US 3521647 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
July 28, 1970 v. s. MERCER HAIR TREATING APPARATUS 2 SheetS Sheet 1 Filed Oct. '11, 1968 INVENTOR.
V ERNA S. MERCER H ER AT TORNEY 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 Filed Oct. 11, 1968 FIG.5
United States Patent "ice 3,521,647 HAIR TREATING APPARATUS Verna S. Mercer, 3331 Heather Lane, Louisville, Ky. 40218 Filed Oct. 11, 1968, Ser. No. 766,778 Int. Cl. A45d 1/00 US. Cl. 132-9 6 Claims ABSTRACT OF THE DISCLOSURE Devices which are described in the prior art for automatically performing various types of work on a persons hair generally include solution applicators within a hood which in some way surrounds the head. Designs of prior art hair washing apparatus have been based on the belief that it is necessary to include variously formed projections or flexible fingers which vibrate to produce a massaging effect during the hair treating operation. It has been found that such an arrangement not only renders the devices complex but also less efficient. By the apparatus provided herein the hair and scalp are effectively shampooed by a mounted oscillatory jet washing action can be as effectively shampooed with the massaging apparatus eliminated.
BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION This invention in one of its aspects pertains to improvements in apparatus for shampooing the hair and scalp. In another aspect the invention encompasses the application of color rinses, waving lotions, dyeing solutions, neutralizing solutions and the like to the hair.
Devices which are described in the prior art for automatically performing various types of work on a persons hair generally include solution applicators within a hood which in some way surrounds the head. Cooperating with the solution applicators are a liquid supply system and a control circuit. The liquid supply system embraces flow conduits connecting the solution applicators to shampoo liquid reserviors and dispensers, rinse liquid reservoirs and dispensers, and a water supply. The control circuit contains solenoid valves, pumps, automatic thermostats, timing mechanisms and other regulatory equipment for controlling the flow and temperature of desired or required liquids.
An examination of prior art hair treating apparatus reveals two general design types of devices. The more recent patents are directed to shampooing devices wherein a helmet resembling a football helmet is adapted to fit over the head, with a resilient water proof gasket surrounding the skull so that it is completely sealed to prevent leakage of fluid over the face and shoulders. Examples of apparatus using a helmet to confine flow of hair treating fluids to the hair are 3,177,868, 3,044,473, and 2,566,600.
The earlier hair shampooing apparatus are illustrated in 2,854,970 and 2,854,969. In this type of apparatus sprays are disposed in a housing having an opening at the front end thereof to receive the neck of the person whose hair is being shampooed. The cover has a complimentary opening provided with a gasket fitting about the neck, face, and forehead with the face up, outside the housing.
It is evident that various shampooing devices are known in the art. Nevertheless none of these devices has attained any significant degree of commercial success, even in view of an unsatisfied demand created by the various tiring manual operations. Consequently, to my knowledge, prior art efforts to provide hair treating apparatus which is fully automatic have not been completely satisfactory. Insofar as I am aware the designs of prior hair washing apparatus, whether the helmet type or the housing type, were based on the belief that it was neces- 3,521,647 Patented July 28, 1970 sary to accompany the application of shampoo liquids with variously formed projections or flexible fingers which produce a scalp massaging effect. Such massaging tips, or fingers, being against the head, dictate that the applicators either feed into the massaging units, or at least be integral with the units and hence very close to the head. For this reason the later types of shampooing devices have been installed in helmets. Even in 2,854,969 the head rests on and fits between applicators. It has been found that such an arrangement not only renders the devices more complex, but also less efficient.
SUMMARY OFTHE INVENTION This invention pertains to improvements in shampooing apparatus of the general type utilizing a plastic or metal housing having a cover portion surrounding the face. It has been found that the hair and scalp can be just as effectively shampooed with the massaging apparatus eliminated and replaced by the nozzle assembly contemplated herein if actuating means are provided operating the nozzle assembly in such a manner that a spray band formed by the nozzles progresses back and forth across the scalp from the forehead to the neck and if the pressure is adjusted to the length or thickness of the hair being washed.
DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION In one of its aspects the shampooing apparatus contemplated herein will be used with a reclining chair or the like, the person whose hair is being treated being in the supine position. In another of its aspects the housing is so constructed that a person can be in an almost vertical position with the head tilted back. In actuality the invention is based on a nozzle assembly permitting the hair to fall freely. Accordingly whatever type of housing encases the apparatus it is so designed that the hair may dangle unobstructedly.
According to the practice of this invention a nozzle assembly is provided in which a series of nozzles is disposed within the housing in one or more arcs spaced a sufficient distance from the head to avoid entanglement with hair. The arc on which the nozzles are arranged is of sufiicient length so that the nozzles are directed to the scalp from one side of the head to the opposite side. The arc is positioned so that each nozzle directs its flow to an area of the scalp next to the spray of the adjacent nozzle in that arc to form the band of spray transversely across the scalp.
The housing, the arrangement of the nozzle assembly, the operation of the device, and other features of the invention will, perhaps, best be understood by reference to the accompanying drawings.
FIG. 1 is a perspective view showing one form of housing in its closed position.
FIG. 2 is a view of the apparatus of FIG. 1 partially cut away to show a nozzle assembly and diagrammatically showing the flow system.
FIG. 3 is a side view of another form of the inventron.
FIGS. 4 and 5 are side and top views respectively of still another embodiment of the invention.
Referring now specifically to the drawings, in FIG. 1 there is illustrated apparatus 2 for treating a persons hair and scalp, embodying the features of this invention. Specifically, the structure includes a supporting housing containing storage doors 4, controls 6, and a neck rest 8. A top 10 projects upwardly at its center to make room for a nozzle array as can be seen in FIG. 2.
Various methods will be illustrated for operating. the nozzle assembly in a manner such that a spray band formed by the nozzles progresses back and forth across the scalp from the forehead to the neck. Referring to FIG. 2, series of nozzles are arranged on three headers.
One header and the nozzles 11 carried thereby is housed in the underside of the projection in housing lid or top 10. Nozzles 11 are disposed on a generally arcuate header 12. Two other arcuate nozzlecontaining headers 14 and 16 are contained inside housing 2. The nozzles on each of the headers are positioned so that each nozzle directs its flow to an area of the scalp which touches or overlaps the spray of the nozles on the adjacent header so that there are no voids in the spray arc across the head. Each forms a band of spray transversely across the scalp. Referring to FIG. 2, it will be noted that there are three manifolds 12, 14, and 16 in the form of arcs a short distance from the head. Preferably all manifolds are equidistant from a common point as shown in FIG. 3. This means that nozzles on each manifold are situated on another are normal to the manifold as best seen in FIG. 3. In the apparatus of FIG. 1 the body of the individual will be in a substantially supine position. The apparatus of FIG. 3 is adapted for treating a persons hair while a person is sitting in a chair, the head being merely tilted slightly backwardly.
Having considered the general arrangement of the nozzles, the apparatus shown in either FIG. 2 or FIG. 3 will now be described. The apparatus includes a Water supply system in which hot and cold running water are injected into a water reservoir 20 through mixing valve 22. The mixing valve is of the thermostatically controlled type. Shampoo reservoir 24 and liquid rinse reservoir 26 for cream rinses, color rinses, conditioning rinses, and the like, are also provided. A shampoo pipe 30, water pipe 32, and rinse pipe 28 containing valves 34, 36, and 38 connect the respective reservoirs to a pump 40. From pump 4%) the hair treating liquids flow through line 42 to a four-way operated solenoid valve 44. Obviously three separate solenoid valves can be employed. The solenoid valve, or valves, controls flow to headers 12, 14, and 16. Preferably pump 49 is a positive displacement pump adapted with by-passing means or otherwise designed for dispensing liquid to a header under a range of pressures.
Considering now the operation of the apparatus, pump 40 and the various reservoir inlet and outlet valves are operated through a timed electrical circuit activated by switches 6 by the operator. Since such electrical systems are well known as exemplified by the prior art, the control circuit is not illustrated herein. Sufice it to say that there will be a series of timed cycles ranging from to 15 minutes and set into operation by the control switches for wetting, shampooing, and rinsing.
Returning to the washing action achieved herein, either water from reservoir 20, premixed shampooing solution from reservoir 24, or a rinsing solution from reservoir 26 is withdrawn from one of the tanks though one of the valves 34, 36, or 38. Through solenoid valve 44 the solution is pumped into one of the headers 12, 14, or 16 at the prescribed pressure. Energization of four-way solenoid valve 44 effects discharge of the liquid first through the valve operating the nozzles in header 12. On de-energization of the valve operating header 12 as a result of the timing circuit, the valve operating header 14 is energized. Flow of treating solution then takes place through the nozzles on this header. De-energization of this valve and energization of the valve operating header 16 follows. By way of recapitulation four-way solenoid valve 44 is operated by a timer so that sequential operation of each header takes place, resulting, on consecutive flow through the nozzles on each header, in an oscillatory washing action. This oscillatory jet action across the head completely washes the hair and scalp, the length for each spray band being, say 5 to 45 seconds. Adjustment of fluid pressure in the range of 50 psi. to 100 p.s.i., depending upon the individual, produces a massaging effect, water flowing out through drain 18.
It is to be understood that nozzle manifold 12, 14', and 16 in the embodiment of FIG. 3 operate sequentially in the same manner as those in FIG. 2. In this instance the person need not be in the supine position. In this embodiment, although not necessary, an auxiliary manifold 43, FIG. 3, is provided which is not included in the operation sequence. This manifold 43 is not an arcuate header like the others but a straight row of stationary nozzles directed to the base of the head at the neck. This header is connected with the pump outlet pipe through a separate solenoid valve, the purpose of the manifold being to Wash the underside of the head.
Whereas the two embodiments in FIG. 2 and FIG. 3 are exemplifications of effective hair treating apparatus, a more efficient hair treating apparatus is illustrated in FIG. 4. An advantage of this embodiment of the invention is that quantities of solutions, and hence reservoir sizes, are greatly reduced. As can be seen in FIG. 5, rather than a series of nozzle-carrying headers or manifolds sequentially operated, there is provided in this apparatus a single oscillating arcuate header 46, the nozzles 48 carried thereby being positioned to dispense adjacent sprays from one side of the head to the other across the scalp. It will be observed from FIG. 5 and FIG. 6 that nozzle-carrying header 46 oscillates about pivot points P and P so that the center of the arc moves in a curved line from a point above the forehead to a point below the neck. Usually the journal is al'lixed to the tip of header 46 at P the journal seating in a bearing adapted therefor secured by suitable frame-work integral with the housing. The header is thus rotatable in bearings at both P and P If desired, a light metal can be used for both the header and the nozzles, and these can be adequately supported and oscillated in a bearing at P without the need for the additional support.
Oscillation of the header can be achieved electrically or by any known means. A desirable method of effecting the oscillation of the header in an arc from above the forehead to beneath the neck is shown partially in FIG. 5. In the known manner water from the pump enters turbine housing 55 through a tangential nozzle thus impinging on a turbine wheel within the housing. From the turbine wheel the water flows into the oscillatory wash header 46, exiting through the nozzles thereon. Impingement of water on the turbine wheel causes the wheel to rotate. A set of reduction gears reduces the speed of a bell crank 50 to a slow movement. The bell crank in turn is connected to the oscillatory wash header through crank arm 52 and driving member 54. The driving member as a consequence imparts the necessary oscillating movement to wash header 46 as shown in FIG. 4. Oscillation of header 46 and the nozzles carried thereby affords a particularly effective method of providing a continuous band or wall of water or other treating solution across the head and of playing these jet streams back and forth through the hair.
Having now understood the teachings of this invention various ramifications and modifications of the invention will occur to those skilled in the art. Thus various temperature controls, cut-off valves and other safety devices will be incorporated in the apparatus to protect its user. Further the housing can be metal, rigid plastic, or even flexible plastic fitted over suitable frame-work. In the apparatus shown in FIG. 1 an automatic lid opening means can be provided for safety purposes. In addition flexible plastic sealing curtain 56 can be used as shown in FIGS. 3 and 4. In a device such as those of FIGS. 3 and 4 a chair is best constructed integrally therewith. It will also be apparent that rather than using premixed solutions operation can be such that water and shampoo can be fed simultaneously to the nozzles. In one embodiment it will be desirable to equip the various solution reservoirs with constant temperature means. It Will be understood also that additional reservoirs can be used for other solutions so that normally used reservoirs will not have to be emptied and filled with these solutions. It will also be appreciated that the nozzles employed herein can take the form of orifices properly sized and directed to accomplish the purposes of this invention. These and other variations as will be obvious to those skilled in the art are deemed to be within the scope of this invention.
What is claimed is:
1. In the apparatus for use in applying hair treating solutions to the human head, which includes a housing, a closure therefor having an opening to receive the head and being engageable with said housing to enclose said head in such manner as to form a substantially fluid-tight fit between said head and said closed housing, the edges of said opening surrounding said head in such manner that the face of the individual will be exterior of said housing, a plurality of wash headers positioned within said housing, conduit means connecting with said wash headers and with a tank for supplying a solution and means for controlling the supply of solution to said wash headers, the improvement wherein said header includes means for effectively washing the hair and scalp without massaging fingers in conjunction therewith comprising a nozzle assembly including a series of nozzles mounted within the housing in at least one arc spaced a sufiicient distance from the head to avoid entanglement with hair, the arc of nozzles being of suificient length so that nozzles are directed to the scalp over an area extending from one side of the head to the opposite side, and the nozzles in the are being positioned so that each nozzle directs its flow to an area of the scalp adjoining the spray of the adjacent nozzle in that are forming a band of spray transversely across the scalp, and actuating means connected with said nozzle assembly for operating the nozzle assembly and for operating said means for controlling the solution supply in a manner such that a spray band formed by the nozzles progresses back and forth from the forehead to the neck thereby achieving a washing action.
2. The apparatus of claim 1 wherein the nozzle assembly consists of a plurality of nozzles disposed in spaced relation to each other in a series of arcs, and wherein the actuating means operates the nozzles in each arc sequentially one are after the other.
3. The apparatus of claim 2 wherein an additional nozzle manifold is disposed beside the neck with the nozzles directed toward the top of the head.
4. The apparatus of claim 2 wherein the nozzles in each are are operatively secured to an arcuate manifold and wherein the manifolds are sequentially activated and shut off both from top to bottom.
5. The apparatus of claim 1 wherein the nozzle assembly consists of nozzles operatively secured to a single arcuate manifold, and wherein the actuating means consists of driving means imparting partial rotation to the arcuate manifold, the center of the arc thereby moving in a curved line from a point above the forehead to a point beneath the neck.
6. The apparatus of claim 5 wherein an additional nozzle manifold is disposed beside the neck With the nozzles directed toward the top of the head.
References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 998,804 7/1911 Salisbury 12865 2,854,970 10/1958 Nolan 12865 RUSSELL R. KINSEY, Primary Examiner G. E. McNEILL, Assistant Examiner