|Publication number||US3517498 A|
|Publication date||Jun 30, 1970|
|Filing date||Jun 21, 1968|
|Priority date||Jun 22, 1967|
|Also published as||DE1760696A1, DE6601849U|
|Publication number||US 3517498 A, US 3517498A, US-A-3517498, US3517498 A, US3517498A|
|Inventors||Burellier Georges J, Menault Jacques A|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (8), Referenced by (18), Classifications (9)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
June 30, 1970 J. BURELLIER ET AL 3,517,498
APPARATUS AND METHOD FOR PRODUCING A DOUPION THREAD Filed June 21, 1968 2 Sheets-Sheet l ATTORNEY.
June 30, 1970 G,J BURE| 1ER ET AL 3,517,498
APPARATUS AND METHOD FOR PRODUCING A DOUPION THREAD 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 Filed June 21, 1968 M1 M Q srne'cr 771/2010 icon: nmaw INVENTOR. G065 tLsEm/Bueaum cfi'caufs fl/Yfiffjvf/lflfll 7 EFFECT THREAD ATTORNEY United States Patent 3,517 498 APPARATUS AND METHOD FOR PRODUCING A DOUPION THREAD Georges J. Burellier, Lyon, and Jacques A. Menault,
Venissieux, France, assignors to Rodiaceta, a cornpany of France Filed June 21, 1968, Ser. No. 738,886 Claims priority, application France, June 22, 1967,
Int. Cl. Dlllli mars/0o US. Cl. 57--91 Claims ABSTRACT OF THE DISCLOSURE There is provided a process and apparatus for producing a fancy thread of the doupion type. A looser thread, which is the effect thread, is caused to convolute, loop and interlace with a tighter thread, which is the core thread, by passing the two threads into a turbulence and suction zone. The turbulence and suction is accomplished by passing a fluid, e.g., air, into the zone, and by intermittently applying the fluid, the looser thread is interrnittently overfed. Tension is maintained on the tighter thread by conventional means, while the tension on the looser thread is maintained by a fluid means.
The present invention relates to a process and an apparatus for the preparation of a fancy thread, particularly of the doupion type; it also relates to the threads thus obtained.
The term doupion is known in the art to mean, in particular, a raw irregular silk thread. However, for purposes of this application the definition is broadened to encompass the following description. Doupion thread: a thread of natural or synthetic materials, having protuberances, e.g. loops, convolutions and interlacings, along its length (a knobby thread). According to the effect desired, the length, average diameter, intensity and frequency of these protuberances can :be varied.
tried, which processes were adaptations of conventional spinning processes and, more particularly, of silk twisting processes. But these prior are processes are rather slow, and the threads obtained thereby are very expensive.
In the certificate of addition No. 71,986 to French Pat. 1,115,551 to Du Pont de Nemours, a process has been proposed for making fancy threads by introducing, at different speeds, at least two continuous multifilament threads into a zone where a fluid, such as compressed air, produces a turbulence, and the thread thus formed is wound up at a speed substantially equal to the lowest of the feeding speeds of the threads.
In order to obtain a doupion effect, one can vary periodically the relation between the overfeeding speed of the effect" thread (the thread which loops and convolutes) and that of the core thread (the thread about which the effect thread convolutes and loops). The elements which form the doupion are then comprised by filaments presenting, individually, some coils, loops and convolutions placed at irregular intervals along the length of the core thread.
In another embodiment of this pneumatic process, it has been suggested to vary alternatively and periodically the feeding speed of each thread. Thus, each thread becomes in its turn the effect thread and alternately the core thread.
The doupion threads thus obtained are generally satisfactory for numerous uses, in weaving as well as knitting. However, according to these prior art processes, it is necessary to use complicated supplemental apparatus such as, notably, means to vary the feeding speed of at least one To prepare such threads, mechanical processes were ice of the threads. Accordingly, these techniques are not well adapted to modern high speed production, and are not compatible with the speeds conventionally reached in spinning synthetic threads, fibers, filaments and yarns.
It is therefore an object of the present invention to provide an improvement in the making of fancy doupion threads by a pneumatic apparatus and process which does not suffer from the above disadvantages. Other objects will be apparent from the following disclosure and claims.
Broadly stated, the present invention comprises introducing, with different tensions, at least two threads into a zone where a fluid produces a turbulence in such a way that a looser thread (effect thread) forms loops, convolutions and other protuberances around and along the length of a tighter thread (core thread) with a greater relative tension than the looser thread and subsequently, with or without twisting, passing the so-formed threads to wind-up means for the threads or yarns, and wherein the improvement comprises intermittently applying the fluid which produces the said turbulence, and wherein the said fluid also produces a suction on the looser thread, so that this thread suddenly overfeeds in the zone of turbulence in relation to the tighter thread. In the form of practical embodiment, the formation of loops and the overfeeding caused by the fluid are effected simultaneously.
The expression with different tensions means that the threads are introduced in the zone of turbulence under such tensions that one of the threads acquires a substan tial fluff in relation to the other, in the nature of a loop, etc., and thus becomes the effect thread. According to the effect desired, these tensions may be varied within very large limits. For example, the core thread may have a tension between 0.05 and 1.0 gram/denier and the effect thread may have a tension between 0.005 and 0.03 gram/denier. Generally, the core thread should have a tension between 40 and 2000% greater than the effect thread and the effect thread should have a tension less than 0.03 gram/denier.
In relation to the prior art pneumatic processes, this process is characterized in that first of all, a turbulence of fluid is created only intermittently, at regular or irregular intervals, and also in that the said fluid, besides its conventional function of forming the doupion effect by looping, interlacing, etc. of the looser thread with the tighter thread, simultaneously, by aspiration, i.e. suction, performs the function of overfeeding the looser thread. This permits the overfeeding step and the looping step to coincide with precision, as well as the interlacing, convolutions, etc. Moreover, as these two steps are accomplished by one and only means, i.e. the fluid, it is not necessary to use special devices to accomplish the overfeeding, as required by prior art processes.
The process according to the invention constitutes an appreciable improvement of the pneumatic processes known to the art. In this regard, it should be carefully understood that the fluid exercises the simultaneous function of overfeeding at least one thread and forming the doupion effect. This results in a simplification of necessary apparatus and constitutes a significant economical advantage. Furthermore, as will be seen in the following description, the present invention allows the production of fancy threads, filaments and yarns at speeds comparable with the spinning speeds of synthetic threads; and accordingly can be advantageously integrated into conventional continuous installations for spinning-extrusion, stretching and winding of synthetic threads.
Finally, since the fluid comes into action only at intervals, preferably irregular intervals, the process according to the invention does not necessitate a continual expenditure of the fluid.
The effect thread, i.e. the thread of lesser tension, and the core thread, i.e. the thread of relatively greater tension, are preferably formed of continuous multi-filament threads and may be of various materials. For example, the threads may be chosen from the so-called artificial threads such as acetates, or triacetate of cellulose, rayon or derivatives thereof, or synthetic threads such as those of polyamides, polyesters, polyolefins, polyurethanes, vinylals and others. The acrylic multifilament threads have been found particularly advantageous. Also, one can mix threads of a different chemical nature and/or physical properties (rate of shrinkage, stretching, appearance, color, cross-section, etc.) or any other different characteristics.
The threads used with the invention may be twisted or untwisted, but at least a slight twist is preferred, e.g. little or greatly twisted threads can be used. In practice, the fluid used is a gas, i.e. an inert gas, which may be, for example, saturated or unsaturated steam, nitrogen, air, etc. The gas may be either hot or cold. For reasons of economy, the preferred fluid is compressed air.
One embodiment of the invention comprises the following parts:
(a) A first open-ended passage means or conduit, e.g. tube, pipe, channel, through which the tighter thread passes;
(b) A second open-ended passage or conduit means, e.g. aperture, tube, pipe, channel, through which the looser thread passes, which second passage means communicates with the first passage means;
A suction and turbulence means for exercising a suction and turbulence on the looser thread; and
(d) Means for applying the suction and turbulence means intermittently.
The suction and turbulence zone will be disposed between the place where the first and second passage means communicates and the exit end of the first passage means.
In operation, the tighter thread enters the first passage means at the entry end thereof and passes out the exit end thereof. The looser thread enters the second passage means, passes through and enters the first passage means. Upstream of the communication locus of the first and second passage means a turbulence and suction zone convolutes, loops and interlaces the looser thread about the tighter thread to produce the doupion thread. The so-formed thread passes out of the first passage means for wind-up.
In order to produce the doupion effect, the turbulence and suction means is applied intermittently while the looser thread is maintained at a relatively constant tension by a fluid tension means.
The first passage means or conduit has, preferably, three sections: a first section, a transition section and a second section. The second section is of greater crosssection than the first, and the transition section bridges the first and second sections, preferably at angles of 20 to 30". Preferably, the suction and turbulence means communicates with the first passage means in the transition section.
The second passage means should communicate with the first passage means at an acute angle, i.e. 20-45, in respect to the entry end of the first passage means, and preferably be coplanar with respect to the axis of the first and axis of the second passage means.
The figures and the examples which follow illustrate specific embodiments of the invention and some of the resulting advantages. However, the invention is not limited to these specific embodiments.
FIG. 1 illustrates an installation suitable for carrying out the process of the invention wherein the apparatus has been adapted to a conventional spinning frame of synthetic threads. One skilled in the art would readily appreciate, however, that any other installation for the transformation of threads may be used, e.g. a mill, etc.
FIGS. 2 and 3 illustrate embodiments of devices according to the invention.
As shown in FIG. 1, along the normal path of a thread 1 maintained at its normal winding tension, there is disposed, between the delivery rolls 2 and winder 3, a nozzle 4 according to theinvention. The nozzle is fed from a bobbin 5, with a thread 6 of relatively low tension as compared with the tension of thread 1. By appropriate manual or automatic means (not shown) compressed air is directed intermittently to nozzle 4. Suitably. a solenoid or pneumatic valve, controlled by an appropriate impulse providing system such as a cam system, perforated cards,
.magnetic tape, etc. may be used to control the flow of air directed intermittently into the nozzle 4. As already mentioned, the compressed air:
Provides a suction or aspiration effect which results in an overfeeding of the looser thread;
Creates a turbulence and thus loops and interlaces the overfed thread around and through the tighter thread, the latter functioning as a core thread. Accordingly, the doupion effect is accomplished.
FIG. 2 is a schematic view of an embodiment of a nozzle suitable for use in the invention. As shown in this figure, there are provided a fluid feeding conduit 11, which is connected to a source of compressed air (not shown), a channel 12 for receiving the tighter thread (the core thread) after the tighter thread has passed through upper portion 15, and a feeding channel 13 for receiving the looser thread (effect thread).
By means of appropriate conduits 14, air introduced at 11 discharges into an upper portion 15 of the channel 12. The tighter thread is initially received in the nozzle by upper portion 15 from which it is passed out of the nozzle via channel 12. Because of the inclined apertures 14a connected to conduits 14 and/ or the widening of the upper portion 15 of channel 12, a suction or aspiration effect on the looser thread is provided, along with turbulence which loops and interlaces this looser thread and forms the doupion effect.
Also shown in FIG. 2 is a schematic illustration of one of the many known and conventional devices for supplying intermittent flows of fluid to the nozzle. In the illustration shown, a fluid conveying conduit 16 will be connected by any convenient means (not shown) to fluid feeding conduit 11. Fluid enters conduit 11 via supply line 17 (from a source of compressed fluid which is not shown) and control valve 18, having any desired restriction means (not shown) such as a conventional gate in a slide-gate valve. The restriction means is opened and closed via any convenient linkage such as a counter-balanced pivoted arm 18a having a counter-balance weight 1812 and said pivoted arm is actuated by a solenoid 18c having an urging ram 18d to urge upwardly the pivoted arm when the solenoid is electrically energized via connecting wires 18s and 18 Of course, when the solenoid is not electrically energized, the urging ram will return to within the body of the solenoid 18c and when the solenoid is electrically energized, the urging ram will move upwardly from the body of the solenoid and urge upwardly counter-balance weight 18b and actuate pivoted arm 18a. The electrical energizing of solenoid 18c is controlled by microswitch 19 connected to an appropriate source of electrical current (not shown) by wires 19a and 19b. Microswitch 19 is open and closed by means of a pivoted cam follower 19c which depresses and releases the contact point 19e at irregular times and for irregular intervals according to the rotation of controller cam 19 during rotation thereof. All of the above is quite well known and conventional and is referenced herein only as illustrative of one of the many known conventional apparatus for providing intermittent flows of fluids.
FIG. 3 illustrates a cross-section of another nozzle satisfactory for the carrying out of the process of the invention. In FIG. 3, 21 designates a fluid feeding conduit, joined to the body of the nozzle by any suitable means, e.g. by Welding, gluing or a screw thread. The fluid (compressed air) discharges in a circular chamber 26 connected to the upper portion 25 of channel 22 by apertures 24, inclined in relation to channel 22, e.g. inclined at angles between 45 and 90 degrees. The tighter thread is initially received by the nozzle in upper portion 25 from which the tighter thread is passed through and out of the nozzle via channel 22. A toric joint 27 assures the tightness of the chamber 26.
At the joining point of channel 22 and feeding channel 23, a small bar of baked ceramic 28 is placed in order to decrease abrasion of the effect thread.
The channel 23 is preceded by a tension device 29 having a delivery tube 30 for introducing compressed air into chamber 31. The compressed air passes through an annulus 32 and creates a suction on the opening 33 through which the effect thread passes. This suction creates a tension on the effect thread proportional to the pressure of the air and the cross-section of the annulus, and is adjusted to provide a tension within the above-noted ranges. Air is continuously injected through delivery tube 30, which maintains an appropriate tension on the effect thread prior to its entry into channel 23.
A channel 34 allows injection into channel 22 of a pulverized solid lubricant, e.g. talc, if desired.
EXAMPLE 1 At a speed of 600 m./rnin. and under a tension of 9 grams accomplished by conventional means, a continuous 70 deniers/ 22 strands multifilament acrylic thread, without twist is introduced in upper portion 25 of channel 22 of the nozzle described in FIG. 3. Another continuous 90 deniers/32 strands multifilament acrylic thread without twist is passed into channel 23 and is under a tension of about 1 gram maintained by a weak injection of compressed air (i.e. to 40 p.s.i.g.) in the delivery tube 30.
A set of cams of difierent shapes and driven at different speeds give randomly distributed impulses to the air supply of a pneumatic valve. The average frequency of the impulse is in the order of a second. The so controlled pneumatic valve in turn supplies air compressed at about 30 p.s.i.g. from a conventional source (e.g. air compressor and tank) to conduit 21 and in turn through chamber 26, and two apertures of 0.5 mm. diameter and finally out conduit 22 by way of the upper portion 25 of the nozzle. The yarn obtained is then wound up without twist on the bobbin.
This thread was used in weaving a cloth and provided a very marked doupion effect.
EXAMPLE 2 Example 1 is repeated except there was used:
(a) as the core thread, a multifilament 70 deniers/22 strands acrylic thread, without twist, having a shrinkage of 19% in steam at 120 C., and
(b) as the effect thread, a cellulose triacetate 75 deniers/24 strands dull thread without twist.
This thread was used in weaving a cloth. The cloth was passed through a tenter frame under conditions sufiicient to cause shrinkage of the acrylic thread, e.g. steam at 110-140 C. The resulting cloth presented a marked doupion effect, and a very pleasant feel.
EXAMPLE 3 On a conventional apparatus for stretching polyamide thread, which apparatus was equipped with a system of wind-up bobbins, was placed a nozzle as in Example 1. The bobbins had a winding speed of 700 m/min. with no twist. The nozzle was placed just before the bobbins and functioned as in Example 1. The nozzle was operated with the following threads and conditions:
(a) the core thread was polyhexamethylene adipamide 70 deniers/34 strands, half dull, which had been stretched upstream of the nozzle on the conventional spinning frame. This thread was introduced into the nozzle under tension of about 6 grams, controlled in a conventional manner. The effect thread was polyhexamethylene adipamide deniers/34 strands, without twist, fed under a tension of about 2 grams by controlling the air pressure to tube 30, e.g. a pressure of about 20 to 25 p.s.i.g. The nozzle was operated as in Example 1 and formed the doupion threads as fast as the conventional spinning frame produced the stretched polyhexamethylene adipamide threads.
The particular dimensions of the nozzle components are not critical and may be chosen as desired. However, the conduit for the core thread will normally be between 2 mm. and 5 mm. in diameter and the conduit for the effect thread will normally be between 2 mm. and 5 mm. The upper portion of the core thread conduit (15 and 25 in FIGS. 2 and 3) will generally be between 8 mm. and 15 mm. in diameter. The apertures (14a and 24) will generally be between 0.3 mm. and 0.7 mm. and one or more apertures may be used, e.g. 1-20 apertures. Or, if desired, the aperture may be a continuous adjustable aperture by substituting a threaded joint for toric joint 27 and providing the upper portion 25 as a separate part of conduit 22. As will be appreciated, by varying the cross-sectional area of the apertures and the pressure of the fluid, e.g. 5 p.s.i.g. to 40 p.s.i.g., various amounts of suction and turbulence may exerted on the effect thread. It is only necessary that the aperture crosssection and fluid pressure be so chosen to provide sufficient turbulence to cause the degree of looping, convolutions and interlacing necessary for any degree of the doupion effect desired. Similarly, the tension on the effect thread may be varied by adjusting the cross-section of annulus 32 or the air pressure in chamber 31, e.g. between about 5 and 40 p.s.i.g.
What is claimed is:
1. An apparatus for producing fancy threads of the doupion type comprising:
(a) a first passage means having an entry and exit end for passage of a tighter thread therethrough;
(b) a second passage means communicating with said first passage means for passage of a looser thread into said first passage means; and
(c) a suction and turbulence means for exercising a suction and a turbulence on the looser thread, said suction and turbulence means being disposed between the exit end of said first passage means and said communication between the said first and second passage means; and
((1) means for applying the said suction and turbulence intermittently.
2. An apparatus for producing a thread of the doupion type by looping, convoluting and interlacing looser threads with tighter threads comprising:
(a) a first conduit means having an entry and exit end for passage of a tighter thread therethrough;
(b) a passage means communicating with said first conduit means for passage of a looser thread into said first conduit means whereby the looser thread passes into the said first conduit means and out the exit end thereof;
(c) fluid suction means communicating with and for intermittently passing a fluid into said first conduit means at a position spaced between the communication between the said first conduit means and passage means and the said exit end of the first conduit means, whereby a suction and turbulence is ap plied to the looser thread within said first conduit means; and
(d) fluid tension means for controlling the tension on the said looser thread.
3. The apparatus of claim 2 wherein the said passage means is a second conduit means having an entry and exit end and wherein the exit end thereof communicates with said first conduit means in such a manner that the second conduit means forms an acute angle with the first conduit means in respect to the entry end of the first conduit means.
4. The apparatus of claim 3 wherein the longitudinal axis of the first conduit means is coplanar with the longitudinal axis of the second conduit means.
5. The apparatus of claim 3 wherein the first conduit means comprises a first section, a transition section and a second section and wherein the second section presents a passage area of greater cross-section than the passage area of said first section, and wherein the said second conduit means communicates with the said first conduit means in the said first section, and wherein the said fluid suction means communicates with said first conduit means in the transition section thereof.
6. In a process for the preparation of a fancy thread of the doupion type by introducing at least two threads having different tensions, into a fluid turbulence zone whereby the looser thread forms loops, convolutions and other proturbances about and interlace with a tighter thread and thereafter winding up the yarn obtained, the improvement comprises producing said turbulence intermittently and effecting a suction on the looser thread, whereby the looser thread suddenly overfeeds in the said fluid turbulence zone in relation to the said tighter thread.
7. The process of claim 6 wherein the said fluid is a gas.
' 8. The process of claim 6 wherein the fluid turbulence is produced only at discrete intervals.
9. The process of claim 6 wherein the intervals are irregular.
10. The process of claim 6 wherein the tension on the looser thread is maintained by passing the looser thread into a fluid moving substantially in the same direction as that of the looser thread.
v References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS STANLEY N. GILREATH, Primary Examiner W. H. SCHROEDER, Assistant Examiner US. Cl. X.R.
32 3 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE CERTIFICATE OF CORRECTION Patent No. 3,517,498 Dated June 30, 1970 Invencm-(s) Georges Joseph Burellier and Jacgues Andre Menault It is certified that error appears in the above-identified patent and that said Letters Patent are hereby corrected as shown below:
In the Heading at column 1 correct the spelling of "Rhodiaceta"; at column 1, line M l, change "are" to --art--.
SIGNED AN QEALED al-1 mm r. n: m. A m Omissiom of Patents
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|U.S. Classification||57/91, 57/208, 28/271, 57/207, 57/350, 57/6|