|Publication number||US3522843 A|
|Publication date||Aug 4, 1970|
|Filing date||Mar 12, 1968|
|Priority date||Mar 12, 1968|
|Publication number||US 3522843 A, US 3522843A, US-A-3522843, US3522843 A, US3522843A|
|Inventors||New Robert V|
|Original Assignee||New Robert V|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Referenced by (10), Classifications (10)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
United States Patent Continuation-impart of Ser. No. 641,823, May 29, 1967, now pending.
8 Claims, 2 Drawing Figs.
166/303, 219/277  Int. Cl. E2lb 43/24  Field ofSearch 166/11, 39, 40, 57, 60,177; 175/16;219/l2lP, 277, 2781nq.; 331/945; 290/1; 166/302, 303
 References Cited 4 UNITED STATES PATENTS 956,058 4/1910 Eltcn 166/40 Inventor: Robert V. New
2501 Cedar Springs Road, Dallas, Texas 75201 Application No.: 712,510
Filed: March 12, 1968 Patented: Aug. 4, 1970 APPARATUS FOR PRODUCTION AMPLIFICATION BY STIMULATED EMISSION OF RADIATION 1,457,479 Wolcott 2,134,610 10/1938 Hogg 166/60 r 2,670,801 3/1954 Sherborne '166/177X 2,757,738 8/1956 Ritchey 166/6OX 2,923,535 2/1960 Ljungstrom 166/11X 2,954,826 10/1960 Sievers 166/60 3,004,137 10/1961 Karlovitz 175/16X 3,140,421 7/1964 Spongberg 219/121X Primary Examiner Charles E. O'Connell Assistant Examiner Ian A. Calvert Attorney-Strauch, Nolan, Neale, Nies & Kurz ABSTRACT: Exhaust gas and electrical generating plant equipment for field use in producing internal combustion engine exhaust gas and radio frequency electrical energy and a transducer arranged to effect an interaction within said transducer of said gases and said electrical energy with resultant radiation in the infra-red (heat) sector of the electromagnetic spectrum to heat the oil bearing zone and the contained hydrocarbon oil of a natural reservoir to reduce its viscosity level, and/or also to sufficicntly heat interstitial water to vaporize it into steam to create kinetic energy to assist and assure flow of the hydrocarbon oil into a drilled well for recovery ofthe oil. I
TO STORAGE SHAL Patented Aug. 4, 1970 3,522,843
Sheet 1 of 2 INVENTOR Roberf 1 New ATTORNEYS us. PATENT 3,522,843
APPARATUS FOR PRODUCTION AMPLIFICATION BY STIMULATED EMISSION OF RADIATION BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION The present application is a continuation-in-part of applicants copending application Serial No. 641,823 filed May 29, 1967 and entitled Apparatus for Production Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation.
Hydrocarbon oil usually occurs in natural reservoirs of porous and permeable conglomerate mass, the oil existing within the interstices of such matrix. The interstices vary in size and continuity as the size and shape of the solid formation particles of the matrix vary from reservoir to reservoir, indeed even from place to.place within a single reservoir. Numerous fine fractures interlace the matrix, being interstices themselves. Hydrocarbon oil is restricted in its flow from its position within such interstices because of the properties of cohesion which are the very essence of viscosity, and/or by lack of the energy usually caused by gas expansion or water drive.
It is well known in the petroleum sciences that heat reduces viscosity of hydrocarbon oil in spectacular fashion, that the application to hydrocarbon oil of even a modest amount of heat can produce a reduction of viscosity that can approach .100/1 or even 1000/1. Also, it is well known in the physical sciences that steam vapor requires about 1400 times the amount of space as does the water from which it is formed, the expansion in volume creating pressure which is the basis for all and extremely economical means to introduce heat intonatural reservoirs containing hydrocarbon oil, and/or hydrocarbon oil and water.
A still further object of this invention is to provide apparatus that is an assemblage of well known available and relatively inexpensive components arranged in efficient and extremely economical combination for effective transformation of X quantities of hydrocarbon fuel (and ambient atmospheric air) into 9 times X quantities of nitrogen and carbon dioxide exhaust (waste) gas, and simultaneously and at almost no additional cost generate quantities of high frequency electrical energy (electromagnetic waves) to be a feedback into the exhaust gas (and possibly other selected inert gases admixed with said exhaust gas) to produce infra-red (heat) emissions by excitation of the gas atoms and molecules.
A further important object of this invention is to provide as a part of the aforesaid apparatus an efficient, simple, and economical transducer, comprising several joints of tubing connected by threaded couplings forming a continuous conduit for the gas mixture and an electrical cable in conjunction therewith mounting electrodes at pre-selected locations along the conduit, to cause excitation of the gas to ionize the atoms steam-developed kinetic energy. It is the purpose of my invenv tion to provide in a simple, economical and novel way anapparatus and means to economically elevate sufficiently the temperature of the fluid contents of a natural oil-bearing reservoir to effect a reduction in viscosity of the hydrocarbon oil content, and/or conversion of the interstitial water to steam.
SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION The present invention provides new, novel, efficient, and exceedingly economical internal combustion engine electrical generating plant and frequency converter equipment supplying radio frequency electrical energy and combustion engine exhaust gas, to a transducer in a manner to effect excitation and interaction of the gas atoms and molecules and the electrical energy to provide super-heated gas to be exuded into the natural reservoir wherein radiation in the infra-red (heat) sector ofthe electromagnetic spectrum is emitted from the superheated gas with resultant heating of the porous and permeable oil bearing zone of natural reservoirs in the earth thereby causing the hydrocarbon oil therein to flow into a completed production well for recovery.
A further object of the invention is to provide exhaust gas and electrical'generator and converter plant equipment for on-site operation of an immensely improved and efficient means of heating and producing a'natural reservoir by infrared radiation arising from ionization of.ce'rtain' gasesherein set forth employinganinternal combustion engine to transform natural ambient atmospheric air and hydrocarbon fuel into nitrogen and carbon dioxideasan exhaust product while simultaneously, and at almost no extra cost, driving an electrical generator to provide required quantities of electrical energy to be converted tohigh frequency (radio frequency) to feedback into the said gas to cause excitation of such gas atoms and molecules to effect heating of the gas which is then introduced into and effects emissions in the infra-red sector of the electromagnetic spectrum in both, the cased well bore and adjacent reservoir to heat and substantially reduce the viscosity of the hydrocarbon oil, and/or to vaporize the. interstitial water in the naturalreservoir.
Another object of this invention is to provide generating equipment that produces a combination of energy and large volumes of nitrogen and carbon dioxide gas for effective use under predetermined control to provide new, novel, efficient and molecules of the gas as it passes through said conduit.
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS Further objects of the invention will appear from the follow ing description and appended claims when read in connection with the accompanying drawings wherein:
FIGURE 1 illustrates schematically the generator equipment of this invention, utilized for effective production of electrical energy and the principal gaseous components for practicing the invention of my copending applications entitled Method and Apparatus for Oil Production Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation", Serial No. 641,825, filed May 29, 1967 and Interstitial Hydro-Expansion Method for Oil Production Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation, Serial No. 667,228, filed September 12,1967, now abandoned.
FIGURE 2 illustrates schematically an alternate and possibly preferable embodiment of the generator equipment ofthis invention.
DESCRIPTION OF PREFERRED EMBODIMENT OF THE INVENTION With continued reference to the drawings where the same reference letters and numerals are employed throughout to indie ate the same parts, the combined electrical and gas generating equipment of this invention can be successfully and conveniently assembled from a wide range of conventional apparatus components obtainable at low cost to efficiently and effectively (I) produce exhaust gas at substantially elevated temperatures and relatively low pressure (as distinguished from high pressure gas-drive") and (2) introduce same into a natural oil bearing reservoir containing hydrocarbon oil with resultant emission of radiation in the infra-red (heat) sector of the electromagnetic spectrum for the purpose of greatly reducing the viscosity thereof, and/or converting the interstitial water to steam providing kinetic energy to impart flowability to the oil content ofsuch reservoir.
FIGURE l illustrates a first adaptation of the invention wherein an internal combustion engine A of conventional construction, preferrably of a type capable of burning a mixture of natural gas usually present in oil fields and ambient air, exhausts as products of combustion nitrogen and carbon dioxide and a small quantity of water, all of which exhaust material is discharged normally through exhaust manifold 11, to an inlet fiuence of exhaust pressure, passes fromdesiccator D through pipe 13 to compressor G where it is compressed to a relatively low pressure (for example psi) and delivered through pipe 17 to conduit 18 forming a part ofa transducer describedin detail.
The drive shaft 21 of engine A is connected to drive a suitable electrical generator B designed to generate electricity, preferably an A.C. generator for producing conventional A.C. current, which is conducted through cable 22 to a wave energy source" E designed to convert the conventional current to high frequency current, in the radio range of frequencies, and to optimum higher voltage, This radio frequency current is fed into cable 23 which is coiled around conduit 18 as shown in FIGURE 1 and fitted at preselected locations with one or more electrodes ,24 discharging into the gas mixture conveyed along conduit 18. It, however, is to be understood that a direct current generator together with a suitable synchronous converter may be used to supplycurrent to the wave energy source.
Transducer 19 is inserted through cap of well casing 25 of a conventionally completed well in a natural oil bearing reservoir as schematically shown in FIGURE 1. Transducer 19 is made up of several joints of tubing connected by threaded couplings to form conduit 18 for conveying the gas mixture from compressor-G into the oil bearing zone. Electrical cable 23 supplies the radio frequency current to electrodes 24, the discharge ofwhich impresses electromagnetic wave excitation l9 hereinafter upon the gas asit passes through conduit 18 causing excitation interaction with the atoms and molecules 'of the gas and resultant super-heating of the gas which then emits radiation in the infra-red (heat) sector of the electromagnetic spectrum, the effective heat being then transferred to the natural oil 'bearingreservoir byexuding the super-heated gas into said reservoir and the fluid contained therein through perforated casing portion 26 ofthe bore-hole casing 25 below packer 27.
FIGURE 2 illustrates apparatus identical to FIGURE 1 except that the waveenergy source E there used is replaced by a simple frequency converter E and the voltage step up is obtained through suitablestep up transformers 31 connected between cable 23 and each electrode 24. Transformers 31 preferably take the form of the small radio frequency type consisting of a wire coiled around a ferrite'core and glazed with thermal ceramic insulation arranged to step up the voltage to the optimum required to produce the necessary high materials. In thisconnection, this invention is set forth as one to heat, as distinguished from a high pressure gasdrive or forced displacement theory; operating at relatively low pressures, the ionized, super-heated gas moves slowly into the reservoir so the element of time complements theco-efficient of heat transfer as the said superheated gas emits infra-red (heat) radiation.
In both applications of the invention a unified fourfold advantage results in that (1) the temperature of the hydrocarbon oil in a natural oil bearing reservoir is elevated to a sufficient degree to greatly reduce viscosity, (2) the interstitial water may be heated sufficiently to create steam (3) the heat is more efficiently produced than any heretoforepracticed method, and (4) heating is accomplished more cheaply than in any heretofore practiced method.
The invention may be embodied in other specific forms without departing from the spirit or essential characteristics thereof. The present embodiments are therefore to be considered in all respects as illustrative and not restrictive, the scope of the invention being indicated by the appended claims rather than by the foregoing description, and all changes which'come within-the meaning and range of equivalency of the claims are therefore intended to be embraced therein.
1. Radiation generating equipment for amplifying the flow of oil in producing a natural reservoir comprising an internal combustion engine exhausting as principal gaseous components nitrogen and carbon dioxide, said engine having a power output shaft; means for drying and conducting said engine exhaust into a drilled well in said natural reservoir at a predetermined low pressure; electrical generating means drivingly connected to said engine power output shaft for producing conventional A.C. current, means connected to the electrical output of said generator to convert said A.C. conventional current to radio frequency high voltage output current, said last named means including a conductor line mounting electrode means at predetermined intervals for discharg ing said radio frequency output current as ionizing impacts into the dried exhaust gases as they are conducted through the conducting means to excite the gases by effecting an interaction between the electromagnetic waves and the atoms and state of ionization of the gasatoms and moleculesThere are' certain advantages in the; arrangement as illustrated in:
FIGURE 2 notably smaller diameter cable 22 anda lesser tendency to equipment breakdown due to high voltage transmis-- sion-.
The design, construction, installation, adjustment and application of the components of wave energy source E or E,
i and electrodes 24 and transformer 31 referred to above are predicated upon established and known principles, and are within the knowledge. and abilities of one skilled in the art to put this invention to use; contemplationof the gas, or gas mixture, to be used first having been made as to temperature rise desired, volume of gas, thermal capacity of gas, and pressure at which such gas is to be put through the transducer.
The operation of the generating equipment of FIGURES l and 2 and the results obtainable therefrom, are based upon proven scientific theories, i.e.:
l. Internalcombustion engines will produce 9X quantities ofn'itrogen and carbon dioxide as exhaust gas for each x quantity of natural gas burned as fuel, and will at the same tim'efdrivean A.C. generator toproduce quantities of electrical energy, at almost no extra cost, to be converted toradiofrequerj cy and' optimum voltage for use as a feedback ihto the gasforiionization thereof.
2. The electrical energy so generated can be converted to radio frequencies and optimum .voltage by available apparatus-in knownm'anne r by those skilled in the arts.
3. The 'nitrogen and carbon dioxide content of the exhaust of an internalcombustion engine needs only as treatment for the purposes of this invention the drying provided by a conventionai typedesiccator; experience indicates that at low pressures'exhau'st gases cause little or no corrosion of molecules of gas with a resultant super-heating of the gas to provide a medium capable of introduction into the natural reservoir to heat the reservoir area to a temperature sufficiently high to reduce the viscosity of the contained oil and free it to flow to a subsurface collection point.
2. The generating equipment of Claim. 1 wherein said electrical generating means comprises an AC. generator and said means connected to the electrical output of said generator comprises a frequency converter, a conductor line coextensive with the gas conductor of said means for drying and conducting said engine exhaust, respective electrodes spaced at intervals along said conductor line and electrically connected to said conductor line through respective step-up transformers arranged to raise the voltage of the radio frequency output current sufficiently to assure a discharge to excite the gas to a level to effect emissions in the infra-red range.
3. The generating equipment of Claim 1 wherein said generator means comprises an A.C. generator and said means connected to the output of said generator means comprises a means for raising the current frequency to radio frequency and the voltage sufficiently to assure a discharge from said electrode means to excite the gas to a level to effect emissions in the infra-red range.
4. The generating equipment of claim 1 wherein said means for drying and conducting said engine exhaust includes tubing adapted to be suspended within a conventionally completed well and said conductor line comprises a length of cable spirally encircling said tubing from end-to-end and fitted at preselected intervals with electrodes extending into said tubing to discharge into the gas conducted through said tubing.
5. The apparatus of Claim 1 wherein said means for drying and conducting said engine exhaust includes small diameter bore hole casing; extending into said natural reservoir and having a perforated portion disposed in the oil bearing area of said I said outlet conduit and the gas conducted thereby and connatural reservoir and saidelectrode means comprises a length of cable coextensive in length to said small diameter borehole casing suspended in said casing and fitted at preselected intervals with electrodes to discharge into the gas conducted through said Casing.
6. The apparatus of Claim 3 wherein at least certain of said perforations in the perforated portion of said bore hole casing are disposed in radial outward relation to said electrodes.
7. Gas and electrical generating equipment for field use in generating a gas and high frequency electrical energy for use in operating an electromagnetic transducer comprising an internal combustion engine having an output shaft and exhaust manifold; electrical generator means drivingly connected tov said output shaft to output a source of conventional low 'frequency A.C. electrical energy; a frequency converter connected to the output source of low frequency electrical energy to output a source of high voltage electrical energy of radio frequency; an output cable to conduct the high voltage radio frequency electrical energy to an area of use; a desiccator connected to said exhaust manifold for drying the gaseous exhaust products of combustion; a compressor connected to the discharge of said'desiccator to receive and compress said gaseous exhaust products to apredetermined low pressure and having an outlet conduit to conduct the pressurized gases to said area of use; said output cable being coextensive with and operatively associated with said outlet conduit through the instrumentality of spaced electrodes arranged to discharge into nected to said output cable through respective step-up transformer means designed to provide an output voltage sufficient to excite the conducted gas to a level to assure emissions in the infra-red range.
8, Gas and electrical generating equipment for field use in generating a gas and high frequency electrical energy for use in operating an electromagnetic transducer comprising an internal combustion engine having an output shaft and exhaust manifold; electrical generator means drivingly connected to said output shaft to output a source of conventional low frequency A.C. electrical energy; frequency converter and step-up transformer means connected to the output source of low frequency electrical energy to output a source of high voltage electrical energy of radio frequency; an outputcable to conduct the high voltage radio frequency electrical energy to anarea of use; a desiccator connected to said exhaust manifold for drying the gaseous exhaust products of combustion; a compressor connected to the discharge of said desiccatorto receive and compress said gaseous exhaust products to a predetermined low pressure and having an outlet conduit to conduct the pressurized gases to said area of use; said output cable being coextensive with and operatively associated with said outlet conduit through the instrumentality of spaced electrodes arranged to discharge into said outlet conduit and the gas conducted thereby and connected to said output cable to excite the conducted gas to a level to assure emissions in the infra-red range.
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE CERTIFICATE OF CORRECTION Patent No. 3 I 522 I 843 D t d August 1970 ln e Robert V. New
It is certified that error appears in the above-identified patent and that said Letters Patent arehereby corrected as shown below:
Column 3, line 25, after "impresses" insert electrical current and Column 4, line 2, "heat' should be --"heat"-- Claim 1, line 42, after "the" first occurrence, insert --electrical current and--.
SIGNED AN b RZALED Nov 1019]) Column 2, line 66, "preferrably" should be preferably-- (SEAL) Atteat:
mllem nh Y WILLIAM R. Almhns commissions!- of PM USCOMM-DC 60376-P69 FORM PO-IOSO (10-69) 1' u s novcmmzm' umrmc orncznu o-qu-su:
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|U.S. Classification||166/60, 166/303, 392/306|
|International Classification||E21B36/00, E21B43/16, E21B43/24|
|Cooperative Classification||E21B36/00, E21B43/2401|
|European Classification||E21B36/00, E21B43/24B|