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Publication numberUS3518410 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateJun 30, 1970
Filing dateMar 1, 1967
Priority dateMar 1, 1967
Publication numberUS 3518410 A, US 3518410A, US-A-3518410, US3518410 A, US3518410A
InventorsAlan Dillarstone
Original AssigneeColgate Palmolive Co
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Electrical heating device for fluent products
US 3518410 A
Abstract  available in
Images(3)
Previous page
Next page
Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

June 9 A. DILLARSTONE 3,518,410

ELECTRICAL HEATING DEVICE FOR FLUENT PRODUCTS Filed March 1, 1967 3 Sheets-Sheet 1 x Z 7/ 75 Z i. L ,4 d 36 'l i W 5/ FlG.l

June 30, 1970 DILLARSTONE 3,518,410

ELECTRICAL HEATING DEVICE FOR FLUENT PRODUCTS Filed March 1, 1967 3 Sheets-Sheet 3 F l G I 5 ,7 if f7 a; 2

55 4? i715 I 5/ a? 7/ W 75 [5 if so a FIG.4

INVEN TOR. 4mm fi/AZAPf/W/V f' EMQ M June 1.970 A. DILLARSTONE 3,513,410

ELECTRICAL HEATING DEVICE FOR FLUENT PRODUCTS 3 Sheets-Sheet 5 Filed March 1, 19.67

FIG.IO

W I /i /4 7FIG.8

ATTO/P/I/E) United States Patent O1 ice 3,518,410 Patented June 30, 1970 US. Cl. 219300 7 Claims ABSTRACT OF THE DISCLOSURE A heating device for rapidly elevating the temperature of a fluent material after the material is discharged from a pressurized container. The heating device comprises a step-down transformer having a tubular secondary winding for carrying and heating the fluent material. The secondary winding is positioned so that the material discharged from the container flows into the tubular secondary, is heated as it flows therethrough, and is discharged therefrom as a heated product ready for use. The transformer is mounted for up and down movement in a housing enclosing at least the top part of the container. The arrangement is such that manually induced downward movement of the transformer causes the discharge valve of the container to be opened to cause flow of material through the secondary.

SUMMARY OF INVENTION In accordance with the present invention there is provided an electrical heating device comprising a step-down transformer with a tubular secondary winding for conveying a fluent material whereby it is possible to heat the fluent material therein. The secondary of the transformer is so constructed that substantially instantaneous heating is obtained in the secondary and cooling of the secondary is rapid because of the low heat capacity thereof.

The device of the present invention is useful for heating and dispensing a wide variety of preparations. In the interest of simplicity for illustrating the use of the presently contemplated device, reference is made to fluent material in the form of a shaving cream. Other suitable fluent materials include cosmetic preparations such as hand lotions, body lotions, skin cleansers and hair conditioners, foods such as hot fudge toppings and many other fluent products which are more desirable in a heated condition.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF DRAWINGS The complete structure, functions, advantages and novel features of the invention will become apparent by reference to the following detailed description thereof taken in conjunction With the drawings in which:

FIG. 1 is a partially cut away side elevation of one embodiment of a pressurized aerosol dispensing device having a heating device of the type contemplated by the present invention;

FIG. 2 is a horizontal cross-sectional view taken substantially along line 2-2 of FIG. 1;

FIG. 3 is a perspective view of the dispensing device of FIGS. 1 and 2;

FIG. 4 is a partially cut away side elevation of another embodiment of the present invention;

FIG. 5 is a partially cut away front elevation showing the upper part of the device of FIG. 4;

FIG. 6 is a perspective view of the embodiment of FIGS. 4 and 5;

FIG. 7 is a view taken partially in section and showing a portion of a heating, dispensing device comprising a further embodiment of the present invention;

FIGS. 8 and 9 are views showing the front and rear of the embodiment of FIG. 7; and

FIG. 10 is a schematic diagram of a typical electrical circuit useful in the device of this invention.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF INVENTION Referring now to the drawings wherein similar refer-. ence characters are used to designate similar elements, the container 10 is of known type and advantageously comprises a rigid can body 11 closed at its top by a domed cover member 12 which is tightly sealed at its periphery to can body 11 by bead 13. In the disclosed embodiments, the. cover member 12 supports a valve assembly which comprises mounting cup 14 having a rim 15 crimped to cover member 12 of container 10. The valve assembly is provided with a discharge valve housing (not shown) and a discharge valve stem (valve control member) 16 having a discharge passage 17. The lower end of can body 11 is closed by bottom 18 sealed thereto by bead 19 similar to bead 13. Can body 11 together with top and bottom covers 12, 18 and the valve assembly is adapted to contain a mixture of liquid and vapor under considerable internal pressure.

The valve is of known construction as is the manner of mounting it. Valve control member 16 of container 10 is vertically reciprocable and is spring biased upwardly to its normally closed position. A slight downward depression of element 16 opens the valve to permit discharge of the container contents through passage 17.

It will be readily apparent to those skilled in the art that although the pressurized dispensing devices shown in FIGS. 1-8 utilize a container having a discharge valve with a vertically reciprocating valve stem, this container can be modified. For example it is possible to employ tilting valve stems. The actuation of a tilting valve would take place in an equivalent manner by movement of the tilt valve through a small angle in the vertical plane. Valve control elements and mechanisms are well known and the invention is not to be construed as limited to any particular valve control element and/or valve mechanism. Similarly, those skilled in the art will recognize that other and different forms of containers may be employed with the present invention. Thus, the container and the valve assembly may be constructed of any suitable material such as metal, glass, plastic or the like, and may be adapted to dispense product by pressure formed in any suitable manner. In the embodiments described herein, the pressure is developed by a propellant.

Any propellant means generally employed is suitable in the practice of the present invention, although the use of one or a mixture of liquefied gases is preferred. Among those gases which can be used are poly-halogenated lower hydrocarbons such as chlorinated and fluorinated methanes, ethanes and higher homologues e.g. monochlorodifluoromethane, monochlorodifluoroethane, dichlorodifluoromethane, dichlorodifluoroethane, trichloromonofluoromethane, dichlorotetrafluoroethane etc.; and lower hydrocarbons such as propane, butane and isobutane. Compressed gases such as nitrogen, oxygen, nitrous oxide and carbon dioxide may also find use. In some instances it may be desirable to use a combination of two or more liquefied, normally gaseous materials in order to achieve a suitable pressure within the container and impart the desired properties of stability, propellancy, ease of delivery, etc. to the fluent material.

A cap unit 20 for holding the heating unit is provided for connection to the container 10 said cap 20 being generally circular in configuration with top 26 having opening 27 therein for button 75. Cap is former with a generally cylindrical side wall 28 having a shield over an opening 24 for dispensing product and an opening 29 for electric cord 74. Wall 28 is provided with a flexible undercut lip structure 2 at its lower end to engage bead 13 of container 10 in a snap-fit to frictionally hold cap unit 20 on container 10. Wall 28 may also be provided with thumb and finger rests or indentations 8 for ease in gripping the device.

The interior of wall 28 of the cap unit 20 is provided with a horizontally disposed plate 23 affixed thereto. The top 3 of plate 23 supports resilient legs 4 which extend to the bottom 33 of the transformer which comprises the heating device. Plate 23 has'an aperture 7 to permit conveyance of product from container 10 to heater 30. Resilient legs 5 extend from the top 33 of transformer 30 to the internal face of top 26 and cap 20. Resilient legs 4 and 5 may be deformable rubber legs, springs or any other suitable resilient means for maintaning transformer 30 in position. The transformer 30 is vertically reciprocable and resilient legs 4 and 5 return it to its normal at rest position.

A switch 73 is provided with push button 75 and is so mounted on or above tubular secondary that its push button 75 extends through opening 27 in top 26. A flexible cover such as that shown at 77 may be provided to enclose push button 7'5.

The cap unit 20 can be constructed of any desired material, or combination of materials, such as rigid or semirigid plastic materials, metallic materials or the like.

The heating device comprises a transformer including a laminated core which may be of any desired dimension and construction. Some typical cores of transformers are constructed in the form of a square or rectangular laminatcd hollow frame from insulated metallic strips, with the primary and secondary windings separately wound about opposite legs of the core. (Simple core type transformer 30 of FIGS. 1 and 2.) Metallic cores may also be constructed in the form of a rectangular hollow frame with an intermediate leg. In this type of transformer the primary is wound about the intermediate leg through the hollow portions to either side thereof, and the secondary is wound around and insulated from the primary winding. (Shell core type transformer 330 of the embodiments of FIGS. 4-9.) Of course, it is to be understood that other acceptable cores having a primary winding and a secondary tubular winding may be designed for the transformer and the invention is accordingly not limited to the specific types shown. The laminated cores of the transformers are made of metals such as iron, silicon steel, nickel iron and other known materials. The primary winding is made of a suitable metal such as copper, brass, aluminum and the like in known manner. The secondary winding comprises a metallic tubing such as copper, aluminum, stainless steel, and the like. The primary (as well as the outside of the core) is preferably coated with an insulating material such as shellac, varnishes, enamels, epoxy resins, plastics and other known dielectric materials of similar types. The successive layers of windings or turns of the primary, or the primary windings itself, may be separated by strips of insulating material such as kraft paper as well as insulating materials which form a film over the wire winding. On the other hand, it is not ncessary to coat the secondary of the step-down transformer since the voltage is relatively small. Thus, the secondary may be air insulated or, if desired, can simply be coated with an insulating material such as those mentioned above.

The high ratio of primary winding to the tubular secondary winding of the transformers contributes to the safe, rapid heating of the secondary which provides a current of high amperage and low voltage. The transformer is designed with a tubular secondary winding adapted to provide sufficient electrical energy for rapid heating of product to a desirable elevated temperature which for example would range from about F. to about F. for a shaving composition. In general, the transformer secondary is designed to furnish 50 to 200 amperes at 0.25 to 5 volts.

The primary winding may consist of from about 400 to 1500 turns and the tubular secondary winding may consist of from about 1 to 8 turns.

Since the passageway of the tubular secondary carries the product or fluent material therein and the heating ,is localized in the secondary tubing, the fluent material is heated and the secondary is concomitantly cooled thereby. Thus, since the heating is localized in a tubular secondary providing a current of high amperage and low voltage, and the secondary is cooled as the fluent material is heated, the device of the present invention heats a fluent material or product safely, uniformly, quickly and effectively.

Those skilled in the art will appreciate that, while not required, it is possible to provide a temperature control cut-off element such as a thermostat connected in series with the control switch 73 and the primary winding 35. FIG. 10 shows a schematic diagram of the wiring circuit of the device of the present invention with a thermostat 100.

As illustrated in FIGS. l-3, the container 10 is connected to a simple core type transformer 30 and held in a cooperative axial position by an annular collar 21 attached to the valve stem 1-6 of the container. Step-down transformer 30 consists of legs 31, top 32, bottom 33, an insulated primary winding 34 and a tubular secondary winding 35 having a passageway 36 therethrough. The legs 31, the top 32 and the bottom 33 are enamel coated. In the embodiment shown, the primary winding 34 is a B & S gauge #30 wire, separated by strips of insulating material and/or coated with an insulating material, which is intended principally for use with 110 volt alternating current withdrawn from a source providing between about 0.2. ampere and 2.0 amperes. In the construction shown in FIG. 1, the cord 74 with leads 71 and 72 connect primary 34 of transformer 30 through control switch 73 with a source of fluctuating current, which in this embodiment comprises a 110 volt AC normal house outlet.

The tubular secondary winding 35 is provided with an inlet end 37 having a tapered end for mating with and receiving product from valve stem 16 of container 10. Collar 21 is provided with an upwardly enlarged funnel like lip 22 to provide a lead-in or guide for the inlet end 37 of the secondary 35. Secondary 35 is provided with stop 79 adapted to engage the top 3 of plate 23 to facilitate the removal of container 10. Tubular secondary 35 is provided also with an outlet or dispensing spout portion 38 which extends through opening 24 of cap 20 and is protected by cover portion 25 of the cap 20.

Tubular secondary winding 35 is of low resistance i.e. a circuit through a small resistance, provided by the secondary being shorted out by a fusion point 39 where two adjacent portions of the tubular secondary 35 are welded, brazed, clipped or otherwise joined. Thus, the joining together of the two ends of the secondary completes the secondary circuit. In view of the low voltage in the secondary circuit, the outer surface of the tubular secondary winding 35 does not require any insulation. As any fluent material, such as shave cream, flows through the passageway 36 of the tubular secondary 35, it travels turbulently in direct contact with the inner surface of the tubular secondary 35 and the secondary thereby provides direct and immediate heat.

In assembling the device of FIGS. 1-3, the container '10, which is loaded with a propellant and a liquid charge such as a lather shaving soap composition, is fitted with the collar 21 on its valve stem 16, i.e. the collar 21 frictionally engages the stem. Alternatively, the valve stem 16 can be provided with an enlarged radius at its upper inner periphery in order to provide both a guide and a coupling for the inlet end 37 of the tubular secondary 35.

To connect cap unit carrying transformer to container 10, the inlet end 37 of the tubular secondary is positioned within the enlarged lip 22 of collar 21 and lip 2 at the bottom of wall 28 of cap 20 is snapped onto the annular bead 13 of container 10. This automatically aligns the inlet end 37 of secondary 35 with the discharge valve stem 16 of container 10 which connection is'effec tively sealed by collar 21. Thus, the tapered end of the inlet end 37 rests upon the hollow valve stem 16 without actuating the valve since the pressure exerted by the inlet end 37 as it slides into collar 21 is slight in comparison to the spring bias of the valve member. Accordingly, there is no depression of the discharge valve stem 16 until additional external pressure is applied thereto by button 75.

In normal operation, delivery of a heated product ready for use is accomplished by depressing push button'75 of the switch 73 which initially provides a flow of electric current for the transformer. Additional pressure moves the transformer downwardly within cap 20 whereby the inlet end 37 of secondary 35 forces open the valve of container 10 and product under pressure is released through valve stem 16. The composition thus released flows into the passageway 36 of tubular secondary 35, through the passageway 36, and out the dispensing spout 38. As the composition flows through the passageway 36 of tubular secondary 35, the temperature of the fluent material is elevated, with concurrent cooling of the secondary by the fluent material, and the heated material is dispensed ready for use.

In the embodiment of my invention illustrated in FIGS. 4, 5 and 6, the container 10 is connected to the secondary 35 of transformer 330 by annular collar 21 attached to the valve stem 16 of the container and held in a cooperative axial position by a casing or housing 50 Housing 50 is generally cylindrical with a top 51 having an opening 52. The base of housing 50 comprises a sleeve 53 having a base plate 60 removably attached to the lower end of the sleeve. The upper part of the sleeve portion 53 is structurally similar to the cap unit 20 of FIG. 1 and is provided with openings 54, 55 for product and a cord; cover portions 56, 57, for openings 54, 55; and thumb and finger rests or indentations 8.

The interior of sleeve 53 is formed with an annular integral support ring 58. The top 59 of the support ring 58 supports resilient restrainer 61 which is shown as a deformable foam rubber ring, but which may be any suitable heat resisting resilient holding means. Resilient restrainer 61 supports the core of transformer 330 whereby the transformer is vertically reciprocable as described in connection with the embodiment of FIG. 1.

The primary 34 of transformer 330 is wound about intermediate leg and the tubular secondary Winding 35 overlays the primary winding. The tubular secondary winding 35 is shorted out at fusion point 39 (FIG. 5). The transformer of the embodiment shown in FIGS. 46 has a primary winding consisting of 730 turns of #30 B&S gauge wire and an aluminum tubular secondary winding of 4 turns. The primary has a kraft paper insulation of one mil thickness between each plane of the winding series and the core of the transformer has an enamel insulation coating. This primary is adapted for 110 volts at 0.5 ampere and the secondary is designed to furnish about 90 amperes at 0.6 volt and to dissipate up to about 54 watts of maximum power, usually about 40 to watts of power.

The inlet end 37 of tubular secondary 35 is tapered for ease of engagement with the valve stem 16 of replaceable container 10. The outlet or dispensing spout portion 38 extends through a passage 62 in resilient ring 61 and beyond the opening 54 in the sleeve portion 53' of the housing 50.

A dispenser actuator 64 with a button portion 65 extending through opening 52 in the top portion 51 of housing is mounted on the top 32 of the shell core of transformer 330 by brackets or braces 66. A flexible cover 67, which is secured to the top portion, encloses the button portion.

Electric switch 73 provided with a push button 75 is vertically mounted on the top 32 of the shell core of transformer 330 in such position that its button 75 extends through an opening 68 in one of the thumb or finger rests 8 of the sleeve portion 53. A flexible cover 69 encloses the push button 75 and is secured to the indentation 8. Alternatively, a switching means may be located on cable 74 between the casing and the plug, or at any other suitable location.

In the operation of the heating and dispensing apparatus of the embodiment shown in FIGS. 4-6, the entire apparatus may be gripped with one hand with the thumb on push button 75, a finger on actuator button 65, and another finger or fingers at finger rest 8. Inward pressure on push button 75 of switch 73 provides a flow of electric current to the primary of the transformer and the current induced in shortened secondary 35 rapidly develops a high temperature therein. The button may then be released and downward pressure applied to the actuator button 65. The transformer moves downwardly whereby inlet end 37 of the tubular secondary 35 opens the valve of container 10 and the contents pass through valve stem 16. The composition flows into and through passageway 36 of the pre-heated secondary 35 and flows out dispensing spout 38 as a heated composition ready for use. If desired, although not necessary, the user may actuate push button 75 and thereafter depress button 65 while continuing to apply pressure to the switch push button 75.

Another modified form of the use of the shell core type transformer 330 shown in FIG. 4 is illustrated in FIG. 7 which, with FIGS. 8 and 9, shows an embodiment in which the transformer carries a discharge block adapted for mating with the valve stem 16 of the container 10. This discharge block provides a useful cooperable coupling for the transformer and the container. A coupling of this type can be used in cap assemblies or with casings or housings.

The discharge block 80 has channels 81, 82 and a dispensing or discharge spout 83 having a passageway 84. The channel 81 is provided with a wide mouth outlet 85 at one end for engagement with the discharge valve stem 16 of the container 10. The inlet end 37 of the tubular secondary 35 is located in the channel 81 with the tapered end of inlet end 37 being adjacent the wide mouth outlet of channel 81. The outlet end 38 of the tubular secondary 35 is located in the channel 82 with its end adjacent passageway 84 of the dispensing spout 83. Laterally disposed within discharge block 80 and positioned between the channels 81 and 82 is metallic peg 86 which contacts the tubular secondary at points 87 and 88 and serves to short-out the secondary of the transformer.

The discharge block 80 may be constructed of any nonconducting material which will also withstand heat such as synthetic thermoplastic resins and plastics.

FIG. 9 also shows a portion of insulating material 91 on the leg 31 of the transformer core. This is illustrative of the insulation that may be used for the cores of the present invention.

The operation of the heating and dispensing device of FIGS. 7-9 is similar to that of the other embodiments. Downward pressure on the discharge block 80 (as indicated by the arrow in FIG. 7), either while electric current flows through the transformer or after current has been provided, opens the valve of container 10 and the contents theerof are released under pressure through valve stem 16. The composition flows into passageway 36 of the tubular secondary 35, through this passageway where it is heated, and out of passageway 84 of spout 83.

Although the invention has been described and illustrated by reference to certain specific embodiments of the invention representing the present modes contemplated for carrying out the invention, those skilled in the art will appreciate that modifications and variations in structure and materials of construction may be made without departing from the principles and true scope of the invention as defined in the claims hereof.

What is claimed is:

1. A heating and dispensing device for use with a pressurized container having a valved discharge means including a reciprocal valve actuator, comprising a housing adapted to enclose at least the top portion of said container, a rigid transformer support member within said housing, a step-down transformer movably mounted in said housing, resilient means cooperatively engaging said transformer and said transformer support member and adapting the transformer for vertical reciprocal movement, said transformer having a primary winding and a tubular secondary winding, said tubular secondary winding including an inlet thereto and an outlet therefrom, the inlet of said transformer engagable with the valve discharge means of the container and the outlet of said transformer opening to the outside of said housing, means for forming a complete circuit with said secondary, said means having a relatively low resistance, a switch in circuit with the primary winding of the transformer, means in circuit with said switch for providing a fluctuating electric current for said transformer and means responsive to downward pressure causing downward movement of said transformer for actuating said valve actuator thereby opening the valve in said discharge means whereby the contents of the container will pass into said inlet of the heated tubular secondary of said transformer, through said heated tubular secondary winding and be dispensed from said outlet at an elevated temperature as a product ready for use.

2. A heating and dispensing device according to claim 1 wherein the transformer is a step-down transformer having an insulated, open centered, four sided core, an insulated primary winding having from about 400 to about 1500 turns of wire wound about one side of said core and a tubular secondary winding having from about 1 to 8 turns of tubular material Wound about a side opposite the side carrying the primary winding.

3. A heating and dispensing device according to claim 1 wherein the transformer is a step-down transformer having an insulated, open centered, four sided core with an insulated leg extending from one side of the core through the open center to the opposite side, an insulated primary having from about 400 to about 1500 turns of wire wound about the insulated leg of said core and a tubular secondary wound about the insulated primary and having from about 1 to about 8 turns.

4. A heating and dispensing device according to claim 1 wherein said housing is a cap assembly having a top wall portion including a central aperture therein and a side wall portion removably attached to said pressurized container and including a front with an aperture therein,

said support member comprising a stationary support plate extending transversely within said side wall portion and having an opening therethrough, said resilient means comprising deformable restraining means movably mounting the transformer in said cap in a position spaced from said support plate, said top wall portion and said side wall portion, the outlet end of said tubular secondary extending through said front aperture, the inlet end of said tubular secondary extending through said opening in said support plate into a communicative engagement with the valve control member of the container, said switch affixed to said tubular secondary of the transformer and having a push button portion extending through the aperture of said top wall portion, said switch and transformer being conjointly vertically movable within the housing, the arrangement being such that downward reciprocation of the push button of said switch provides electric current for the transformer and further downward pressure on the push button of the switch also causes the switch and the transformer to move vertically to actuate the valve of said container thereby inducing the discharge of the container contents into and through the heated tubular secondary and out its dispensing spout as a heated product ready for use.

5. A heating and dispensing device according to claim 4 wherein the side wall portion of the cap assembly is provided with a means to facilitate manual gripping of the device.

6. A heating and dispensing device according to claim 1 wherein said housing comprises a casing for receiving the container in its lower portion, a top wall with a central aperture therein, an elongated side wall portion including a front with an aperture in the upper portion thereof, a base plate adapted for engagement with the lower portion of said elongated side wall and supporting the container, said elongated side wall portion formed with an internal annular integral support ring positioned above the discharge means of said container and below the aperture in said front, said ring forming said support member, said resilient means comprising a deformable restraining means supported by said support ring and having a lateral passage therethrough adjacent to the aperture in said front, said deformable restraining means movably supporting the transformer in the upper portion of said casing and spaced from said support ring, said top wall portion and side wall portion, the outlet end of said tubular secondary extending through the lateral passage through said restraining means and through the aperture in said front, said means responsive to downward pressure comprising actuating means mounted on said transformer and having a button portion thereof extending through the aperture in said top wall portion, the arrangement being such that electric current can be provided for the transformer with consequent heating of the secondary, and thereafter downward reciprocation of the button portion of said actuating means allows discharge of the container contents into and through the heated tubular secondary and out its dispensing spout as a heated product ready for use 7. A heating and dispensing device according to claim 6 wherein the upper portion of the elongated side wall portion of said housing is provided with means to facilitate manual gripping of the device and is provided with a second aperture therein, a switch affixed to the transformer and having a push button portion extending through the second aperture of the upper portion of said side wall portion, the arrangement being such that horizontal reciprocation of the push button of said switch provides electric current for the transformer.

References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 500,272 6/1893 ROChl et al. 219-4051 1,614,620 1/1927 Kittredge et al. 2191().51 1,962,842 6/1934 Root 219 10.51 2,616,022 10/1952 Arnaud 219 10.51 2,914,221 11/1959 Rosenthal 222146 3,116,403 12/1963 Carter 222 -146 3,144,174 8/1964 Abplanalp 222-146 FOREIGN PATENTS 376,028 7/1932 Great Britain.

ANTHONY BARTIS, Primary Examiner US. Cl. X.R.

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US3891827 *Jan 12, 1973Jun 24, 1975Gad Jets IncElectrical heating device for use with aerosol containers
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US8950962Dec 20, 2011Feb 10, 2015Elc Management, LlcHeating applicator system for products that may be degraded by heat
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Classifications
U.S. Classification392/477, 219/214, 392/478, 219/628, 222/146.1, 239/135, 222/146.3
International ClassificationF24H1/10, H05B6/02
Cooperative ClassificationH05B6/108, F24H1/105
European ClassificationH05B6/10S6, F24H1/10B2D