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Publication numberUS3519870 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateJul 7, 1970
Filing dateMay 18, 1967
Priority dateMay 18, 1967
Publication numberUS 3519870 A, US 3519870A, US-A-3519870, US3519870 A, US3519870A
InventorsJensen Andrew O
Original AssigneeXerox Corp
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Spiraled strip material having parallel grooves forming plurality of electron multiplier channels
US 3519870 A
Abstract  available in
Images(4)
Previous page
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

July 7,1970 A.o..1':-:Ns:-:N 3,519,870

' Filed May 18, 196

SPIRALED STRIP MATERIAL HAVING PARALLEL GROOVES FORMING PLURALITY 0F ELECTRON MULTIPLIER CHANNELS a 4 Sheets-Sheet l Fewer Kai/w I July 7, 1970 A o. JENSEN I 3,519,870

SPIRALED STRIP MATERIAL HAVING PARALLEL GROOVES FORMING PLURALITY OF ELECTRON MULTIPLIER CHANNELS Filed May 18, 196' 4 Sheets-Sheet 2 "July 1, 19,70

Fiied lay 1a, 196' OJENSEN 3,5l,870

A. SPIRALED' STRIP MATERIAL HAVING PARALLEL GROOVES'FORMING PLUR'ALITY OF ELECTRON MULT'IPLIER CHANNELS 4 Sheets-Sheet 5 July 7, 1970 A. O JENS SPIRALED STRIP MATERIAL HAVING PARALLEL GROOVES FORMING Filed May 18, 196' PLURALITY OF ELECTRON MULTIPLIER CHANNELS 4 Sheets-Sheet 4 Vapara/e f/ecfra de dr/l/j'e flea/rode for GM/rafled r ei/fffl f/y 4/71/12 0. Jam? United States Patent 3,519,870 SPIRALED STRIP MATERIAL HAVING PARALLEL GROOVES FORMING PLURALITY OF ELECTRON MULTIPLIER CHANNELS Andrew 0. Jensen, Arcadia, Califl, assignor, by mesne assignments, to Xerox Corporation, a corporation of New York Filed May 18, 1967, Ser. No. 639,555 Int. Cl. H013 43/20, 43/24 US. Cl. 313-105 2 Claims ABSTRACT OF THE DISCLOSURE This invention relates to an electron multiplier. Generally, the electron multiplier of the present invention is constructed from a plate of insulating material. The plate of insulating material contains a plurality of parallel grooves on at least one surface of the insulating plate. A layer of secondary emission material covers the walls of the grooves so that the plurality of grooves provides for a plurality of electron channels. A plurality of grooved plates of insulating material or a single spiraled plate may be used to provide for a two-dimensional electron multiplier.

multipliers of the prior art. In addition, the electron multiplier of the present invention allows for a reduction in cost over prior art electron multipliers.

As indicated above, the electron multiplier of the present invention includes a plate of insulating material which contains a plurality of grooves coated with secondary emission material. In the use of the electron multiplier of the present invention, electrons are introduced at a first side of the grooved plate and the electrons move down the length of the grooves and strike the secondary emission material at progressive positions along the grooves. Ultimately the electrons emerge at a second opposite side of the plate and there is a multiplication of the number of electrons emerging from the second side in comparison to the number of electrons introduced at the first side of the plate.

In one particular use of the electron multiplier of the present invention a plurality of such grooved plates may be stacked together or a single elongated plate may be spiraled so as to provide for a two-dimensional electron multiplier. Specifically, the two-dimensional type of electron multiplier may be used in a structure such as an image intensifier, since it would be desirable to provide for an increase in intensity of a two-dimensional image. Also, in the construction of the electron multiplier of the present invention an accelerating field may be provided so as to compel the movement of the electrons in the proper direction along the grooves. The use of the accelerating field insures successive collisions of the electrons with the secondary emission material at successive points along the grooves.

The prior art electron multipliers were constructed of a plurality of small tubes of insulating material such as glass to form a plurality of electron channels. For example, in the prior art, small tubes of glass would be stacked together to provide for a two-dimensional electron multiplier. The size of the channels would be reduced by 3,519,870 Patented July 7, 1970 progressively drawing the tubes smaller and smaller so as to reduce the dimensions of the tubes and provide for a great number of electron channels in a small area. The openings through the glass tubes were, therefore, very small and it was extremely difiicult to deposit secondary emission material on the interior surface of the tubes.

Since it was difficult to deposit secondary emission material on the interior surface of the tubes, the prior art electron multipliers were constructed of lead glass and the lead glass was processed by a hydrogen reduction of the interior surface of the tubes so as to produce a layer of secondary emission material on the interior surface of the tubes. However, it is to be appreciated that it is difiicult to provide for such a hydrogen reduction of the interior surface of the lead glass tubes and, moreover, it is diflicult to provide for uniformity of the layer of secondary emission material. A non-uniformity of the layer of secondary emission material between difierent electron channels can result in errors in the output from the electron multiplier.

The prior art electron multipliers using a plurality of small tubes were extremely expensive to construct and did not provide for uniform results. Another limitation with the prior art electron multipliers of the type using a plurality of the small tubes was that the electron multipliers were limited to the use of a layer of secondary emission material which was produced by hydrogen reduction and it was not possible to provide for the deposition of other secondary emission materials which have secondary emission ratios higher than that provided by the hydrogen reduction.

The present invention uses a plate of insulating material having a plurality of grooves along at least one surface of the plate. The grooves are open so that it is simple to perform further operations on the interior of the grooves. For example, the grooved plate of insulating material may be constructed of a lead glass and the plate of lead glass is processed by hydrogen reduction, so as to provide for a layer of secondary emission material covering the walls of the grooves. Since the grooves are open, it is much simpler to control the uniformity of the layer of secondary emission material formed by the hydrogen reduction process.

However, one of the significant advantages of the electron multiplier of the present invention is that other secondary emission materials may be deposited to cover the walls of the grooves so as to provide for the layer of secondary emission material. Also, since the grooves are open, the secondary emission material may be deposited uniformly throughout the length of the grooves. It is, therefore, possible with the present invention to provide for the deposition of materials having relatively high secondary emission ratios in place of the lower secondary emission ratio materials used in the prior art electron multipliers. For example, with the present invention, materials such as magnesium oxide may be used for the layer of secondary emission material so as to provide for electron channels having relatively high multiplication factors.

Not only does the use of the grooved plates allow for the deposition of materials so as to provide for an improved performance in the electron multiplier of the present invention, but, in addition, the use of the grooved plates provides for a much simpler construction of an electron multiplier and allows for a greater freedom in the manufacturing of the electron multiplier of the present invention. The electron multiplier of the present invention, therefore, is much simpler to build than prior art electron multipliers and is less expensive than such prior art electron multipliers.

As indicated above, a plurality of the grooved plates may be stacked or a single grooved plate may be spiraled so as to form a two-dimensional electron multiplier. Thev construction of the two-dimensional electron multiplier of the present invention is much simpler than the use of a plurality of small tubes as with the prior art electron multipliers. The stacking or spiraling of the grooved plate is a much simpler construction for the electron multiplier of the present invention when compared with the prior art electron multipliers. The simpler construction for the electron multiplier of the present invention leads to a reduction in cost of the electron multiplier of the present invention over the prior art electron multipliers.

An accelerating field may also be used in the electron multiplier of the present invention by providing a difference in potential across the opposite sides of the grooved plate. The secondary emission material may be constructed to have a controlled high resistance or a separate layer of material having a controlled high resistance may be deposited between the surface of the grooved plate and the secondary emission material. The controlled high resistance provides for a uniform drop in voltage along the lenth of the grooves due to the difference in potential applied across the sides of the grooved plate and the uniform drop in voltage produces a uniform electric field in the grooves parallel to the surface of the grooves.

Contact areas may be included at the sides of the grooved plate so as to provide for attachment points for the voltage potential. The electric field operates to accelerate the electrons within the grooves which serve as electron channels and the electric field insures the movement of the electrons in the proper direction so as to provide for a multiplication of electrons by successive contacts between the electrons and the secondary emission material.

When the electron multiplier of the present invention is being used as part of an image intensifier, the electrons may be introduced to the first side of the grooves from a source of electrons such as a plate of photo-emissive material. The plate of photo-emissive material may receive an image which is to be intensified so that the electrons which are introduced to the grooves are in accordance with the image. The electrons in accordance with the image are multiplied as they progress along the grooves and the electrons emerge at the second opposite side of the grooves.

The electrons from the second side of the grooves are multiplied in accordance with the particular multiplication factor of the electron multiplier which depends upon various factors such as the secondary emission material, the number of contacts between the electrons and the secondary emission material, etc. The electrons from the second side of the grooves which emerge are then directed to a screen such as a fluorescent screen so as to provide for an image on the screen having an intensity greater than the intensity of the original image. The electron multiplier may, therefore, be used as an image intensifier so as to provide for an intensification of a weak or dim image.

The present invention is, therefore, directed to a new construction for an electron multiplier which provides for improved performance over electron multipliers of the prior art. In addition, the electron multipler of the present invention may be produced with a reduced cost over prior art electron multipliers. A greater understanding of the electron multiplier of the present invention may be had 'with reference to the further description of the invention and with reference to the following drawings wherein:

FIG. 1 is an illustration of an image intensifier using an electron multiplier;

FIG. 2 is an illustration of a single electron channel of an electron multiplier illustrating the multiplication of the electrons;

FIG. 3 is a first embodiment of an electron multiplier constructed in accordance with the present invention;

FIG. 3a is an enlarged fragmentary view of a portion of the electron multiplier of FIG. 3;

FIG. 4 is a second embodiment of an electron multiplier constructed in accordance with the present invention;

FIG. 4a is an enlarged fragmentary view of a portion of the electron multiplier of FIG. 4;

FIG. 5 is a third embodiment of an electron multiplier constructed in accordance with the present invention;

FIG. 5a is an enlarged fragmentary view of a portion of the electron multiplier of FIG. 5;

FIGS. 6a, 6b and 6c illustrate three steps in the production of an electron multiplier constructed in accordance with the present invention;

FIG. 7 diagrams a process which may be used to produce an electron multiplier from a physical structure such as shown in FIG. 60; and

FIG. 8 illustrates a technique for mass producing an electron multiplier constructed in accordance with the present invention.

In FIG. 1, an image intensifier using an electron multiplier is illustrated. The image intensifier 10 is used to intensify an image 12. A first plate 14 of translucent insulating material supports a sheet of photo-emissive material 16. The photo-emissive material 16 receives the image 12 and produces electrons at particular positions along the sheet of photo-emissive material in accordance with the intensity of the image at various positions within the image.

The electrons from the photo-emissive sheet of material 16 are directed through a second plate of insulating material 18 and toward an electron multiplier 20. The electron multiplier includes a plurality of channels, each having secondary emission material so as to provide for a multiplication of the electrons in a manner to be described later. The electron multiplier also includes conductive coatings 22 and 24 on either side of the electron multiplier.

After the electrons emerge from the electron multiplier 20, they pass through a plate of insulating material 26. The plate of insulating material 26 supports a sheet of fluorescent material 28 which serves as a fluorescent screen. A second plate 30 of translucent insulating material serves to protect the fluorescent material 28. As can be seen in FIG. 1, the original image 12 is reproduced by the fluorescent material 2 8 as a new image 32, and the iliilage 32 has a greater intensity than the original image The image intensifier 10 of FIG. 1 also includes a power supply 34 which provides a plurality of voltage potentials which are connected to the sheet of photoemissive material 16, the contact areas 22 and 24, and the sheet of fluorescent material 28. The potential on the sheet of photo-emissive material 16 is less than the potential on the contact area 22 so as to provide an accelerating field for the electrons produced by the photo-emissive material 16. The accelerating field produced by the voltage potential between the contact area 22 and the photo-emissive material compels the movement of the electrons produced by the photo-emissive material 16 towards the electron multiplier 20. Also, the potential on the sheet of conductive material 22 is greater than the potential on the sheet of conductive material 24 so as to produce an accelerating field within the electron channels to compel movement of the electrons within the various electron channels contained -in the electron multiplier 20. Finally, the potential on the sheet of conductive material 24 is less than the potential on the sheet of fluorescent material 28 so as to produce an accelerating field to compel movement of the multiplied electrons towards the sheet of fluorescent material 28.

FIG. 2 illustrates a single one of the electron channels of an electron multiplier such as the electron multiplier 20 of FIG. 1. In FIG. 2, the contact material 22 and 24 is shown on opposite sides of the electron multiplier and it can be seen that the contact material does not cover the various openings for the individual channels in the electron multiplier 20. The electron multiplier 20 also contains a layer of secondary emission material 36 so as to provide for a multiplication of the electrons. Depending on the particular configuration of the electron channel, the secondary emission material 36 may completely surround the electron channel or the electron secondary emission materials 36 may partially surround the electron channel.

As an illustration of the operation of the electron mul tiplier 20 and in particular the operation of a single one of the electron channels of the electron multiplier, a single electron is shown entering the electron channel on the first side of the electron multiplier 20. It is assumed that the secondary emission material 36 has a secondary emission ratio of 2; that is, for every electron which strikes the surface of the secondary emission material 36, two electrons are released from the secondary emission material. Therefore, as shown in FIG. 2, as each electron strikes the secondary emission material 36, two electrons are shown to be released. The single electron shown entering the electron channel in FIG. 2 strikes the secondary emission material 36 and releases two electrons. These two electrons also strike the secondary emission material 36 and each electron releases two electrons to produce a total of four electrons. The four electrons in turn strike the secondary emission material to produce eight electrons.

As shown in FIG. 2, a large number of electrons are shown to emerge from the side of electron multiplier 20 containing the conductive material 24. It is to be appreciated, however, that in the actual operation of the electrofin multiplier, a large number of collisions of the electrons occur along the length of the electron channel so as to provide many more electrons than those shown emerging from the electron channel of FIG. 2. Also, it is to be appreciated that secondary emission material may be used which has a higher secondary emission ratio than that assumed for the illustration of FIG. 2. Therefore, it is possible to obtain an extremely large multiplication of the electrons.

FIG. 3 illustrates a first embodiemnt of an electron multiplier constructed in accordance with the present invention which may be used as part of the image intensifier of FIG. 1. FIG. 3a is an enlarged fragmentary view of a portion of the electron multiplier of FIG. 3. The electron multiplier of FIG. 3 includes a plurality of plates of insulating material 100. The plates 100 are stacked together so as to form a composite electron multiplier structure. Each of the plates contains a plurality of parallel grooves 102 on at least one surface of the plate. The grooves 102 are lined with a layer of secondary emission material 104 which is more clearly shown in FIG. 3a. The secondary emission material 104 is used to provide for the multiplication of the electrons as they pass through the grooves 102 and strike the secondary emission material at progressive positions along the grooves 102.

The electron multiplier of FIG. 3 may also include a layer of material 106 which has a controlled high resistivity as shown in FIG. 3a. The layer of controlled high resistivity material 106 would be connected, for example, to contact areas such as contact areas 22 and 24 shown in FIG. 1, so that the difference in voltage potential applied to the contact areas 22 and 24 would have a uniform voltage drop throughout the grooves 102 shown in FIG. 3, due to the controlled high resistivity of the layer 106. The uniform voltage drop would provide for a uniform electric field within the grooves 102. The uniform electric field is parallel to the walls of the grooves 102 and is an accelerating field to insure that the electrons flow in the proper direction while making the successive contacts with the secondary emission material 104. It is to be appreciated that the secondary emission material 104 may itself have a controlled high resistivity so as to eliminate the necessity for an additional layer of controlled high resistivity material.

In the embodiment of the electron multiplier shown in FIG. 3 and FIG. 3a, it can be seen that the plates have the grooves 102 open along one surface before the plates are stacked. It can, therefore, be seen that it is easy to control the deposition of the layers 104 and 106 since the grooves are open along the one surface. It is, therefore, possible to use secondary emission materials, for example, materials such as magnesium oxide, which have a high secondary emission ratio. It is also to be appreciated that the plates 100 may be composed of lead glass such as the prior art electron multipliers and the lead glass may be subjected to a hydrogen reduction so as to form the layer of secondary emission material covering the surface of the grooves 102. However, since the grooves are open along the one surface, it is easier to control the uniformity of the layer formed by the hydrogen reduction than the prior art electron multipliers.

FIGS. 4 and 4a illustrate a second embodiment of an electron multiplier constructed in accordance with the present invention. FIG. 4a is an enlarged fragmentary view of a portion of FIG. 4. In FIG. 4, a plurality of plates have grooves 152 on one surface of the plates and grooves 154 on the other surface of the plates. As shown in FIG. 4a, the grooves 15.2 and 154 may contain dual layers including secondary emission material 156 and a controlled high resistivity material 108.

It is to be appreciated that the embodiment of FIG. 4 is more difficult to stack since the grooves 152 and 154 in adjacent plates must be accurately aligned whereas the plates 100 of the embodiment of FIG. 3 do not have to have the grooves 102 aligned. The embodiment of FIG. 4 also has an electron channel having secondary emission material completely surrounding the electrons whereas the embodiment of FIG. 3 has the electron channel having secondary emission material only partially surrounding the electrons. However, the simplicity of the construction of the embodiment of FIG. 3 makes the structure such as shown in FIG. 3 a preferred embodiment of the invention. It is also to be appreciated that secondary emission material may be deposited on the flat surface of the plates 100 shown in FIG. 3 so that the electron channel has secondary emission material completely surrounding the electrons.

FIG. 5 illustrates a third embodiment of the invention including a single plate of insulating material 200 spiraled so as to form a two-dimensional electron multiplier. The plate 200 includes grooves 202 spaced along the plate. As shown in FIG. 5a, the grooves 202 may have a first layer of secondary emission material 204 and a second layer of controlled high resistivity material 206. It is to be appreciated as indicated above that the secondary emission material itself may have a controlled high resistivity so as to eliminate the second layer of controlled high resistivity material. Also, as indicated above, the plates may be constructed of lead glass so that the secondary emission mate rial may be formed by a hydrogen reduction of the lead glass. However, the present invention also has the capability of using secondary emission materials which may be deposited within the grooves and which provide a high secondary emission ratio.

The embodiment of FIG. 5 is relatively simple in construction since the plate 200 is merely spiraled so as to form the two-dimensional electron multiplier. Also, in the embodiment shown in FIG. 5, wherein the grooves are contained on the inside surfaces of the plate 200, the side walls of the grooves flex inward as. the plate is spiraled so as to provide for a more complete encircling of the grooves which serve as electron channels.

The electron multipliers as shown in FIGS, 3, 4 and 5 are simpler in construction than the prior art electron multipliers and result in a great reduction in cost for e1ectron multipliers of FIGS. 3, 4 and 5 over the prior art electron multipliers. In addition, since the electron channels are open along one surface prior to stacking or spiraling, it is possible to use secondary emission material which is deposited within the channels, whereas the prior art electron multipliers which use small tubes could not have the secondary emission material deposited within the tubes. The electron multiplier of the present invention, therefore, provides for an improved performance over the electron multipliers of the prior art. The electron multiplier of the present invention may be constructed by various methods and, as examples, FIGS. 6, 7 and 8 illustrate two methods of constructing the electron multipliers.

In FIGS. 6a, 6b and 6c, a single sheet of insulating material is shown transformed to a grooved plate. In FIG. 6a, an elongated flat plate of insulating material 250 is shown. The plate of insulating material 250 may be composed of material such as glass. In FIG. 6b the plate 250 is coated with a layer of photo-sensitive material 252 and a pattern 254 is developed on the photo-sensitive material. FIG. 66 shows the plate 250 etched away in accordance with the pattern 254 shown in FIG. 6b so as to produce a plurality of grooves 256. The plate 250 containing the grooves 256 which serve as electron channels is further processed as shown by the method of FIG. 7.

In FIG. 7, the plate 250 first has an electrode material such as chromium or other suitable metal evaporated with the grooves by a first step 300. The evaporative process produces a layer of an electrode such as chromium or other suitable metal within the grooves. The electrode material is then oxidized by a second step 302 so as to provide for a controlled high resistivity of the electrode material. The material such as chromium oxide, therefore, provides for a controlled resistivity so as to produce a uniform electric field in the grooves 256 when a difference in potential is applied across the ends of the grooves. The uniform electric field acts as an accelerating field within the grooves.

A layer of prospective secondary emission material is then evaporatively deposited on top of the layer of electrode material in a third step 304. For example, magnesium may be deposited on top of the electrode material. A fourth step 306 is to oxidize the prospective secondary material so as to produce the secondary emission material. For example, if magnesiumris used, the magnesium is oxidized to magnesium oxide which has a high secondary emission ratio.

A fifth step 308 in the method of FIG. 7 is to stack the various plates 250 together so that the plurality of grooves 256 which now include layers of controlled high resistivity material and secondary emission material form a two-dimensional array of electron channels. A final step 310 is to metalize the ends of the stack of plates so as to produce contact areas. The contact areas receive the voltage potential so as to produce the accelerating field within the grooves. The metalized ends would be similar to the metalized ends 22 and 24 shown in FIG. 1.

The methods illustrated in FIGS. 6 and 7 may be used to produce electron multipliers of the type shown in FIGS. 3 and 4. It is to be appreciated that the plate 250 shown in FIG. 6a may be much longer than that shown and the plate may then be spiraled to produce an electron multiplier as shown in FIG. 5.

FIG. 8 illustrates a method for mass producing electron multipliers of the type shown in FIGS. 3, 4 and 5. In FIG. 8, a roll of insulating material 350 is unrolled and passed through an oven 352 so as to soften the material 350. The insulating material 350, for example, may be glass. The softened insulating material 350 is then corrugated by a structure including a large wheel 354 having a smooth surface and a smaller corrugated wheel 356. The wheel 356 produces a plurality of grooves 358 in the surface of the material 350. The grooved insulating material 350 after passing through the Wheel 356 is similar to the grooved structure shown in FIG. 60.

The grooved insulating material 350 passes through a first evaporator 360 which evaporatively deposits a layer of electrode material. An oxidizer 362 oxidizes the electrode material to produce a layer of controlled high resistivity material in the grooves. The controlled high resistivity material may be chromium oxide. The grooved insulating materal then passes through a second evaporator 364 whch evaporates a prospective secondary emission material. Finally, a second oxidizer 366 oxidizes the prospective secondary emission material to produce a layer of secondary emission material in the grooves. The secondary emission material, for example, may be magnesium oxide.

The grooved material now has a plurality of grooves which contain layers of secondary emission material and high resistivity material so as to form the electron multiplier. For example, as shown at position 368, the material 350 as it passes out of the oxidizer 366 may be rolled directly to form an electron multiplier of the type shown in FIG. 5. Also, the material 350 as it passes out of the oxidizer 366 may be chopped into smaller sections which in turn may be stacked to form an electron multiplier of the type shown in FIG. 3. It is to be appreciated that the particular manner in which the material 350 is handled after the oxidizer 366 would be a matter of choice.

The present invention is, therefore, directed to a new simple construction for an electron multiplier which is less expensive than prior art electron multipliers and which provides for an improved performance over prior art electron multipliers. The performance of the electron multiplier of the present invention is improved in part because secondary emission materials may be used having a higher secondary emission ratio than those used in the prior art electron multipliers.

The present invention has been described with reference to particular embodiments and, in addition, two illustrative methods have been shown for producing the electron multipliers of the present invention. In addition, it has been indicated that the electron multiplier of the present invention may be used as part of an image intensifier so as to provide for an increase in intensity of a dim image.

It is to be appreciated that although the invention has been described with reference to particular embodiments, various adaptations and modifications may be made. The invention, therefore, is only to be limited by the appended claims.

What is claimed is:

1. An electron multiplier comprising:

(a) a roll of insulating strip material having a plurality of parallel grooves forming a plurality of electron channels on one surface of the strip material extending from a first side of the strip material to a second side of the strip material, said roll forming a spiral with the lands between said grooves in contact with the second surface of a different turn of said spiraled strip material to close said electron channels intermediate said first and second sides,

(b) means for producing an accelerating electric field within the grooves from the first side of the strip material to the second side of the strip material for accelerating electrons introduced into the grooves from the first side of the strip material to the second side of said strip material, said means comprising contact areas at the first side of the strip material and the second side of the strip material and an electrical potential coupled to said contact areas, and

(c) a layer of secondary emission material having controlled high resistivity covering the surface of the grooves for providing a multiplication of the number of electrons introduced into the grooves at the first side of the strip material to the number of electrons emerging at the second side of the strip material in accordance with the electrons striking the secondary emission material at successive points along the grooves.

9 2. The electron multiplier according to claim 1, and 3,128,408 wherein the secondary emission material having controlled 3,182,221 high resistivity is magnesium oxide. 3,341,730 3,343,025 References Cited 3,387,137 5 2160799 UNITED STATES PATENTS 3244922 2,225,786 12/1940 Langenwalter et a1. 313-105 1 1 1 2,232,900 2/1941 Brewer 313-105 2,674,661 4/1954 Law 313-105 10 Goodrich et a1. 313-103 X Poor 313-103 Goodrich et a1. 313-104 X Ignatowski et a1. 313-105 Adams 313-104 X Teal 313-95 Wolfgang 313-95 Wolfgang; et al. 313-104 X ROBERT SEGAL, Primary Examiner

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Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US3757351 *Jan 4, 1971Sep 4, 1973Corning Glass WorksHigh speed electostatic printing tube using a microchannel plate
US3789608 *Oct 14, 1971Feb 5, 1974Communications Satellite CorpType of colloid propulsion
US3808494 *Apr 13, 1972Apr 30, 1974Matsushita Electric Ind Co LtdFlexible channel multiplier
US4028575 *Nov 28, 1975Jun 7, 1977Rca CorporationElectron multiplier image display device
US4034255 *Nov 28, 1975Jul 5, 1977Rca CorporationVane structure for a flat image display device
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US7154086Mar 8, 2004Dec 26, 2006Burle Technologies, Inc.Conductive tube for use as a reflectron lens
US8084732Dec 22, 2009Dec 27, 2011Burle Technologies, Inc.Resistive glass structures used to shape electric fields in analytical instruments
US20040183028 *Mar 8, 2004Sep 23, 2004Bruce LapradeConductive tube for use as a reflectron lens
US20100090098 *Dec 22, 2009Apr 15, 2010Laprade Bruce NResistive glass structures used to shape electric fields in analytical instruments
Classifications
U.S. Classification313/105.00R, 313/105.0CM
International ClassificationH01J43/24, H01J43/00
Cooperative ClassificationH01J43/24
European ClassificationH01J43/24