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Publication numberUS3517180 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateJun 23, 1970
Filing dateApr 21, 1969
Priority dateApr 21, 1969
Publication numberUS 3517180 A, US 3517180A, US-A-3517180, US3517180 A, US3517180A
InventorsZinovia Semotan
Original AssigneeZinovia Semotan
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Artificial lighting system
US 3517180 A
Abstract  available in
Previous page
Next page
Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

June 23, 1970 z. SEMOTAN 3,517,180

ARTIFICIAL'LIGHTING SYSTEM Filed April 21, 1969 2 Shets-Sheet 1 FIG. I


ARTIFICIAL LIGHTING SYSTEM Filed April 21, 1969 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 Z INOVIA SE MOTAN ATTORNEYS United States Patent 3,517,180 ARTIFICIAL LIGHTING SYSTEM Zinovia Semotan, 17 E. Front St., Red Bank, NJ. 07701 Continuation-impart of application Ser. No. 531,616,

Mar. 3, 1966. This application Apr. 21, 1969, Ser.

Int. Cl. F21v 9/02 U.S. Cl. 240-1.1 11 Claims ABSTRACT OF THE DISCLOSURE A system to produce a daylight effect artificially wherein there is an array of vertically disposed tubular colored lamps, the arrays intersecting at right angles and the lamps of primary colors in each array being spaced apart an equal distance. Both arrays of lamps are mounted so as to have a non-specular background. The array of horizontal lamps are of different colors arranged in the order of the spectrum with a green lamp in between blue and yellow; the vertical array of lamps are also arranged in the order of the spectrum. In the general system, both arrays are arranged in the order of the spectrum in a symmetrical manner from crossing violet or ultraviolet center lamps.

CROSS-REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATIONS This is a continuation-in-part application of my application Ser. No. 531,616 filed Mar. 3, 1966, now abandoned.

SUMMARY AND BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION This application relates to a system and apparatus for the production of novel artificial light. More particularly, it relates to a combination of arrays of colored lamps for the production of artificial light which accentuates three dimensional perception and simulates desired daylight lighting conditions.

It has long been known by artists who paint from life that a particular light source is important for the effect desired. For example, a north light without reflection is preferred in that it gives defined soft light and shaded contrasts. With a northwest light the contrasts are sharper. Northeast light gives softer contrasts between light and shade than northwest. North, northwest and northeast lights are favored by artists and the north light is also considered preferable for the display of jewelry such as diamonds, pearls, etc. Where color is important. However, there are other applications such as the theatre, television productions, agriculture and the like wherein the reproduction of various types of daylight sources is desirable.

Ever since the invention of the incandescent light bulb,

attempts have been made to reproduce artificial light I particularly daylight such as it is received from a north light. Studies have been made to determine the wave intensity and types of irradiation from various lamps in combination and it has recently been appreciated that the positioning and order of the lamps may be of some importance. For example, such an appreciation is indicated in US. Pat. 3,201,576 to Scott et al., issued Aug. 17, 1965. In this connection, it should be understood that my system essentially is directed to the selective position ing of lamps producing various wave lengths within a lighting system so as to reproduce to the subjective perception of the receiver a representation of the type of daylight desired. It is my belief that the subjective reception of visible electromagnetic emissions is not fully 3,517,180 Patented June 23 1970 understood and, accordingly, no broad explanation is given as to why the system which I have discovered pro duces superior results except to assert that this superiority has proved itself in practice.

In its general form, the invention involves two arrays, each array having two groups of lamps which may be considered radiating lines of light, each group being arranged in the order of the spectrum; the two arrays intersecting at substantially right angles. In its general form, the central line of light of each array is violet or ultraviolet, the lines of light being ordered in accordance with the spectrum on each side of such violet or ultra violet lamp. The angle of incidence on subject matter receiving the lighting effect from individual light sources in such a system is, because of the particular position of each individual light source, different on the variously disposed surfaces of the subject matter thereby lighted. Due to the fact that the light sources are placed in the order of the spectrum, an even blending of the various colors occurs which would not exist if the light sources were in another order. By having arrays of such ordered light sources intersecting, a mixing and blending occurs in the surface curvatures and the effect achieved significantly improves depth perception and particularly assists in perceiving textures and the like. Colored movies and photographs are employed with daylight film on subject matter lighted by the invention and a natural and pleasant effect results. The light also finds advantages in laboratories inasmuch as technicians are enabled to distinguish the natural colors of various chemicals.

Advantages also obtain where perspective perception is important such as in dental and surgical procedures and otherwise where fine instrument work is necessary.

Artists who paint under my system find it functionally to be the same as painting subject matter which is naturally lighted and are able to work with less strain for longer periods of time.

It has been found important that the background for the arrays of lamps does not reflect images inasmuch as this produces more or less the same effect as two lights of the same color in certain locations and a discontinuity in the blending effected is produced. In this connection it is important that the individual colors be proportional to one another with none dominating. Also as was previously indicated, a mixing of the spectrum achieved by the crossing lines of light sourcesis important to the practice of the invention. Unless a mixing of this type is provided, a distinctive and artificial effect is produced For a more complete understanding of the invention, together with other objects, adaptabilities and capabilities, reference is made to the accompanying drawings in which:

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS FIG. 1 is a front elevational view of a northern lighting system constructed in accordance with the invention;

FIG. 2 is a side elevational view of the system of FIG. 1 with a side section removed to show the interior arrangement;

FIG. 3 is a top plan view of the system of FIG. 1 with a top section removed to show the interior arrangement; and

FIG. 4 illustrates a general version of the system designed for installation in a ceiling.

DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS Referring now to FIGS. l-3 it will be noted that a container 30 is provided with a plurality of colored florescent lamps. These lamps are positioned to provide a northern lighting effect with the container 30 in a more or less vertically or obliquely upright position as shown in FIG. 1. Proceeding from left to right in FIGS. 1 and 3 it will be noted that there are the following vertically disposed eighteen inch fifteen watt florescent colored lamps: a red lamp 12; a yellow lamp 18, a blue lamp 16; a violet or ultraviolet lamp 15; a further blue lamp 16a; a further yellow lamp 18a; and a further red lamp 12a. Starting at the top, as seen in FIGS. 1 and 2, it will be noted that there are the following horizontally disposed thirty-six inch thirty watt colored lamps: a red lamp 12b; a yellow lamp 18b, a green lamp 17; a blue lamp 16b; and a violet or ultraviolet lamp 14. In each case the wattage of the vertical lamps is one-half of the horizontal lamps so that the light radiated for a given lamp area is substantially the same throughout. The spacing of the vertically disposed lamps 12, 18, 16, 15, 16a, and 18a and 12a is such that they are an equal distance apart and the same is true with respect to lamps 12b, 18b, 16b and 14 of the horizontally disposed lamps. The green lamp 17, however, is disposed half-way between the yellow lamp 18b and blue lamp 16b. This spacing is important in order to give the color a proportional effect for the desired blending. The green lamp unites the contrasts between the warm and cool tones of the spectrum.

Each lamp is secured by suitable fixtures designated 31 and includes rapid starters with ballasts, connections to an appropriate electrical power source, and the other necessary fittings, which being well understood in the art, are not shown.

As indicated before, it has been found important that there be no image reflecting surfaces such as a mirror or reflecting metal. Accordingly, the insides of the container are painted a flat white, as are all connections 31 which may tend to reflect images. A flat black, on the other hand, has been found unsatisfactory.

Light produced from the system shown in FIGS. l-3 is restful to the eye and the light is that of a northern light insofar as subjective perception is concerned.

It will be understood that the system of lamps shown in FIGS. 1-3 are preferably mounted upright or at an angle. FIG. 4, however, shows in plan a system of lamps intended for mounting horizontally in a ceiling. Also, this illustrates the general system from which the system shown in FIGS. 13 was taken. From a structural standpoint it is basically the same as that shown in FIGS. 1-3 except that the radiated light is essentially doubled and the order of the lamps is reversed on one side so that the spectrum from all sides proceeds from red on the outside to violet on the inside.

Referring now specifically to FIG. 4, it will be seen that a container or holder has mounted therein thirtysix inch thirty watt fiorescent colored lamps as follows left to right: a red lamp 12; a yellow lamp 18c; a blue lamp 16c; a violet or ultraviolet lamp 15a; a blue lamp 16d; a yellow lamp 18d; and a red lamp 12d. From top to bottom as seen in FIG. 4, further lamps of the same size and wattage are mounted in container 40 as follows: a red lamp 12e; a yellow lamp 186; a green 170; a blue lamp 162; a violet or ultraviolet lamp 15b; a blue lamp 16]; a green lamp 17b; a yellow lamp 181; and a red lamp 12f. Again, each lamp shown in FIG. 4 is secured by suitable fixtures designated 31 and the necessary adjunct equipment is provided, such not being shown since such is conventional and generally widely known to the field in which the invention pertains and therefore is not necessary for an understanding of the invention by persons skilled in the art. The background and fixtures of the lamp system shown in FIG. 4 are painted a flat white so as not to mirror images of individual lamps. As shown in FIG. 4, the array of vertical lamps 12c, 18c, 160, 15a, 16d, 18d and 12d are spaced an equal distance apart. Also, as shown in the figure, in the horizontal array, lamps 12c, 180, 16a, 15b, 16 18 and 12 are also spaced an equal distance apart. The green lamps 17a and 17b, however, are each disposed halfway between the adjacent yellow and blue lamps 18a and 16s, and l6f and 18 in each array respectively, for the same reason as explained previously.

It should be understood that the green lamps should always be horizontal regardless of the operative disposition of container 40. A northeast or northwest light can be derived from the general system shown in FIG. 4. For example, if the right half of the system, thatis to the right of lamp 15a is covered, a northwest light results. If the system is covered to the left of lamp 151:, a northeast light results.

The lamp shown in FIG. 4 has its primary utility in a laboratory or other working areas where depth perception and color distinction is important. However, as is the case with the lighting effect produced by the system in FIGS. l-3, that of FIG. 4 is restful to the eye and produces an effect in an area lighted thereby much the same as natural daylight.

Having thus described my invention, what I claim as new and desire to secure by Letters Patent of the United States is:

1. A system for producing a natural daylight effect artificially which comprises a pair of juxtapositioned arrays each. including a plurality of spaced apart color radiating means, said radiating means being each indi vidually disposed in a line and arranged substantially parallel to each other and in the order of the spectrum in each array, each of said radiating means in one of said arrays substantially intersecting each of said radiating means of the other of said arrays.

2. A system in accordance with claim 1 wherein said color radiating means for primary colors are spaced an equal distance apart.

3. A system in accordance with claim 2 wherein a horizontal centrally disposed green radiating means is disposed between a yellow and blue color radiating means.

4. A system to produce a daylight'eifect artificially which comprises a pair of intersecting arrays of lighv emitting means, the light-emitting means of eachof said arrays being of various colors arranged in the. order of the spectrum, said light-emitting means being disposed in a non-specular holding means, a horizontal centrally disposed light-emitting means of at least one of said arrays being green.

5. A' system of lamps to produce a daylight effect artificially which comprises a pair of intersecting groups of colored elongated tubular lamps, the lamps of one group being substantially horizontal and the lamps of the other group being substantially vertical relative thereto, the lamps of the horizontal group being spaced apart and arranged in the order of the spectrum from the peripheral lamp on one side to the peripheral lamp on the other side of said group, and the vertical group of lamps being arranged in the order of the spectrum in both directions from a centrally disposed ultraviolet lamp to the peripheral lamps of said vertical group, said peripherallamps substantially defining a rectangle.

6. A system in accordance with claim 5 wherein a further horizontal group of lamps is disposed adjacent to said first-mentioned horizontal group, the lamps of said further group being arranged in the order of the spectrum opposite to the arrangement of said first-mentioned group,

said first-mentioned horizontal group and said further horizontal group having a common ultraviolet lamp.

7. A system in accordance with claim 5 wherein said horizontal group comprises fluorescent-type lamps with a red upper peripheral lamp and an ultraviolet lower peripheral lamp.

8. A system for producing an improved artificial light which comprises a pair of intersecting arrays of :color radiating means, each of said color radiating means being individually disposed in a line, the central color radiating means of each of said arrays being the same color and the color radiating means on eachside of each of said 5 central color radiating means being arranged in the order of the spectrum.

9. A system in accordance with claim 8 wherein said central color radiating means are ultraviolet colored lamps.

10. A system in accordance with claim 9 wherein the outer color radiating means of each of said arrays radiates red color.

11. A system in accordance with claim 10 which includes a pair of green colored lamps which are disposed horizontally and each centrally between a yellow and blue colored lamps which are also included in said system.


Primary Examiner w R. P. GREINER, Assistant Examiner US. Cl. X.R.

Patent Citations
Cited PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US2515236 *Feb 11, 1944Jul 18, 1950Kamm Kunins MorrisColored light source
US2933595 *Jul 23, 1956Apr 19, 1960Tabouret EugeneLight projector
US3093319 *Oct 21, 1960Jun 11, 1963Alfred Gamain Charles HenriApparatus for producing artificial daylight
US3201576 *Nov 19, 1964Aug 17, 1965Verilux IncFluorescent lighting fixture
Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US4120026 *Aug 19, 1976Oct 10, 1978Mitsubishi Denki Kabushiki KaishaMethod of mixed illumination
US5060118 *Apr 6, 1989Oct 22, 1991Frank A. AroneApparatus for daylight color duplication
US5184881 *Oct 24, 1991Feb 9, 1993Karpen Daniel NDevice for full spectrum polarized lighting system
US5285356 *Nov 23, 1992Feb 8, 1994Iguzzini Illuminazione S.R.L.Lighting appliance, particularly for environments without natural light
US5301090 *Mar 16, 1992Apr 5, 1994Aharon Z. HedLuminaire
US20070223897 *Aug 10, 2006Sep 27, 2007Chih-Hung KaoMethod for avoiding generating shadow when taking a picture of an object
DE102012112763A1 *Dec 20, 2012Jun 26, 2014Osram Opto Semiconductors GmbhLeuchtvorrichtung
U.S. Classification362/1
International ClassificationF21V9/00, F21V9/02
Cooperative ClassificationF21V9/02, F21Y2103/00
European ClassificationF21V9/02