. The adjacent ends of board sections 11 and 12 are separated by a barrier means 13 which is of sufficient height and width to obscure or block the opposing players view of the placement of game pieces on each of the respective board sections. Preferably, the barrier means 13 may be formed from the cover or lid of the box which contains the game when it is not in use. In this latter instance, the cover is folded mid-way between its opposite sides along a fold line 14 so that the exterior surfaces of the cover halves are arranged backto-back. The cover includes sidewalls 15 and 16 split right angles to fold 14 and end walls 17, all of which are integrally formed with the cover at right angles about the peripheral edge of the main body of the cover. The end of each board section 11 and 12 is placed on top of an end wall 17 with the peripheral edge of each game board section end in abutment with the inside surface of the main body of the cover so that the barrier means 13 is supported in an upstanding manner.
To further support and stabilize the barrier means, fasteners 18 and 20 may be inserted through the cover halves to maintain the cover in its folded configuration so as to resist any elastic tendency along the fold line 14 to unfold the barrier.
Each player is provided with a plurality of storage containers 2123 which are employed to hold a quantity of game tokens and game pieces. The game pieces may be employed to represent targets to be hit by the opposing players while the game tokens may be employed as mnemonic means to represent hits and misses as well as to record the location of imaginary salvos or shots. The game tokens may be assigned predetermined designations having different values depending upon the rules of play and these designations may take the physical form of a variety of colors, sizes or shapes.
Referring now to FIG. 2, game board section 12 is clearly illustrated and it is to be understood that game board section 11 is identical thereto. Section 12 includes an action area 24 located in close proximity to the barrier means 13 and a record area 25 located to one side of the action area and in close proximity to the end of the board section 12 opposite to its end abutting with the barrier means 13. For employing the game apparatus of the present invention in the game of Battle Royal, the action area 24 is labelled Home Fleet, while the record area is labelled Enemy Fleet. Each of the action and record areas includes a plurality of mounting means such as receptacles or recesses formed in the board section which are arranged in rows and columns in such a Way as to not only be visible from the surface of the board section, but so that ready access can be made to the recesses from over the board section. Numeral 26 is representative of a typical receptacle or recess employed in the action and record areas. Each of the columns carries a numerical designation consisting of one of the digits 1l0 extending across the wideh of each action and record area while each of the rows is identified by one of the alphabetical character designations A-J inclusive. By this means, coordinate intersections can be established for locating each and every one of the recesses 26 in either the action area or the record area. For example, a player may arrange game pieces in recesses G9, H9 and I9 to represent the location of a ship in this region of the action area. The game pieces are represented by a numeral 27 and in one form are of cylindrical tubular configuration having an open bore extending therethrough. The height of each game piece is such that a portion of the piece will visibly extend above the surface of the board section after insertion into a selected recess.
Inasmuch as the game is known in the marketplace as Battle Royal, that name is indicated by numeral 28 located below the action area 24 substantially in the lower left-hand corner of the game board section 12.
A score area is provided between the upper end of the record area 25 and the barrier means 13 which includes selected groups of recesses formed in the board section and suitably identified as the targets which are deployed in the action area by the game pieces 27. For example, an aircraft carrier may be represented by an overall T configured arrangement of recesses in the area 31, a battleship by an in-line series of four recesses on area 32, a cruiser by an in-line series of three recesses on area 33, a destroyer by two in-line recesses on area 34 and a single recess on area represents a submarine. In the example shown on the action area 24, a cruiser is represented by the game pieces 27 inserted in the recess es for G9, H9 and 19. Target hits are recorded in the score area 30 by the placement of a suitable game token in the applicable recess corresponding to the applicable portion of the target hit located in action area 24.
Referring now to FIG. 3, one example of a suitable game token is indicated by numeral 36 and may take the form of a solid ball or marble having a diameter greater than the bore of game piece 27 so that the token will be supported thereon. Furthermore, the diameter of the game token 36 is greater than the diameter of the recess so that the token will be supported by a recess as indicated by token 37 seated in its associated receptacle or recess. Not only are the tokens 36 employed for registering selected coordinate intersections in the action area to indicate hits or misses, but other tokens of the same type may be employed for recording scores in area 30 and may be employed as mnemonic or record markers for record ng previously selected coordinate intersections assoclated wlth the action area of the opposing player on the record area 25. That is, by stacking the token 36 upon the game piece 27, a double registration may be made at a single coordinate intersection.
FIG. 4 illustrates an enlarged token 38 which may be used in the game to represent a salvo or shot of greater magnitude than lesser dimensioned token 36. Token 38 may be seated on game piece 27 in lieu of token 36 in FIG. 3. For example, token 38 may be designated an atom or hydrogen bomb which would have the simulated effect of sinking an entire ship, whether an aircraft carrier or submarine, should any one of the coordinate intersections represented by pieces 27 be called out by a player otherwise more than one token of the kind indicated at 36 would be required to achieve the same score. Preferably, the special game piece 38 is more dis tinctively colored or otherwise identifiable than the other game pieces of the set.
The object of Battle Royal is to sink the opposing teams battle fleet represented by the game piece target or to score as many hits as possible via the use of game tokens. From one to three persons can effectively play on each game board section of the game apparatus. One person on each side is suitable, but two persons for a team on each side of the table is ideal.
To start the game, the barrier means 13 is first erected between the two game board sections 11 and 12 on a suitable support such as a card table so that the opposing teams cannot see the opposite disposition or deployment of home fleet targets represented by game pieces 27. The partition or barrier means may be provided by the use of the lid of the apparatus storage box or container, the side Walls 15 and 16 of which are cut adjacent hinge or folding line 14. The lid is folded backwards, at the weakened parting or folding line 14, until the two halves of the lid touch back-to-back. The game board sections 11 and 12 can then be set in on walls 17 to hold the barrier in position.
Next, each team hides its targets or ships in the action area 24 of its respective board section. The target ships must retain the exact shape as shown in the score area 30, but may be formed in a vertical, horizontal or diagonal position. A total of 15 game pieces, which may be represented by cylindrical ferrules 27, are inserted in the recesses 26 to form the special target shapes.
After each team has stationed or deployed its home fleet in the action area 24, a fiip of a coin can determine which team takes the offense (fires first) and which takes the defense (receives the first volley or salvo of ten shots). The offense places the shots represented by game tokens 36 in the enemy fleet record area 25 and the defense places identically colored game tokens in his home fleet action section.
The battle begins when the offense picks up ten game tokens, all of any one color, whereupon the defense responds by picking up game tokens of the identical color. A salvo comprises ten shots and each salvo is identified by a distinct color. Suppose that black is chosen for the first salvo or volley. The offense then vocally calls out any shot of his choice, such as C7, as he places a black shot or game token in the recess 26 associated with the coordinate intersection C-7 in his record area 25. The defense then responds by audibly repeating the opponents call-out C7 as he places one of his black game tokens on C-7 in his home fleet action section 24.
The offensive team continues th-us until its ten black shots have all been tired and placed in its enemy fleet record area 25. By this time, the defensive team will have placed its ten black game tokens in the ten positions called out but in its home fleet action area 24. At the conclusion of this salvo of ten shots (and each salvo thereafter) the defense will verbally report to the offense the hits scored.
As this report is given, the offense records the said hits on his score area 30 by placing a black game piece on each ship or portion thereof so hit for future reference as to which ship has been hit. In recording the hits, it is preferred to use the same color game piece as used in that particular volley of shots, thus identifying the salvo which resulted in the hits. This record is important because, as the battle progresses, the particular colors shown in the score area 30 will add clues as to the location of the enemy ships. For instance, if later in the game the battleship reveals a hit by one black and two yellow game tokens, the offense will know that the enemy battleship is in line with a black and two yellow marbles placed in his enemy fleet record area. However, it must be borne in mind that the line may run horizontally, vertically or diagnoally. A comparison of the pattern of game tokens taking form in the record area 25, as the game progresses, with the colored tokens entered in the score area 30 will help to determine where fut-ure shots might be most effective. In these calculations and analyses, more than one person on each team helps for accuracy and to speed up the game.
After the offense has fired its volley of ten shots and the hits are recorded, the defensive team takes the offense and fires a volley of ten black game tokens and the opposing team becomes the defense and receives and records the shots by the method already described above. Next, the hits are reported and recorded similarly on the other score area. The same procedure is then repeated with another color, with each team or player having ten shots.
The game ends when all ships on either side are sunk or when all the game tokens, such as marbles, have been used. The sinking of or hits on the various ships may be scored by assigning points for each ship. However, it is to be understood that many variations of the rules of play may be employed with the apparatus, game pieces and game tokens of the present invention.
Referring now to FIG. 5, another version of the present invention is illustrated wherein a game board section is illustrated in the direction of arrow 40. It is to be understood that a game board section is employed by the opposite player or team which is identical to the game board section 40. Since both sections are identical as in the instance of the embodiment shown in FIG. 1, only one section is illustrated and described for purposes of clarity.
The game board section comprises a box-like structure 41 having upright peripheral sidewalls which define an interior region that is divided into open areas by a plurality of partitions 42, 43 and 44. Partition 44, in combination with the side wall of box 41 and partition 43, as well as portions of the end walls of the box, divide the interior into game token storage areas 45 and 46. Partition 42 in cooperation with the opposite side wall of the box and other portions of the end walls thereof define an elongated game piece storage area 47. The partitions 42 and 43 are arranged in fixed spaced parallel relationship and are adapted to support a board 48 which is provided with a plurality of apertures 50 that are formed therein in a grid-like pattern similar to the action area pattern 24 of the embodiment shown in FIG. 2. Numerical indicia are marked or imprinted on the surface of the action area to identify columns of apertures 50 while alphabetical information is imprinted on the area to identify row-s of apertures. In this fashion, any selected aperture may be located by selecting intersecting coordinates identified by alphanumeric information.
Mounted on the action area is a plurality of game pieces 51-53 which are shaped and configured to represent ships. For example, game piece 52 is relatively large in comparison to the other game pieces and represents a battleship while game piece 5.1 is smaller and represents a cruiser. Game piece 53 is smaller in size than the cruiser 51 so as to represent a destroyer. However, it is to be understood that the individual game pieces may take the shape of other figurines representing animals, land vehicles or the like.
Movably mounted on one end of the box 41, there is provided a similar structure 54 which may be considered the cover or lid for the box 41. The box lid 54 is pivotally mounted on the end of box 41 by means of a hinge arrangement 55 and 56 associated with each side of the apparatus. It is to be noted that when the lid 54 is pivoted on its hinges to an upright position, the box cover 54 serves as a barrier means to prevent the opposing team or player from viewing the particular arrangement of game pieces on the action area 48. The other game board section is preferably located so that the back of its respective cover or lid is in close proximity or touching back-toback relationship with the back surface of the cover 54 of board section 40.
Each cover is provided with a peripheral wall and a plurality of partitions which divide the internal area of the cover in identical manner to that of the box 41. The partitions serve to mount board 57 displaying a record area which is identical to the record area 25 in the em bodiment shown in FIG. 2 with respect to alphanumeric coordinate intersection information and includes a plurality of apertures 58 in a grid-like pattern identical to the pattern provided in connection with action area 48.
The game board apparatus further includes a multiplicity of game tokens, one of which is indicated by numeral 60, that takes the form of a peg readily insertable for mounting in a respective aperture 58. The game tokens 60 are employed for record purposes in a similar fashion to the game tokens 36 described in connection with the embodiment shown in FIGS. 1-3. The game tokens .60 are also employed for registering both hits and misses in the action area. This is achieved by providing a receptacle in each of the game pieces 51-53 adapted to insertably receive the game token should an opposing player call out coordinates intersecting on a position over which a game piece is placed. The receptacles 61 are positioned in vertical alignment with apertures located at the selected coordinate intersections. Numeral 62 illus trates a game token employed to record an opposers shot which missed all of the players game pieces.
Referring now to FIG. 6, game piece 52 represents a battleship which includes downwardly depending stubs 63 and 64 located adjacent the opposite ends of the game piece and which are adapted to be releasa bly inserted into selected apertures in the action area. Furthermore, it is to be noted that the top side of the game piece is provided with four apertures 61 that are adapted to removably receive the game token 60. In one form, the game token is a peg having an extended portion 65 of reduced diameter from that of its main body so that the extended portion may be inserted into a selected aperture 61. Each aperture 61 will be in vertical alignment with an aperture 50 when the game piece has been properly inserted into apertures 50 as determined by selected coordinate intersections. Therefore, it can be seen that although astub 63 or 64 will occupy a particular aperture 50 in the action area, an aperture 61 will still be available for insertion of a game token should that particular coordinate intersection be called out by the opposing player.
The game may be played similar to the game described in connection with the embodiment of FIGS. 1-3, or the game may employ rules departing therefrom. It is to be understood that the game apparatus of the present invention may be employed with any set of rules applicable to generate enthusiasm, analysis and chance. The above description of the manner in which the game may be played has been kept very brief and condensed since it is obvious that the manner of play and the rules therefor may be varied over a wide range without departing from the use of the apparatus and equipment contemplated by the invention. It is also evident that numerous variations and modifications can be made and will readily occur. Suitable indicia marked or otherwise displayed on the game board may readily be substituted for the alpha numeric indicia as the means for controlling location of target game pieces. Other bonus symbols corresponding to the special game token 38 may be employed. Many modifications of the game pieces, tokens and the game board itself will readily occur to those skilled in the art. Suitable shape, size, design, layout, coloring, etc. of the game board and its play areas, game pieces and tokens cover an almost indefinite number of possibilities.
What is claimed is:
1. A game apparatus comprising:
a horizontally disposed game board having a pair of identical, coplanar, board sections adapted to be used by opposing players, respectively;
an action area and a record area, on each of said game board sections, each of said areas being defined by a grid-like pattern of circular apertures arranged in rows and columns;
alphanumeric characters applied to each of said board sections adjacent said rows and columns whereby visual coordinate intersections of said characters are adapted to locate a selected one of said apertures in either said action area or said record area;
a plurality of game pieces removably receivable in, said circular apertures, said game pieces each comprising an open-ended cylindrical tubular member of a length to have a portion thereof vertically exposed above the surface of each respective game board section when occupying said apertures; and,
a plurality of spherical tokens, each having a diameter greater than the diameters of said tubular members, and of said circular apertures, respectively, adapted to be removably seated upon corresponding ones of said circular apertures.
2. The invention as defined in Claim 1 including:
a plurality of spherical markers each having a diameter greater than the diameter of said tokens and useable in lieu thereof for being removably seated upon said apertures and said game pieces. 4
3. The invention as defined in claim 2 wherein:
said cover includes a peripheral wall extending about the edge thereof and having end portions thereof disposed on opposite sides of the cover in its folded 9 10 condition, and the opposite end portions of said 2,058,079 10/1936 Heath 273-130 peripheral wall adapted to mount adjacent ends of 3,113,777 12/1963 Senick 273-130 said board sections respectively so as to support and 3,376,041 4/1968 Anderson 273130 stabilize said barrier means in its upstanding position. FOREIGN PATENTS 4. The invention as defined in claim 1 including: 5 582 709 9/1959 Canada" barrier means comprising a folded box cover doubled 999:275 10/1951 France on itself in two substantially equal halves in back-to- 1 474,047 2/1967 France back relationship, and adapted to be disposed be- 356,392 9/1961 Switzerland tween said pair of game board sections, said halves being of sufficient Width and height to obstruct the 10 DELBERT LOWE, Primary Examiner view of opposing players deployment of their respective ones of said game pieces on said action s 1 areas.
References Cited 15 UNITED STATES PATENTS 1,932,524 10/1933 Jackson 273-430 2,053,598 9/1936 Blau 273--130
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|U.S. Classification||273/265, 273/290, 273/283, 273/282.1|
|Cooperative Classification||A63F2003/00419, A63F3/00075|