US 3517675 A
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June 30, 1970 H. M. SADWITH APPARATUS FOR WASHING INDUSTRIAL ARTICLES Filed Oct. 30, 1967 4 Sheets-Sheet 1 INVENTOR. fi IP )1 \SYDA/lf'l/ BY 5%: Z
I Aflomrys H. M. SADWITH 3,517,675
APPARATUS FOR WASHING INDUSTRIAL ARTICLES June 30, 1970 4 Sheets-Sheet Filed Oct. 30. 1967 INVENTOR. HOW/7P0 /7 Jqawm kWh/Z191 av /ga e 4 WNEYS June 30, 1970 H. M. SADWITH 3,517,675
APPARATUS FOR WASHING INDUSTRIAL ARTICLES Filed Oct. 50, 1967 .4 Sheets -Sheet 5 Q INVENTOR. Hay/W M 40M779 f BY 22 E5 array/V575 June 30, 1970 s lT 3,517,675 APPARATUS FOR WASHING INDUSTRIAL ARTICLES .4 Sheets-Sheet 4 Filed Oct. 50. 1967 INVENTOR.
HOA/AQO /"1 SADW/TH 7 ArrQe/vsys United States Patent 3,517,675 APPARATUS FOR WASHING INDUSTRIAL ARTICLES Howard M. Sadwith, Colts Neck, N.J., assignor to Industrial Washing Machine Corporation, Matawan, N.J., a corporation of New Jersey Filed Oct. 30, 1967, Ser. No. 679,097 Int. Cl. B08b 3/02 US. Cl. 134-144 7 Claims ABSTRACT OF THE DISCLOSURE Apparatus for washing industrial articles, involving placing the articles to be washed on a platform rotating at a predetermined speed in an enclosure; directing a series of streams of water on said articles, said streams of water issuing from nozzles on a rotating spray head, whereby through the rotation of the articles and the rotation source of the streams of water, variation in the incident angles of the streams of water impinging on the articles is greatly increased to produce a scrubbing, scouring, or lifting effect on dirt and foreign matter present on the articles being washed.
This invention relates to washing substantially rigid industrial articles and parts, the machinery being particularly well-suited for use in connection with cleaning laboratory cages and racks, or in another use for cleaning pans, racks and other utensils utilized in connection with commercial pie, cake, and break making.
The prior art washing machines have been troubled by the fact that areas of the space where the articles being washed reside are often relatively untouched by washing solution. These hard-to-get-at areas or gaps have been inherent in the prior art washing machines. Although attempted solutions have been introduced, as by the introduction of rotating turntables, these attempted solutions have not been entirely successful. For example, the introduction of rotating turntables has merely insured that certain concentric areas traced by the impinging streams of water as the articles are rotated under them will receive wash solution, still leaving gaps between these concentric areas and also within these areas.
What has really been necessary has been an approach which would change not only the areas which are exposed to sprays of wash solution but also the angles of attack and angles of incidence of the wash solution sprays being directed at the articles. It is this condition which the inventor believes he has brought about by the apparatus which he discloses in this invention. The invention herein further enables a one-unit automated method of automatically cleansing, scouring, and sanitizing articles. It has been found that the present invention also produces an effect much like scouring. This is achieved as a result of an almost infinite variation in the angle at which the washing liquid strikes the surface being washed.
' The apparatus of this invention makes it possible to achieve a more thorough cleansing of articles; this is particularly advantageous in situations where a very high standard of cleanliness is essential. Particularly noteworthy areas are the food industry, and the research laboratory area. The high level of cleanliness which this invention brings about is also performed in a more economical, rapid, and above all, scientific manner than was previously available with the somewhat random washing techniques heretofore available.
The apparatus hereinafter described provide a commercially attainable standard of cleanliness which could 3,517,675 Patented June 30, 1970 "Ice heretofore be insured only through time consuming and extremely limited hand operations. This standard of cleanliness is accomplished by the present invention far more speedily and more economical than in hand operations, and above all with a uniform result which only scientific experimentation can make possible.
It is therefore a first object of the invention to vary the angle of incidence of the washing solution as it impinges on the various specific spots on the articles being washed, and to reach all spots on the articles.
A further object of the present invention is to provide a more efficient and scientific apparatus for cleaning utensils.
Still another object of the present invention is the production of a scouring effect over the areas of the utensils being Washed.
And yet another object of the present invention is the production of a scientific standard of cleanliness heretofore unattainable.
Additional objectives, novel features and benefits of this new and inventive method and apparatus will be apparent to men skilled in the industrial washing art, from the following specification, drawings and appended claims, wherein:
FIG. 1 is a front, partially-sectioned, perspective view of an industrial washing machine embodying this invention in a working environment.
FIG. 1a is a front perspective view of the machine of the invention.
FIG. 2 is a plan view of the rotating turntable mechanism of the machine of the invention.
FIG. 3 is a broken side view of that portion of the machine of the invention shown in FIG. 2.
FIG. 4 is a side view of the rotating wash spray head mechanism of the invention shown in FIG. 1.
FIG. 5 is a sectional view of a spray arm of rotating wash spray head mechanism taken generally along lines 5-5 in FIG. 4.
FIG. 6 is an exploded perspective view of the rotating junction box and fresh rinse pipe shown in FIGS. 1 and 4.
FIG. 7 is a partially-sectioned side view of the elements shown in FIG. 6.
The method conceived by the applicant for the washing and sanitizing of laboratory or industrial parts comprises the novel process for cleaning articles by streams of wash liquid which are caused to scour every portion of the articles to be cleaned in a manner such that every specific spot is scoured by the impinging of the streams at different and varying angles of incidence. The method further comprises rotating the articles to be washed about one axis and simultaneously directing a plurality of spray streams of wash fluid generally at the rotating articles while moving said streams substantially parallel to a plane which is substantially parallel to the axis about which the articles are being rotated. It has been found that by such a method the entire exposed surfaces of the articles to be washed will be directly scoured by a stream of washing fluid and that, these spots will be scoured by the stream or streams impinging in the varying angles of incidence.
It has been further found desirable to control the speed of rotation of the articles relative to the speed of movement of the streams so that at some point in the rotation of a specific spot on an article, the stream impinging on that spot will be caused to track with it for a moment. Taking into account the fact that the stream impinging on an article scours a small area in the immediate vicinity in the center of the streams impinging, this control of the relative speeds of the article rotation and stream movement will cause the aforementioned spot to be scoured for a finite period of time and the scouring will take place at a constantly varying angle of incidence.
An important apparatus for cleaning items in connection with this method and for washing and sanitizing industrial articles which is described below in greater detail is a unit which automatically washes, scours, fresh rinses and blows off with steam, the utensils placed in the unit. These utensils may be placed in the unit in a specially designed mobile rack or may be placed directly on the turntable of the unit. The operation of the unit encompases three distinct cycles: a washing-scouring cycle, a fresh rinse cycle and a steam blow-off cycle. During each cycle a turntable, holding the utensils being sanitized or Washed, is rotated about a substantially vertical axis at a predetermined speed. As a result of such rotation, the various surfaces of the articles to be sanitized or washed are exposed to washing solutions, rinsing solutions, and steam under pressure at a great variety of angles. Additionally, during one of the three cycles of a complete sanitizing operation not only is the angle of incidence of wash liquid on the utensils varied by reason of the rotation of the turntable about a vertical axis but also the angle of the incidence of wash liquid is further varied as a result of the Wash liquids issuing from wash spray heads rotating in a vertical plane and located adjacent the rotating turntable. The spray from nozzles located on the wash spray heads is directed generally toward the area holding the utensils. The cumulative effect of the rotation of the articles and the rotation of the wash spray heads is an almost infinite variation in the angle of incidence of the wash liquid upon the various areas of the utensils. This results in a scouring type wash which provides complete coverage of the surfaces of the utensils being sanitized and produces bacteria-free sanitized utensils. The variation in the angle of incidence also further insures that caked and hardened material will be dislodged by the cumulative effect of wash solution impinging on these deposits from a variety of angles. This variation further insures that all cracks, crevices and oddly disposed gathering places for waste material, bacteria and the like are scoured free.
The Washing machine parts as shown in FIG. 1 are generally enclosed and supported by a unitary housing/ frame 10. Housing/frame has an exhaust port 11 located in its ceiling for release of steam and vapor, to which may be connected an exhaust fan and exhaust system.
Housing/frame 10 as shown in FIG. 1 is pit mounted with sump 12 off pit enclosure 13. The unit is capable of being mounted to fit any production set-up, as for example surface mounted with a ramp entrance FIG. la. Housing/frame 10 has a door 14, shown open in FIG. 1, to allow placement of utensils through loading entrance 15 into sanitizing compartment 16.
The utensils to be cleaned are loaded on mobile rack 17 which is specially designed for use in connection with turntable 18. A loading platform 19' provides access to turntable 18 enabling mobile rack 17 to be readily placed in sanitizing compartment 16. The loading platform 19 is composed of: bridge 20, connecting the edge of pit enclosure 13 with housing/frame 10; tank access lid 21 which also does double duty as the next portion of the loading platform 19; track 22, at the bottom of loading opening 15, provides the last portion of the platform 19. The inner edge of track 22 is shaped to the configuration of turntable 18 and is so spaced that there is a minimum of distance between track 22 and turntable 18. Thus, loaded mobile rack 17 is pushed over the platform and onto turntable 18. Door 14 is then closed and the washing machine is ready for operation. The machine also may be used without mobile rack 17; use in that manner merely requires that the utensils be placed directly on turntable 18.
Tank 23 for a washing solution or other liquid is located in the bottom of housing/frame 10 and may contain heating coils immersed therein which are in turn connected to an Eclipse miniature package burner (not shown). Alternatively, cleaning solution may be pre-heated 4 elsewhere and supplied to the tank through tank fill connection 62 shown in FIG. 1a. Tank 23 is drained through outlet pipe 24 past drain valve 26 and over-flow pipe 25 which is connected to outlet pipe 24.
The washing solution is drawn from tank 23 by wash pump 27, and pumped under pressure through spray pipes 28 and thence to rotating wash spray head 29. Details of rotating wash spray head 29 are shown in FIGS. 1, 4, 6 and 7. Projecting in a vertical plane from the four sides of rotating junction box 30 are spray arms 31 which have connected thereto brass nozzles 32. A rotating junction box 30, four spray arms 31 and the brass nozzles 32 thereon constitute one rotating wash spray head 29. The illustrated washing machine has two such rotating wash spray heads 29 which rotate in a vertical plane. Rotation of the wash spray heads 29 comes about by virtue of wash solution under pressure being "released through nozzles 32. Wash solution is discharged from nozzles 32 in a direction generally paralleling the axis of rotation of the wash spray head 29, and toward mobile rack 17. However, the outlet of the nozzles 32 is so placed as to have a component of reaction force in the vertical plane and these component reaction forces from nozzles 32 cumulatively produce a clock-wise torque and rotation (FIG. 5).
FIG. 6 shows the assembly details of, and the parts making up rotating wash spray head 29. Junction box 30 has front and rear openings 33 to receive open ended, hollow bearing shaft 34 which is threaded at one end. Two bushings 35 fit into front and rear openings 33 of junction box 30, and the bushings receive the ends of bearing shaft 35. The threaded portion of bearing shaft 34 passes through rear bushing 35 and is screwed to spray pipe 29. Bearing shaft 34 is provided with openings on its circumference to facilitate the passage of wash solution from the spray pipe 28 into rotating junction box 30 and thence to the spray arms 31. In FIGS. 6 and 7 plug 36 fits into the front end of bearing shaft 34 and is brazed to the inner circumference thereof. Retainer cap 37 is placed over that open end of bushing 35 which is away from spray pipe 28; bolt 38 passes through retainer cap 37 and is threaded into plug 36. The front end of bearing shaft 34 in conjunction with plug 36 and bolt 38 retains junction box 30 and the same is then free to rotate on bearing shaft 34 without sliding off. The assembled unit is shown in cross-section in FIG. 7 and the path which the wash solution follows can be seen readily.
Fresh water, rinsing solution, or other liquid is supplied from a heater (not shown) to rinse inlet 39, then to inlet valve 40 in FIG. 1a and through rinse piping 41 to rinse nozzles 42. These nozzles direct a spray of rinsing liquid onto the utensils in mobile rack 17 on rotating turntable 18. Rotating turntable 18 has centrally afiixed to its underside a turntable sprocket 44; a roller chain 43 connects turntable sprocket 44 With an output reducer sprocket 45 which is in turn connected to worm gear reducer 46. Worm gear reducer 46 is connected to turntable drive motor 47 by means of V belt 49. Fluid drive coupling 48 attached to turntable drive motor 47 ensures a smooth power transmittal. A take-up sprocket 50 also engages roller chain 43 to remove any slack in the chain. Roller chain guide 51 encloses roller chain 43 as it passes through the Wall of housing/frame 10. Guard 52 encloses V belt 49 as a safety precaution.
Turntable 18 is supported by turntable vertical support casters 57 which in turn are attached to vertical caster mount brackets 58 which are in turn bolted to turn table support frame 53. The turntable vertical support casters 57 provide roller supports for the weight of the turntable 19. Also mounted on turntable support frame 53 are turntable side thrust casters 54 which are mounted on side thrust caster mount brackets 55, which are in turn bolted to turntable support frame 53. Side thrust casters 54 provide a roller bearing surface for any horizontal forces imparted to the turntable by roller chain 43.
Turntable 19 has an over-hanging lip 56 which forms the contact surface for turntable vertical support casters 57, while the turntables side wall is the contact surface for side thrust casters 54.
In operation, mobile wash rack 17, loaded with miscellaneous. utensils is rolled over the loading platform 19 onto rotating turntable 19. Door 14 is closed and latched as the machine will not operate while the door is open. The machine will shut itself off automatically should the operator open the door accidentally while the machine is in operation. The operator sets the timers contained in automatic control panel 60 for each cycle, wash, rinse, and steam and then depresses the start button to initiate the automatic cleaning sequence, freeing the operator for other duties.
The duration of each of the cycles-wash, fresh water rinse, and steam-is regulated by means of electrical timers which can be pre-set to give best results. It has been found on an average that a 2 to 3 minute period of operation for each cycle can sufiice to produce sanitized items.
When the operator depresses the start button on control panel '60, wash pump 27 will start and the wash cycle will begin. The pressure provided by wash pump 27 rotates the large wash spray heads 29. These rotating spray heads 29 are situated adjacent rotating turntable 19 and have an axis of rotation at right angles to the axis of rotation of turntable 19.
The large spray arms 31 of spray head 29 spray hot detergent or wash solution under pressure at mobile rack 17.
Simultaneous with the pressing of the start button, turntable drive motor 43 starts and the drive train described hereinabove for turntable 19 transmits rotary power to the turntable 19 turning the same. A rate of rotation of 6 r.p.m. in a clock-wise direction has been successfully used in one commercial model of the invention. During the wash cycle, spray heads 29 also rotate in a clockwise direction, as it has been found that best scrubbing results are achieved when the direction of rotation of turntable 19 and spray heads 29 is the same.
The speed of rotation may be controlled via the angular relationship between nozzles 32 and the plane of rotation of the spray arms 31. In some adaptations of the invention it may be desirable to drive rotating nozzles by a means other than the reaction force of the sprays, as for example by a motor. A spray head rotational speed of 15 r.p.m. was successfully used in one commercial model when turntable 19 was rotating at 6* r.p.m.
Although faster or slower rotational speeds for spray heads 29 can be utilized it must be remembered that in reaction driven spray heads any angular change of the nozzles decreases the amount of direct spray reaching the innermost portions of mobile rack '17. This also decreased the scouring effect achieved through the interrelationship of rotation of both turntable 19 and spray heads 29.
Upon completion of the wash cycle the wash pump 27 is automatically stopped by means of automatic timer 61 in automatic control panel 60 and the rotating spray heads 29 also stop. This cycle is automatically followed by a hot fresh rinse spray with hot fresh water being sprayed under pressure from rinse nozzles 42 of fresh rinse pipes 41 thoroughly rinsing the utensils in mobile rack 17 as turntable 19 rotates with the mobile rack thereon.
Upon completion of the rinse cycle a similar series of steps automatically takes place during which the utensils are blown off with steam. This cycle is optional however and in certain industrial operations can be eliminated.
Upon the completion of the steam blow-off cycle turntable 19 stops and the door can then be opened and the articles removed. 7
The above description of the invention has described one form of the invention, it should be understood that there are other variations of the invention and additions 6 thereto, such as: additional rotating wash spray heads being mounted in the ceiling of housing-frame 10; the addition of rotating nozzles in the fresh rinse system, plus the use of a variety of rotatingwash sprays, nozzles. Additionally, variations in the direction of rotation of the turntable and the rotating wash sprays can be used.
In this connection, it should be understood that the use of the rotating wash spray heads provides a system commercially constructed for approximating that portion of the method described herein which consists in causing the streams of wash fluid to track with spots on the articles at some point during the articles rotation. Since the velocities of the spray nozzles in the plane parallel to the axis about which the articles are rotated vary, dependent upon, among other things, the placement of the spray nozzles along one of the radial arms from the junction box, such that the tracking by a stream, from a nozzle positioned near the junction box, will take place on an article at diiferent point during its rotation than will the tracking by a stream from a nozzle more distant from the junction box. If the radial arms are made longer as compared to the height of the articles being cleaned, this effect is only a small one. In some commercial applications, substantial variation from the theoretical ideal can be tolerated.
-1. A washing machine comprising a turntable for supporting articles to be washed, said turntable being mounted for rotation about an axis passing perpendicularly therethrough;
at least one spray head rotatably mounted adjacent said turntable, said spray head having a plurality of radially directed spray arms disposed for rotation in a plane parallel to said axis of said turntable, each spray arm having at least one nozzle directed outwardly thereof at an acute angle to the plane of said spray arms for directing a spray angularly against the articles supported on said turntable to cause scouring of the surfaces of the articles;
means for supplying a flow of wash liquid to said rotatable spray head; and
means for simultaneously rotating said turntable and said spray head in synchronism to cause the rotating sprays of wash liquid issuing from said spray head to inpinge with varying angles of incidence upon the articles rotating with said turntable to elfect tracking of each spray with a specific spot on an article to scour the area of said spot for a finite period of time with a constantly varying angle of incidence.
2. A washing machine as set forth in claim 1 wherein said turntable is horizontally disposed and said spray head is disposed in a vertical plane.
3. A washing machine as set forth in claim 1 wherein said turntable is horizontally disposed and a pair of said spray heads are rotatably mounted on opposite sides of said turntable in vertical planes, said nozzles having a component of reaction in said vertical planes respectively.
4. A washing machine in accordance with claim '1 further comprising a removable rack for holding articles to be washed, said removable rack being removably mounted on said one side of said turntable whereby said articles to be washed may be placed in said removable rack and said rack can then be mounted on said turntable.
5. A washing machine in accordance with claim 4 whererin said pivotally mounted turntable is a pivotally mounted circular turntable and said removable rack is a cylindrically shaped rack having the major axis thereof extending adjacent the pivotal axis of said turntable.
6. A washing machine in accordance with claim 1 further comprising a structure forming a housing enclosing said rotatably mounted turntable and said rotatable spray head; said housing having an opening in a side portion thereof and a door hingedly attached to said housing for closing said housing during operation of the machine.
7. A washing machine in accordance with claim 1 irl 2,936,770 5/1960 Emanuel 134- -199 X'R which each said rotating spray head further comprises a 3,011,501 12/1961 Beranek 134-444 XR plurality of said nozzles disposed on arms, said arms being 3,327,722 6/1967 Nolte 134-176 X'R arranged in cruciform. I 3,419,429 12/1968 Zadron et a1. 134144 XR Q References Cited 5 FOREIGN PATENTS UNITED STATES PATENTS 1,182,042 6/ 1959 France.
9 7 544 3 1911 Brander 134 14 ROBERT L. BLEUTGE, Primary Examiner 1,941,915 1/1934 'Rosenberger 134-144 XR 2,698,628 1/1955 Zadernach et a1. 134-153 X R 2,837,100 6/1958 Way et a1. '134141 XR 134-148, 153, 176, 199
gg g ga' UNITED s'r/vrrcs m'mwr omen CER'ETLFKCAFE OF COLKREEC'EEOBI Patent No. 3, 5 73 75 Dated June 30, 1970 Invcntor(s) Howard M Sad-with It is certified that error appears in the above-identified patent and that said Letters Patent are hereby corrected as shown below:
Column line 30, insert "35' after --35-- Column 4, line 32, "35" should be --3 Column L, line 34, "29" should be -28-- Column 5, line 1, "19" should be --l8-- Column 5, line 7, "19" should be "18-- Column 5, line 26, 19" should be --l8-- Column 5, line 28, "19" should be --l8-- Column 5, line 33, "#3" should be +7-- Column 5, line 34, "19" should be "18-- Column 5, line 35, "19" should be --l8-- Column 5, line 41, "19" should be --l8-- Column 5, line 19, "19 should be --18-- Column 5, line 56, "19" should be --l8-- Column 5, line 6 19" should be --l8-- Column 5, line 69, "19" should be --l8-- Signed and sealed this 20th day of July 1 971 (SEAL) Attest:
EDX'JARD I LFLETCHERJR WILLIAM E SCHUYLER, JR. Attesting Officer Commissioner of Patents