US 3521645 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
United States Patent 3,521,645 PROCESS FOR SETTING AND RETAINING STYLE IN WIGS Daniel Frishman, Andover, and Timothy J. Horan,
Framingham Center, Mass., assignors to Reid- Meredith, Inc., Lawrence, Mass., a corporation of Massachusetts No Drawing. Filed May 17, 1966, Ser. No. 550,630 Int. Cl. A4lg 3/00, 5/00 U.S. Cl. 132-5 5 Claims ABSTRACT OF THE DISCLOSURE The present invention is directed to the use of a pressurized low molecular weight organic activating solvent which is substantially water free for application to a previously styled wig the filaments of which have been coated with a polymeric material. The solvent under pressure is caused to be sprayed upon the styled coated filaments to cause the polymeric material to soften and form bonds at contact points among and between the coated filaments to preserve the imparted style.
The problem existing in the art prior to the present invention may be best stated as follows: when a woman sprays her hair to keep it in place, she mainly stabilizes the hair which is exposed. Thus the bulk of her hair is not stabilized. For this reason, large quantities of spray are sometimes used. Each time she brushes and/ or combs her hair, she breaks the hair-to-hair bonds and she must then re-spray her hair in order to have the new styling stay in place. This process leads tospray build-up with dullness, harshness, etc.
The present invention proposes a process whereby the stability of a styled wig may be retained for long periods rwithout mussing or losing its style. The process is generally set out as entailing first the treatment of the wig whether it bea' natural hair wig or a wig of synthetic filaments as shown in US. Letters Patent -No. 3,139,093, patented June 30, 1964. All of the hair is treated with a resin either by immersing the :wig in a resin solution or by rubbing a resin into the hair. The carrier for the resin evaporates and the fibers or filaments of the Wig which are to be styled are coated with a film of resin. A conditioner consisting of lubricants and antistatic agents and perfumes may be applied to the stylable filaments eithe" in conjunction with the resin or as a separate step.
The stylable filaments of the wig are then styled to impart a so-called hair-do which may be of the Flip, l
Boutfant, French 'llwist, Sea Breeze, or such other hair-do styles as may be pleasing to the owner of the wig. When the wig has been styled, an activating agent is then applied to the thus styled wig and in one form this may be an aerosol spray which is sprayed ontothe hair at a fairly close range so that there is more than surface treatment that the activating agent actually enters between interstices defined by the stylable filaments in the hair-do. This activating agent will cause the formation of bridges between fibers or filaments and this activating process is further enhanced by the stylist who continuously sprays small amounts of the activating solvent onto the hair or filaments as it is being styled since this is an aid in styling. The solvent does not completely evaporate during the styling operation and at the completion of styling after the final spraying has been done, the bulk of the hair is also stabilized. The hair is then not disturbed for -15 minutes so that the resin coating on the stylable filaments which has been softened by or dissolved in the solvent has an opportunity to form bridges between the stylable filaments. Whether the resin is softened by or dissolved in the solvent will depend on the proportion of 3,521,645 Patented July 28, 1970 resin to solvent at any particular site on the stylable side of the wig. It is also important that to effect softening that the selection of a solvent must be a specific solvent for each type of polymeric material.
One of the great advantages of the present process is that the wig can be brushed out, re-styled and re-sprayed repeatedly without any build-up of lacquer, resin, etc.
The styled wig in accordance with the present process holds its shape, that is, the hair does not get out of place for long periods. In spite of the holding power of the resin coated stylable filaments and the activation and fusion by the addition of a solvent thereto, the filaments thus treated do not appear visually to be sprayed or stiff.
The hair or stylable filaments when treated in accordance with the present invention is more manageable and styles more easily and permits greater versatility of styling.
By way of a coating to be imparted to the wig, we have found that polyvinyl pyrollidone (PVP), copolymers of PVP and vinylacetate (PVP/VA), and polyvinylacetate work most effectively with the present invention. Most of the commercial hair sprays are designed to wash out during shampooing. Yet those materials which are water soluble are usually hygroscopic and will often soften under conditions of high relative humidity, and the style 'will fall out. The resin coating applied in accordance with the present process may by way of example be an emulsion or dispersion of polyvinylacetate in water; PVA is not hygroscopic.
As an activator of the present invention we have found that a low molecular weight substantially water free activating solvent is most effective. We have had good success when Working with polyvinylacetate as a polymeric material for coating the stylable filaments when applying a ninety-five percent ethyl alcohol. The ninetyfive (95%) percent ethyl alcohol may be applied in the form of a spray which contains the usual propellants, by way of example, Freon, and a trace of perfume. The perfume is low boiling so that it evaporates fairly quickly from the wig. In this way, there is no perfume build-up.
When working with synthetic wigs, that is, wigs of the type described in the above U.S. Letters Patent, wherein the stylable filaments are of a modocryllic filament known as Dynel, this filament requires an antistatic agent. Therefore, we treat the wig with a solution consisting of a mixture of a glycol lubricant, a non-tacky amine condensate as an antistatic agent, and a perfume. We have found that the two-step process works satisfactorily when using the polyvinylacetate resin. First we apply the resin solution, dry it, then we apply the conditioner solution and dry it. A one step process may be employed when we use a polymeric material compatible with our present conditioner. The key is that the conditioner must be compatible with the resin and numerous modifications of resins and conditioners may be employed with varying degrees of satisfactory utility. If we apply PVA and glycol-amine condensate conditioner to the wig from the same solution, the film flakes off in subsequent brushings because the conditioner and antistatic agent changes the adhesion and film characteristics of the resin. With PVP resins we can use one solution without any detrimental effects but we find that they are not completely permanent in water. The glycol-amine condensate conditioner is water soluble and will be removed when the Wig is washed.
As an example of an antistatic agent which resists washing, We employed Zelec DP which is a product of the Du Pont Company and which is described in US. Letters Patent No. 2,694,688, briefly described as a polymeric alkyl sulfate quaternary ammonium salts of the acrylyloxyethylamine type. We may also employ another class of permanent antistats known as Astons. These are 3 polyamines and are described in U.S. Letters Patents Nos. 3,063,870 and 3,070,552.
The present invention is best realized in practice when a wig to be styled is first coated so that the stylable filaments have a film of polymeric material deposited there- The thus coated wig is then styled to impart the desired hair-do thereto. After the styling step is completed and the operator or the owner of the wig is satisfied therewith, the activator is then applied in the form of application of a low molecular weight substantially water free activating solvent which acts upon the polymeric material on the stylable filaments to soften and form bonds at contact points among and between the coated filaments to preserve the imparted hair-do into which the wig has been styled.
The following are examples of polymeric materials which we have found to be most effective in this method of preserving hair styles set into wigs:
( l Polyvinylpyrrolidone (2) Polyvinylpyrrolidone and its copolymers, particularly with vinylacetate.
(3) Polyvinylacetate, its copolymers and its carboxylated derivatives.
(4) Dewaxed shellac.
(5) Copolymers of methyl vinyl ether and maleic anhydride and esters of these products.
(6) Acrylic esters and copolymers.
(7) Cellulosic derivatives such as ethyl cellulose, cellulose nitrate, and cellulose acetate.
(8) Polyamide resins.
(9) Copolymers of vinyl chloride and vinyl acetate.
The following are examples of low molecular weight substantially water free activating solvents which react with the resins of the polymeric materials set forth above in the examples to soften or dissolve the polymeric material to cause fusion or bonding at the contact points between filaments:
(l) Alcohols such as ethyl-, methyl-, and isopropyl.
(2) Ketones such as acetone and methylethyl ketone.
(3) Esters such as ethyl acetate, methyl acetate, isopropyl acetate.
(4) Chlorinated hydrocarbons such as carbon tetrachloride, methylene chloride, ethylene dichloride, trichloroethylene.
(5) Hydrocarbons such as benzene.
(6) Ethers such as propyl ether.
Although a wide variety of solvents can be used, for practical purposes the boiling point of the solvent should be in the range of about 100200 F. If the boiling point is below 100 F. the solvent will evaporate too rapidly to eifect good activation and if the boiling point is above 200 F. the wig stays wet for too long a period. For practical purposes the wig should dry in no longer than about 30 minutes.
Solvents that have a higher boiling point could be used if longer periods of drying were practical or if driers using heat and/ or fans were available.
Although we have disclosed herein the best forms of the invention known to us at this time, we reserve the right to all such modifications and changes as may come within the scope of the following claims.
What we claim is:
l. The method of styling wigs of human and synthetic stylable filaments comprising (a) first treating the stylable filaments with a polymeric resinous material which forms a coating on the filaments,
(b) styling the thus coated filaments into a desired hair-do, and
(c) thereafter applying to the thus styled coated filaments a pressurized low molecular weight organic activating solvent substantially water free of a concentration range of the order of to and of a boiling point of 100-200 F. to soften the polymeric resinous material to form bonds at contact points among and between the treated filaments to preserve the imparted style.
2. A low molecular weight organic activating solvent as claimed in claim 1 of the group of ethyl, methyl and isopropyl alcohol.
3. A low molecular weight organic activating solvent as claimed in claim 1 of the group of ketones.
4. A low molecular weight organic activating solvent as claimed in claim 1 of the group of chlorinated hydrocarbons.
5. A low molecular weight organic activating solvent as claimed in claim 1 in a container pressurized with a gaseous propellant.
References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 2,793,980 l/1956 Mamlok et al. l6787.l Re. 25,022 8/1961 Spiegel 1327 FOREIGN PATENTS 947,022 1/1964 Great Britain.
LOUIS G. MANCENE, Primary Examiner I. W. MITCHELL, Assistant Examiner U.S. Cl. X.R. 42447