|Publication number||US3518989 A|
|Publication date||Jul 7, 1970|
|Filing date||Feb 14, 1966|
|Priority date||Feb 14, 1966|
|Also published as||DE1600914A1, DE1600914B2|
|Publication number||US 3518989 A, US 3518989A, US-A-3518989, US3518989 A, US3518989A|
|Inventors||Seeler Gerda A, Seeler Henry W|
|Original Assignee||Seeler Gerda A, Seeler Henry W|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (20), Referenced by (24), Classifications (7)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
July 7 H. W..SEELER 3,5
VALVE ASSEMBLY Filed Feb. 14. 1966 FIG. 3
' FIG. 1
INVENTOR HENRY w. SEELER HIS ATTORNEYS.
United States Patent 3,518,989 VALVE ASSEMBLY Henry W. Seeler, Dayton, Ohio; Gerda A. Seeler, executrix of the estate of Henry W. Seeler, deceased Filed Feb. 14, 1966, Ser. No. 527,279 Int. Cl. A62b 9/02 US. Cl. 128-1455 12 Claims ABSTRACT OF THE DISCLOSURE A valve assembly for controlling fluid flow, as in resuscitator devices, utilizes a single unattached valve plate disposed between confronting valve seats located in a housing which forms a fluid receiving chamber. Each of the valve seats encircles a passage communicating from the exterior to the interior of the housing. A third passage communicates between the exterior and interior of said housing and said valve assembly includes means to direct fluid entering said housing through said third passage against said valve plate to position said valve plate in a desired operating position.
In resuscitation applications the third passage is placed in communication with a patients lungs and the other passages are placed respectively in communication with a source of breathing gas and with the ambient atmosphere. In operation, the patients exhalation gases which pass into the housing through the third passage are directed against said valve plate so as to close the passage to the source of breathing gas while also opening the passage to the ambient atmosphere.
This invention relates to a valve assembly for controlling fluid flow and, more particularly, to a valve assembly for use with a resuscitator or the like.
The mouth-to-mouth method of artificial respiration is far superior to any other type of manual resuscitation for insuring ample pulmonary ventilation. Since this method of artificial respiration creates sanitary problems because of the required intimate contact, resuscitators of the mouth-to-mask type have been utilized to eliminate the objection of the intimate contact while still resulting in the desired effects of the rnouth-to-mouth method.
However, the use of these mouth-to-mask resuscitators, which are portable, has been limited due to their size and cost. For example, large cities have been reluctant to expend the necessary money to equip each police car with a portable resuscitator. The present invention meets this requirement by providing a portable resuscitator of relatively low cost but high usefulness.
Since portable resuscitators will receive rough handling, the possibility exists that the valve, which is utilized in the resuscitator to control the flow of air from the operator of the resuscitator to the patient and from the patient to the ambient atmosphere, may be damaged. If this should occur and not be noted, the resuscitator would not be available for use until the valve is repaired or replaced. The present invention employs a simplified valve design whereby a coin such as a penny or a dime, for example, may be easily substituted for the valve in the resuscitator of the present invention. Also, household items such as wax paper, plastic wrapping foil, aluminum foil, or other thin materials may be used.
The valve construction of the present invention is so designed that no support means are attached to the valve to guide the valve in its movement whereby the minimum pressure differential required to operate the valve is greatly reduced. Instead, the chamber in which the valve is disposed is designed to provide the needed guide structure with minimal flow resistance.
An object of this invention is to provide a low cost and low breathing resistance portable resuscitator or breathing aid.
Another object of this invention is to provide a simplified valve construction for controlling fluid flow.
A further object of this invention is to provide a low cost valve for use with a resuscitator and the like.
A further object of this invention is to provide a simple and easily sterilized pulmonary treatment apparatus characterized by an avoidance of rebreathing and thus especially suited for medical applications.
Another object of this invention. is to provide a simple resuscitator having a single moving part easily replaced in the field with readily available substitutes.
Other objects and advantages reside in the construction of parts, the combination thereof, the method of manufacture and the mode of operation, as will become more apparent from the following description.
In the drawing, FIG. 1 is an enlarged longitudinal sectional view of a breathing assistance device showing one form of valve construction and taken substantially along line 1-1 of FIG. 2.
FIG. 2 is a sectional view taken substantially along line 2-2 of FIG. 1.
FIG. 3 is an enlarged fragmentary, longitudinal sectional view, similar to FIG. 1, but showing another form of valve construction.
FIG. 4 is a fragmentary, elevational view illustrating operation of the breathing assistance device of the present invention.
Referring to the drawing and particularly FIG. 1, there is shown a breathing assistance device or resuscitator. The device or resuscitator includes a substantially cylindrical and tubular housing 10, which is formed of tubular sections 12 and 14. An end 16 of the housing section 12 is enlarged and cooperates with an enlarged end 18 of the housing section 14 to form a connection therebetween. A resilient band 20, which is preferably formed of an elastomeric material, joins the two separable housing sections 12 and 14 together by fitting around the enlarged ends 16 and 18 thereof. Alternatively, the sections 12 and 14 may be joined by other means such as gluing, threading, bayonet hooks and the like.
The tubular housing section 12 has a passage 22 extending therethrough. The longitudinal axis of the passage 22, which is circular in cross section, is coaxial with the longitudinal axis of the housing 10.
'One end of the passage 22 communicates with a passage 24 in a breathing tube such as mouthpiece 26. The mouthpiece 26 has a depending annular portion 28, which tightly fits within a circular recess: formed by a reduced portion 30 of the housing section 12.
The other end of the passage 22 communicates with a chamber 32 through apertures 34, 36 and 38 in a web portion 40, which is formed integral with the housing section 12. The aperture 34 is disposed centrally within the web portion 40 while the apertures 36 and 38 are arcuate and diametrically disposed with respect to the central aperture 34.
An inner wall 42 of the enlarged end 16 of the housing section 12 functions as the wall of the chamber 32. The inner wall 42 is fluted to form channels or grooves 44 therein. The channels or grooves 44 are separated from each other by projections 46 (see FIG. 2). The chamber 32, which has its upper limit defined by an end face 48 of the housing section 12 and its lower limit defined by an end face 50 of the housing section 14, has its longitudinal axis coaxial with the longitudinal axis of the housing 10.
The tubular housing section 14 has a passage 52 formed therein. The passage 52 is adapted to be connected to a breathing mask 54 (see FIG. 4), which fits over a portion of the face of the patient to be revived and provides a confined passage from the passage 52 to the mouth and nose of the patient, or a trachea tube that leads to the patient to be revived.
The size of the passage 52 is reduced at its end, which communicates with the chamber 32, by a hollow cylindrical member 56. The cross section of the passage 52 is reduced from circular at its end communicating with the mask '54 or the trachea tube to arcuate or curved (see FIG. 2) at its end communicating with the chamber 32.
The member 56 is concentric with the housing section 14 so that a passage 58, which is within the member 56, has its longitudinal axis coaxial with the longitudinal axis of the housing 10. Likewise, the longitudinal axis of the passage 52, in both its cylindrical portion and its smaller arcuate or curved portion is coaxial with the longitudinal axis of the housing 10. The curved or armate portion of the passage 52 partially surrounds the passage 58.
The wall of the housing section 14 has an integral portion 60 extending inwardly to support the cylindrical member 56. The portion 60 of the wall of the housing section 14 has an opening or passage 62 extending between the exterior of the housing section 14 and the lower portion of the passage 58 in the member 56 to connect the passage 58 with the exterior of the housing 10.
As will appear more fully in the succeeding remarks, the end face 48 provides a seat for a valve element. In use, breathing gases flow across the valve element and also the seating surface. Such gases are ordinarily quite humid and, in consequence, condensation of moisture onto the valve and its seating surface can lead to a stickiness between the valve and its seating surface. To minimize such condition, the end face 48 may be provided with an annular ridge 64 which substantially reduces the area of contact between the valve seat and the valve. When the ridge 64 is provided, this ridge becomes, in effect, the valve seat and will be hereinafter referred to as a valve seat.
However, those skilled in the art will quickly recog nize that the ridge 64 is not essential to the formation of a valve seat, which could be only the flat annular surface of the end face 48. It will also be quickly recog nized that plural annular ridges concentric to the ridge 64 may be used, as well as any other surface roughening device, to reduce surface adhesion between the valve and the valve seat.
The ridge or valve seat 64, as illustrated, surrounds the passage 22 at its end that communicates with the chamber 32. The axis of the annular ridge or valve seat 64 is coaxial with the longitudinal axis of the housing 10.
The end of the hollow cylindrical member 56 defines an annular valve seat 66, which surrounds the passage 58 at its end that communicates with the chamber 32. The valve seat 66, which is in confronting relation with the valve seat 64, has its axis coaxial with the longitudinal axis of the housing 10.
A single valve element 68, which is imperforate, is disposed within the chamber 32 and is freely movable 4 and floatable between the valve seats 64 and 66 in response to pressure differentials acting thereon due to fluid pressures within the passages 22, 52, and 58.
The valve element '68, which is substantially planar, is circular and has a diameter slightly less than the diameter of the innermost portions of the projections 46 of the inner wall 42. Thus, the projections 46 guide the valve element 68, which is unsupported, in its movement between the valve seats 64 and 66 to maintain the valve element 68 substantially centered with respect to the valve seats 64 and 66.
The valve element 68 may be either rigid or resilient. It may be formed of any suitable material such as rubber, silicon rubber, plastic, or metal, for example. If the diameter of the innermost portions of the projections 46 is properly selected, the single valve element 68 may be a coin such as a penny or a dime, for example, depending on the diameter of the innermost portions of the projections 46 of the inner wall 42. Accordingly, in an emergency, a coin may be readily substituted for the single valve element 68 if the single valve element 68 should be lost or damaged in some manner so as to not function properly.
As shown in FIG. 1, the single valve element 68 is relatively thin but has sufficient thickness so as to not normally fracture or otherwise fail during operation. By making the single valve element 68 as thin as possible, its weight is reduced so that the single valve element 68 is readily responsive to changes in fluid pressures in the passages 22, 52, and 58.
The diameter of the valve seat 66 is less than the diameter of the valve seat 64 while the diameter of the single valve element 68 is greater than the diameter of the valve seat 64. Thus, the single valve element 68 has a sufficient area of its surface or side 70, which engages or contacts the valve seat 66, exposed to the pressure within the passage 52 when the valve element 68 is engaging the valve seat 66 so that the valve element 68 is lifted off the valve seat 66 to engage the valve seat 64 when the fluid pressures within the passages 52 and 58 create a force greater than the force, which is created by the fluid pressure within the passage 22.
Because of the slight axial distance between the valve seats 64 and 66 and the diameter of the single valve element 68 in comparison with the diameter of the passage 58, collapsing of the single valve element into the passage 58 when the valve element 68 engages the valve seat 66 is not possible even when the valve element 68 is formed of a resilient material. However, collapsing of the valve element 68 into the passage 22 could occur when the valve element 68 is formed of resilient material unless the web 40 is present.
Of course, when the valve element 68 is formed of a rigid material, the valve element 68 cannot collapse into even the passage 22. Thus, the web portion 40 could be eliminated, if desired, when the valve element 68 is formed of a rigid material.
It should be understood that the rest position of the valve element 68 depends on the position of the housing 10. For example, if the housing 10 is positioned as shown in FIG. 1, then the valve element 68- engages the valve seat 66 in its rest position due to gravity.
Referring to FIG. 4, operation of the breathing assistance device. of the present invention is shown. An operator or attedant has the mouthpiece 26 within his mouth. The mask 54 is disposed over the mouth and nose of a patient, who is to be revived. As previously mentioned, the mask '54 is connected to the passage 52 in the housing 14 so that a confined passage is provided from the passage 52 to the mouth and nose of the, patient.
When the attendant exhales, the pressure of the air within the passage 22 moves the valve element 68 so that its surface 70 engages the valve seat 66. As a result, the exhaled air from the attendant flows from the passage 22 into the chamber 32 and from the chamber 32, primarily by means of the channels 44, into the passage 52. Thus, air is supplied to the patient without any direct contact between the patient and the attendant.
When the attendant stops exhaling, the pressure within the passage 22 immediately reduces to that of the ambient atmosphere which is below that of the inflated lungs of the patient. Accordingly, the single valve element 68 is moved away from the valve seat 66 by the differential pressures acting thereon. The pressures and consequent air flow in the passages 52 and chamber 32 act on the valve element 68 to cause continued movement of the valve element 68 until its surface or side 72, which is opposite to the surface 70 and parallel thereto, moves into engagement with the valve seat 64 to prevent communication between the passage 22 and the chamber 32. The efficiency with which the valve element 68 moves off the valve seat 66 toward the seat 64 is dependent upon the extent to which the periphery of the valve element 68 projects beyond the outer periphery of the seat 66 so as to react with flowing gases exhaled by the patient.
With the surface 72 of the valve element 68 held in engagement with the valve seat 64 by the pressures and consequent air flow in the passage 52 and chamber 32, the passage 58 communicates with the passage 52 through the chamber 32. Accordingly, an air flow due to natural exhalation of air from the lungs of the patient occurs and continues as long as the lung pressure of the patient and consequent air flow is suflicient to hold the valve element 68 out of engagement with the valve seat 66 and in engagement with the valve seat 64. This pressure of the patients lungs and consequent air flow is ordinarily suflicient to maintain the valve element 68 in engagement with the valve seat 64 and out of engagement with the valve seat 66 until the attendant again exhales through the passage 22.
As long as the patient is exhaling, there is no direct breathing communication between the patient and the attendant since the passage 22 does not communicate with the chamber 32 at this time. Therefore, the attendant does not have to worry about contracting a contagious disease when using the breathing aid device of the present invention.
In ordinary usage, the attendant inhales as the patient exhales by removing his mouth from the mouthpiece 26 and turning his head to avoid the patients exhalation gases. Alternatively, the attendant can inhale through his nose without removing his mouth from the mouthpiece 26. While not necessary to satisfactory operation of the present device, the housing section 12 can also be provided with a check valve which will permit the attendant to inhale through the mouthpiece 26, drawing air from the ambient atmosphere into and through the passage 22.
From the foregoing description, it will be apparent that repeated cycles of induced inhalation of the patient due to exhalation by the attendant and natural exhalation of the patient may occur with the resuscitator of the present invention. These repeated cycles occur with the single valve element 68 functioning as a fluid distribution valve, which automatically assumes the proper position during each phase of the breathing cycle.
A modification of the fluid distribution device is shown in FIG. 3 wherein a single valve element 80, which is preferably formed of a pliable material such as rubber, is employed. The single valve element 80 includes a substantially planar and circular base portion 82, which has a greater diameter than the annular valve seat 66. A surface or side 84 of the base portion 82 engages the annular valve seat 66 when the attendant exhales through the passage 22.
The base portion 82 is surrounded by an outwardly diverging peripheral flange portion or skirt 86. The flange portion or skirt 86 projects from surface or side 88 of the base poriton 82. The surface or side 88 is disposed on the opposite side from the surface or side 84 of the 6 base portion 82 and is parallel to the surface or side 84.
In the modification of FIG. 3, the annular ridge, which forms the annular seat 64, is omitted. Instead, the end face 48 of the housing section 12 functions as a valve seat for cooperation with the flange portion or skirt 86 of the single valve element In the rest or relaxed condition of the single valve element 80, the surface 84 of the base portion 82 of the element 80 lightly contacts the annular valve seat 66 while the flange portion or skirt 86 lightly contacts the end face 48 of the housing section 12. The outer diameter of the flange portion or skirt. 86 is only slightly less than the diameter of the innermost ends of the projections 46. Thus, the projections 46 of the inner wall 42 guide the valve element 80 during movement within the chamber 32.
In the operation of the breathing assistance device of the present invention when used with the valve construction of FIG. 3, exhalation by the attendant through the passages 24 and 22 results in the base portion 82 firmly seating against the annular seat 66 while the flange portion or skirt 86 moves away from contact with the end face 48 of the housing section 12. The amount of movement of the flange portion or skirt 86 is limited by engagement of its outer margin with the projections 46 on the inner wall 42 of the housing section 12. However, there is suflicient movement to permit air to freely flow from the passage 22 into the chamber 32 and thence into the passage 52 by the channels 44 in the chamber 32.
When the attendant stops exhaling through the passage 22, the flange portion or skirt 86 returns to engage the end face 48 of the housing section 12. When this occurs, the exhalation pressure and consequent air flow from the patient through the passage 52 and chamber 32 is sufficient to move the base portion 82 away from engagement with the valve seat 66 whereby the patient may exhale through the passage 52, the chamber 32, and the passage 58 to the atmosphere. The exhalation pressure and consequent air flow by the patient also causes firm seating of the flange portion or skirt 86 against the end face 48 to insure that none of the air from the patient enters the passage 22.
The central portion of the base portion 82 tends to curve upwardly and engage the web 40 due to the pressures within the passages 52 and 58 and possible suction pressure created within the passage 22 by the attendant inhaling through his nose and indirectly through his mouth from the passage 22. The web 40 insures that the valve element 80 is not moved upwardly so as to be incapable of returning to the position wherein it engages the valve seat 66.
Because of the overall size of the valve element 80 wtih respect to the valve seat 66 and the slight axial distance between the end face 48 and the valve seat 66, the valve element 80 will not be urged downwardly into the passage 58 to any degree. Thus, it is not necessary to provide any type of web support within the passage 58 to limit movement of the valve element 80 thereinto.
As with the embodiment of FIGS. 1 and 2, repeated cycles of induced inhalation of the patient due to exhalation by the attendant and natural inhalation of the patient occur with the valve element 80 functioning as a fluid distribution valve to automatically assume the proper position during each phase of the breathing cycle. Thus, the patient receives the desired effect of mouth-tomouth breathing without the attendant receiving any of the disadvantages, which normally occur in mouth-tomouth resuscitation.
While the valve assemblies of the present invention have been described for use with a breathing aid device, it should be understood that the valve assemblies of the present invention may be readily utilized to control fluid flow between various passages or ports wherein there are changes at intermittent times in the pressures existing Within-one or more of the passages or ports. While the housing selections 12 and 14 and the mouthpiece 26 are preferably formed of a suitable plastic such as styrene, it should be understood that any material, preferably one that is non-corrosive, may be employed.
While the breathing aid device of the present invention has been described for use with an operator or attendant supplying the air to the patient to induce inhalation, it should be understood that any type of manual or automatic air supplying means could be attached to either the housing section 12 or the mouthpiece 26 if desired.
Furthermore, the valve assemblies of the present invention may be used with the passage 22 communicating through check valves with the ambient atmosphere. In this arrangement, all inhaling by the attendant would be through his mouth.
The fluid distribution valve of the present invention does not require any type of biasing element but merely depends upon the pressure differentials acting on the movable valve element. Thus, the fluid distribution device of the present invention may be utilized to handle corrosive material, for example, since the housing and the valve element 68 or 80 are preferably formed of a non-corrosive material.
An advantage of this invention is that the breathing assistance device is relatively inexpensive in comparison with the presently available mouth-to-mask resuscitators. Another advantage of this invention is that any planar element such as a coin, for example, may be substituted for the valve element in an emergency. A further advantage of this invention is that the valve is the only moving part in the valve assembly. Still another advantage of this invention is that the need for any direct support construction to the movable valve element or member is eliminated.
Although the preferred embodiments of the invention have been described, it will be understood that within the purview of this invention various changes may be made in the form, details, proportion and arrangement of parts, the combination thereof and mode of operation, which generally stated consist of a device capable of carrying out the objects set forth, as disclosed and defined in the appended claims.
Having thus described my invention, I claim:
1. A valve assembly comprising a housing having a fluid receiving chamber therein, a plurality of passages communicating with said chamber, a first of said passages being surrounded by a first valve seat at the end of said first passage communicating with said chamber,
a second of said passages being surrounded by a second valve seat at the end of said second passage communicating with said chamber, a single valve element disposed within said chamber and free to move in response to gravitational forces between said first and second valve seats, a third of said passages always being in communication with said chamber irrespective of the position of said single valve element, said single valve element having an unsupported periphery, said single valve element being movable within said chamber in response to pressure differential acting thereon from any fluid pressures in said passages to engage said first valve seat in a first position to prevent communication from said first passage to said chamber and to engage said second valve seat in a second position to prevent communication from said second passage to said chamber, said valve element when in said second position engaging said second valve seat with one side thereof and having an area of said one side projecting outwardly from the outer periphery of said second valve seat, means to direct fluid entering said chamber from said third passage against said area of said one side to move said valve element away from said second valve seat, means cooperating with a portion of said single valve element to insure that said single valve element only moves between said first and second positions, said third passage communicating with said second passage through said chamber when said single valve element is in said first position, and said third passage communicating with said first passage through said chamber when said single valve element is in said second position.
2. The valve assembly according to claim 1 in which said single valve element is imperforate.
3. The valve assembly according to claim 1 in which said single valve element is substantially planar.
4. The valve assembly according to claim 1 in which said chamber has its Wall fluted to form channels, said cooperating means comprising the portions of the wall between the channels together with the periphery of said valve element, said means to direct fluid comprising said channels.
5. The valve assembly according to claim 1 in which said single valve element is rigid.
6. The valve assembly according to claim 1 in which said housing is substantially cylindrical, each of said passages has its longitudinal axis coaxial with the longitudinal axis of said housing, and said chamber has its longitudinal axis coaxial with the longitudinal axis of said housing.
7. The valve assembly according to claim 1 in which said first valve seat includes an annular wall portion surrounding said first passage, said wall portion supporting an annular ridge encircling said first passage, said ridge limiting the area of contact between said first valve seat and said valve element.
8. A valve assembly including a housing having a fluid receiving chamber therein, said housing having a pair of annular valve seats disposed in confronting relation therein, each of said valve seats surrounding a passage communicating between said chamber and the exterior of said housing, a valve plate having an unsupported periphery and free to move in said chamber in response to gravitational forces, said valve plate having oppositely facing surfaces with one of said surfaces engaging one of said valve seats when said valve plate is in a first position and the other of said surfaces engaging the other of said valve seats when said valve plate is in a second position, said valve plate when in said second position having an area of said other surface projecting outwardly from the outer periphery of said other of said valve seats, said housing having a third passage communicating with the exterior of said housing, means to direct fluid entering said chamber from said third passage against said area of said other surface to move said valve plate away from said other valve seat, and means cooperating with the peripheral edge of said valve plate to insure that said valve plate moves only between said first and second positions.
9. The valve assembly according to claim 8 in which said chamber has its wall fluted to form channels, the portions of the wall between the channels comprising said cooperating means and said means to direct comprising the portions of said wall defining said channels.
10. The valve assembly according to claim 8 in which said valve plate is substantially planar.
11. The valve assembly according to claim 8 in which said valve plate is imperforate.
12. The valve assembly according to claim 8 in which said valve plate is imperforate and substantially planar.
References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 2,887,104 5/1959 Sovinsky et al 12'8-145.5 3,099,985 8/1963 Wilson et al. 128145.5 3,124,124 3/1964 Cross 128145.5 3,251,359 5/1966 Ismach 128145.8 3,252,457 5/1966 Monaco et a1 128145.5 3,262,446 7/1966 Stoner 128145.7
(Other references on following page) 9 UNITED STATES PATENTS Hesse 128-1458 Bartlett 128-1455 Roy 137-525 XR Patten 137-102 Mead 137-102 Robinson 137-218 Hewitt 137-525 XR Brandenberg 137-102 Groth 137-102 Johannisson 137-102 10 FOREIGN PATENTS 8/ 1961 Great Britain.
7/1962 Great Britain 10/ 1965 Great Britain. 12/ 1967 France.
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|U.S. Classification||128/203.11, 137/102|
|International Classification||A61M16/00, A61M16/20|
|Cooperative Classification||A61M16/208, A61M16/0048|