US 3521822 A
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
y 28, 1 A. R. J. FRIEDMAIQN ,ET AL 3,521,822
IRRIGATION srizfmum Filed Feb. 19, 1968 50 FIG -1 25 I si INVENTORS .ANTON RIFRIEDMANN a, RALPH H.E BY
as ag 3 A77 ORA/E Y United States Patent 3,521,822 IRRIGATION SPRINKLER Anton R. J. Friedmann and Ralph H. Eby, Troy, Ohio,
assignors to Ashley F. Ward, Inc., doing business as The Skinner Irrigation Company, Troy, Ohio, a corporation of Ohio Filed Feb. 19, 1968, Ser. No. 706,272 Int. Cl. Bb 3/04 US. Cl. 239-206 9 Claims ABSTRACT OF THE DISCLOSURE A pop-up sprinkler unit in which both the flow rate of the water and the rate of step-by-step rotation of the nozzle are adjustable independently by control means accessible at all times from the top of the unit.
BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION In a pop-up impulse sprinkler of the type disclosed in US. Pat. No. 3,263,930, issued to the assignee of the present invention, and which is adapted to be recessed within the ground, it is desirable to provide control means for infinitely varying both the step-by-step rotational speed of the nozzle and the flow rate of water discharged from the nozzle. In this way the sprinkler can be properly adjusted according to the pressure in the water supply line where the sprinkler is connected. Moreover, when a series of sprinklers are connected to one water supply line, it is usually necessary to adjust each sprinkler to compensate for the pressure drop in the water supply line.
As shown in the above patent, the rotational speed of the nozzle may be varied by adjusting a screw which controls the flow rate of water through a bypass port and thereby indirectly controls the flow rate of water through the driving port for the impeller. Any significant change in the flow rate of water discharged from the sprinkler nozzle, however, is obtained by adjusting a throttle plate located adjacent the bottom inside surface of the sprinkler housing. To obtain access to the throttle control plate, it is first necessary to remove the cover plate and the nozzle and impeller assembly which is supported by the cover plate. Thus flow rate adjustment cannot be performed while the sprinkler is in operation nor without disassembling the sprinkler.
The construction of a sprinkler as shown in the above patent also presents a particular manufacturing problem. That is, to form the driving port within the housing for directing a stream towards the impeller and to form the passageway extending from the bottom inlet to the port,
it has been found necessary to drill two laterally extending holes within the housing and then plug the outer ends of the holes. The plugging operation significantly increases the production cost of the sprinkler housing.
SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION The present invention is directed to an improved irrigation sprinkler of simplified construction. It provides for conveniently adjusting both the rotational speed of the nozzle and the flow rate of water through the nozzle while the sprinkler is in operation and from above the ground. Thus the present invention provides control means which is accessible from the top of the sprinkler for varying both the flow rate of water into the sprinkler housing and the rotational speed of the impeller which produces step-by-step rotation of the nozzle stem. The only tool needed is a screw driver.
In accordance with a preferred embodiment of the invention, the sprinkler housing incorporates a small auxiliary port which connects the bottom inlet directly to the chamber which receives the impeller and nozzle stem lice sub-assembly. In addition, the housing is provided with a passageway which extends from the bottom inlet upwardly adjacent the side wall of the chamber. It has a cross-sectional area substantially greater than that of the bottom port and forms the primary water supply. The passageway includes a discharge port which directs a stream of water into the chamber against the impeller rotatably supported by the nozzle stem.
A control screw is threaded into the upper end portion of the passageway and has a groove formed in its bottom surface for channeling at least a portion of the water flowing through the passageway and discharge port into a variable direction stream. By simply adjusting the angular position of the screw, the angle of impingement of the stream against the impeller is changed, thereby controlling the rotational speed of the impeller. Furthermore, by adjusting the screw axially in increments of half turns, the flow rate of the primary supply of water into the chamber may be varied, thereby controlling the flow rate of water discharged from the sprinkler.
The bottom inlet coupling of the sprinkler housing is offset from the vertical centerline of the housing so that the passageway may be formed with minimum machining and without subsequent plugging simply by drilling one hole upwardly from the inlet at an inclined angle to intersect a second hole drilled downwardly from the top of the housing. The latter hole also intersects the impeller drive port which is cast within the housing.
Other features and advantages of a sprinkler constructed in accordance with the invention will be apparent from the following description, the accompanying drawing and the appended claims.
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWING FIG. 1 is a vertical section of a sprinkler constructed in accordance with the invention and taken generally along the line 1-1 of FIG. 2;
FIG. 2 is a plan view of the sprinkler which is shown in section in FIG. 1;
FIG. 3 is a section taken generally on the line 33 of FIG. 1;
FIG. 4 is a section taken generally on the line 44 of FIG. 1; and
FIG. 5 is an enlarged fragmentary section of a portion of the sprinkler shown in FIG. 1.
DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENT The part circle pop-up sprinkler shown in FIGS. 1 and 2 includes a generally cup-shaped housing 10 which defines an open top chamber 12 surrounded by a fiat annular surface 13 at the top. A bottom'inlet coupling 15 is formed as an integral part of the housing 10 and defines a threaded inlet opening 16 which is ofiset relative to the vertical centerline 17 of the chamber 12. The upper end of the inlet opening 16 is connected directly to the chamber 12 by a circular auxiliary port 20 having a diameter D of, for example, approximately inch. In the usual manner, the inlet coupling 15 is adapted to be connected to an underground water supply line (not shown) so that a portion of the water will fiow directly from the supply line through the port 20 and into the chamber 12.
An elongated projection 24 having a U-shaped outer surface configuration is formed as an integral part of the housing 10. A passageway 25 is formed within the projection 24 with a portion 26 inclined upwardly from the inlet opening 16 and joining a vertically extending portion 27 which intersects a laterally extending portion defining a discharge port'30 opening into the chamber 12. The passageway 25 has a diameter D which is substantially larger than the port 20, for example, in the order of inch.
The port has a rectangular cross-sectional configuration formed by parallel spaced upper and lower flat wall surfaces 31, a radially extending flat wall surface 32 (FIG. 3) and an opposing flat wall surface 34 which diverges inwardly from the surface 32. The passageway 25 is formed by drilling the portion 26 with a bit extending upwardly through the bottom inlet opening 16 and drilling downwardly from the top surface 13 to form the portion 27.
A control screw is threaded into the upper end portion of the passageway 25 adjacent the port 30 and has an upper head with a screw driver slot 41. An inverted V-shaped channel or groove 42 (FIG. 4) is formed within the lower end portion of the screw 40, and the groove 42 is vertically aligned with the slot 41 to provide an indication of the angular position of the groove 42 from above the sprinkler housing.
A cover 45 is mounted on the top surface 13 of the housing 10 with an annular gasket 46 therebetween and is releasably secured to the housing by four corner screws 48. A cylindrical bore 49 is formed Within the center of the cover 45 and slidably supports a nozzle sub-assembly 50 for vertical movement between a retracted position (not shown) and an elevated or pop-up position as illustrated in FIG. 1.
The nozzle assembly 50 includes a tubular sleeve 52 having a closed upper end 53 with a flat upper surface adapted to lie flush with the upper surface of the cover 45 when the assembly 50 is retracted. A vertically extending groove or keyway 55 is formed within the sleeve 52 and receives a key member 56 formed integrally with the cover 45 to prevent relative rotation between the sleeve 52 and the cover 45. As shown in FIG. 5, the key member 56 is formed by deforming inwardly a small portion of the cover 45 between the central bore 49 and a slot-like recess 58 formed within the top surface of the cover 45. A boss 59 projects downwardly from the underneath surface of the cover 45 directly under the recess 58 to provide the cover with sufiicient wall thickness adjacent the recess 58.
An outwardly projecting flange 62 (FIG. 5) is formed on the lower end of the sleeve 52 and supports a fiat metal washer 63 on which rests a resilient sealing Washer 65 having an inner portion projecting into a circumferential retaining groove 67 formed within the lower end portion of the sleeve 52. An arcuate slot 68 is formed within the upper end of the sleeve 56 and, as shown, extends approximately 270 around the sleeve to define a circle spray pattern.
A tubular nozzle stem 70 has an upper portion which is rotatably supported within the sleeve 52 and defines a passageway 72 containing a flat stream straightening vane 73 and having a lower end opening into the housing chamber 12. The upper end portion of the nozzle stem 70 has a series of three angularly spaced nozzle openings 75 which slope upwardly from the upper end of the passageway 72. A series of three pressure relief ports 76 are also formed within the nozzle stem 70 directly above the nozzle opening 75 and open into a cavity 78 formed within the upper end of the nozzle stem 70. The purpose of the ports 76 is fully described in the above mentioned patent.
A circumferential groove 80 is formed within the outer surface of the nozzle stem 70 and receives a point-like projection 82 which is staked inwardly from the sleeve 52 at the bottom of the slot 55. The detent connection formed between the projection 82 and the groove 80 enables the nozzle stem 70 to rotate Within the sleeve 55 while providing sufficient engagement to cause axial movement of the sleeve 55 with the nozzle stem 70. The detent connection also enables the sleeve 55 and stem 70 to be quickly assembled by pressing the sleeve and stem together.
An intermediate circumferential flange 85 (FIGS. 1 and 5) is formed on the nozzle stem 70 and is separated from the sleeve flange 62 by a low friction plastic washer 86. An impeller having a cylindrical hub portion 91 is mounted on the lower portion of the nozzle stem 70 and includes a plurality of uniformly spaced curved vanes 92 which project outwardly from a part cylindrical rib portion 93 in which a recess 94 is formed. A radially extending flange 95 connects a pair of adjacent vanes 92 of the impeller 90 and an integrally formed stud 96 projects downwardly from the flange 95.
A striker member 100, preferably constructed as Shown in the above patent, is rotatably mounted on the stud 96 and is retained by a pressed-on retaining washer 101. The impeller 90 is retained on the nozzle stem 70 above a low friction plastic washer 103 by an impact arm 105 having a hub portion 106 threaded onto the lower end portion of the nozzle stem. The arm 105 also has a flange portion 108 which projects upwardly into the path of the revolving striker member carried by the impeller 90.
When water under suitable pressure is introduced into the inlet opening 16, the water enters the chamber 12 through the auxiliary port 20 and also through the primary passageway 25 and port 30, thereby pressurizing the chamber and causing the nozzle assembly to pop-up. The impeller 90 thus rotates to produce step-by-step rotation of the nozzle stem 70 for distributing the water over a pre-selected part circular area as determined by the angular extent of the sleeve opening 68. The flow rate of water through the port 30 is determined by the distance H (FIG. 4) between the bottom surface of the control screw 40 and the bottom surface 31 of the port 30. Thus to reduce the flow rate of water discharged from the nozzle ports 75, the control screw 40 is screwed downwardly to reduce the distance H, and to increase the fiow rate, control screw 40 is elevated within the passageway. A minor but more or less constant part of the flow comes from port 20.
As mentioned above, the screw 40 also serves to control the rotational speed of the impeller 90. That is, the inverted V-shaped groove 42 formed within the flat bottom surface of the screw 40 channels a portion of the water flowing within the passageway 25 into a laterally directed stream. By changing the angular position of the groove 42, the angle of impingement of the stream against the impeller vanes 92 is varied, thereby controlling the rotational speed of the impeller.
The vertical alignment between the groove 42 and the screw driver slot 41 provides a convenient visual indication from above the sprinkler of the angular position of the channel 42. Thus referring to FIGS. 2 and 3, turning the screw 40 slightly clockwise will increase the rotational speed of the impeller 90 with a corresponding increase in the step-by-step rotation of the nozzle stem 70. Slight counterclockwise turning of the screw will decrease the rotational speed of the impeller 90 and nozzle stem 70.
As can be seen from the drawing and the above description, an irrigation sprinkler constructed in accordance with the invention provides several desirable features and advantages. For example, with the sprinkler in operative position with the top surface of the cover 45 substantially flush with the ground surface, the screw 40 is completely accessible at all times. Both the flow rate of water discharged and the step-by-step rotational speed of the nozzle are adjusted with the use of only a screw driver.
Moreover, the same adjustments can be made while the sprinkler is in operation. This is especially desirable when a series of sprinklers are connected to a common supply line and it is desired to adjust each individual sprinkler to compensate for the pressure drop within the supply line to obtain a substantially uniform discharge from each sprinkler. As an example of the variation in flow rate which can be obtained by adjusting the control screw 40 on a sprinkler constructed as shown in FIG. 1, the results of tests performed on a circle sprinkler with a water supply pressure held at 45 p.s.i. showed a 2.75 g.p.m. flow rate when H :0, a 4.05 g.p.m. flow rate when H=.O625 inch, and a 4.25 g.p.m. when H=.1042 inch.
Another important feature of the sprinkler is provided by constructing the housing so that the inlet coupling is oiTset from the centerline 17 of the chamber 12 and the passageway 25 extends upwardly from the coupling in the direction of offset with the inclined portion 26 intersecting the vertically extending portion 27. As a result, the passageway 25 is formed without the need for plugging any holes within the housing. Furthermore, the small area of the opening relative to the area of the passageway enables the housing 10 to he used with various sleeves 52 having different size openings 68 for obtaining various area coverages. That is, by providing an area ratio of approximately 7: 1, the housing 10 provides eflective flow control with interchangeable sleeves having openings for /4 to circle coverage, or with a full circle nozzle stem as shown in the above patent.
The construction of the sprinkler is also simplified by forming the recess 58 and boss 59 on the housing cover so that the integral key portion 56 may be staked inwardly into the bore 49 for cooperation with the key'way 55 to prevent rotation of the sleeve 52. As a result, it is unnecessary to drill a hole within the cover 50 and to insert a guide pin as illustrated in the above patent.
While the form of sprinkler herein described constitutes a preferred embodiment of the invention, it is to be understood that the invention is not limited to this precise form of sprinkler, and that changes may be made therein without departing from the scope of the invention.
What is claimed is:
1. In an irrigation sprinkler including a housing defining an internal chamber and an inlet adapted to be connected to a water supply line, a nozzle member in fluid communication with said chamber, means supporting said nozzle member for rotary movement, means defining a passageway within said housing for directing a stream of water from said inlet into said chamber, and impeller means within said chamber for rotating said nozzle member in response to impingement of a stream of water directed from said passageway into said chamber, the improvement comprising adjustable control means adjacent the top of said housing for varying independently both the speed of rotation of said impeller means and the flow rate of water through said nozzle member while said sprinkler is operating.
2. A sprinkler as defined in claim 1 wherein said inlet is offset laterally from the axis of rotation of said impeller means, said passageway comprises a first portion extending generally vertically within said housing, and a second portion inclined upwardly from said inlet coupling to intersect said first portion for conveniently drilling said passageway within said housing.
3. An irrigation sprinkler adapted to be installed in the ground substantially flush with the ground surface, comprising a housing defining an internal chamber and an inlet adapted to be connected to a water supply line, a nozzle member in fluid communication with said chamber, means supporting said nozzle member for rotary movement, an impeller rotatably supported within said chamber, means for rotating said nozzle member in response to rotation of said impeller, means defining a passageway within said housing for directing a stream of water from said inlet toward said impeller, and adjustable control means accessible from the top of said sprinkler for infinitely positioning between a predetermined range the angle of impingement of at least a portion of the Water directed through said passageway toward said impeller for controlling the rotational speed of said nozzle member.
4. A sprinkler as defined in claim 3 including means for varying the flow rate of water through said passageway and into said chamber in response to adjustment of said control means to provide for conveniently control- 6 ling the flow rate of water distributed by said sprinkler in addition to controlling the rotational speed of said nozzle member while the sprinkler is operating.
5. An irrigation sprinkler adapted to be installed in the ground substantially flush with the ground surface, comprising a housing having means defining a bottom inlet coupling adapted to be connected to a water supply line, a cover for the top of said housing and including means defining an opening therein, a tubular nozzle stem rotatably mounted within said opening and adapted to pop upwards in response to water pressure within said housing, an impeller mounted on said stem for rotation in relation thereto, an arm member connected to said stem and extending outwardly therefrom, striker means carried by said impeller for imparting successive impulses to said arm member to produce step-by-step rotation of said stem, said inlet coupling being laterally offset from the axis of rotation of said impeller, means defining a passageway within said housing for directing water from said inlet coupling towards said impeller to produce rotation thereof and including a portion inclined upwardly from said inlet coupling in the direction of offset relation to provide for conveniently drilling said passageway portion with a drill extending upwardly through said inlet coupling, and control means adjustably mounted within said passageway and accessible from the top of said sprinkler for controlling the speed of step-by-step rotation of said nozzle stem.
6. A sprinkler comprising a housing having an internal chamber, a rotatable spray nozzle, driving means in said chamber for rotating said nozzle, a water flow passageway in said housing having a delivery port therein adapted to supply water to said driving means, and adjustable control means accessible from the top of the sprinkler for controlling independently both the flow rate of water through said passageway and the rate of rotation of said nozzle.
7. A sprinkler as defined in claim 6 wherein said driving means includes an impeller supported for rotation within said chamber, said housing includes a bottom inlet offset laterally relative to the rotational axis of said impeller, said passageway comprises a first portion extending generally vertically adjacent the side of said chamber, and a second portion inclined upwardly from said inlet to intersect said first portion.
8. A sprinkler as defined in claim 6 wherein said adjustable control means comprises a screw threaded into said passageway, means defining a groove on the inner end of said screw to produce a laterally directed concentrated stream for impinging said driving means, and said screw being effective to control the flow rate of water through said passageway in addition to the angular position of said concentrated stream.
9. A sprinkler as defined in claim 8 wherein said screw has a head with a screw driver slot therein, and said groove is disposed in predetermined relation with said slot to provde a visual indication above the sprinkler of the angular position of said concentrated stream.
References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 1,187,373 6/1916 Nomiya 239--242 2,756,099 7/1956 Reynolds 239240 X 3,131,867 5/1964 Miller et al. 239206 X 3,263,930 8/1966 Friedmann et al. 239206 FOREIGN PATENTS 141,198 5/1951 Australia.
M. HENSON, WOOD, JR., Primary Examiner M. Y. MAR, Assistant Examiner US. Cl. X.R. 239-241, 51,