US 3526234 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
United States Patent  Inventor Marshall Herbert Chrablow Mundelein, Illinois  Appl. No. 466,977
 Filed June 25, 1965 i  Patented Sept. 1, 1970  Assignee Helene Curtis Industries, Inc.
Chicago, Illinois a corporation of Illinois  METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR TREATING HAIR WITH SONIC VIBRATIONS 14 Claims, 8 Drawing Figs.
132/7 A45d 7/00  Field of Search 259/1;
 References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 2,913,602 9/1967 Joy 259/1 3,211,159 10/1965 Goble 132/7 Primary Examiner Robert Peshock Assistant Examiner-James W. Mitchell Atlorney- Lewis D. Konigsford ABSTRACT: Method and apparatus for treating hair on the head by ultrasonic vibrations on a circular mandrel provided with circumferential grooves spaced about one-sixteenth inch apart. Treatment may include permanent waving fluids, neutralizers, hair bleaches, hair dyes and solidifying compositions. The mandrel may be of nylon and may be spool shaped.
METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR TREATING HAIR WITH SONIC VIBRATIONS This invention relates to improved processes for treating hair with sonic vibrations, and to apparatus especially suitable for carrying out the processes, though not so limited. In particular, the processes relate to such treatment with or without liquid agents or adjuncts for altering the appearance, form or condition of the hair.
It is relatively common for women to treat their hair in various ways to produce a desired cosmetic effect. For example, the hair may be bleached or.dyed, or it may be treated with a dressing or conditioner for affecting its texture or appearance, or it may be curled or waved or set, or shampooed and set. All such treatments with liquids generally involve washing or shampooing, and a drying treatment. Under the most favorable conditions, drying the hair consumes about one-half hour, but, in practice, a much longer time is required to dry the hair. Added to this is the time required to treat the hair so that any of the above enumerated treatments involves a period of 1 several hours. A reduction in such time is highly desirable.
As an example, the conventional method for imparting a cold permanent wave to the hair involves essentially winding the hair on suitable rods or rollers, applying a keratin reducing agent to the hair, and after a suitable interval, applying a cold wave neutralizer to the hair. Usually it is desirable to rinse the keratin reducing agent from the hair before applying the neutralizer. Then after a suitable time interval, the rollers are removed, and then the hair is set and dried. Frequently, the hair is shampooed to wash out the neutralizer and keratin reducing agent before setting the hair.
, According to the present invention, sonic vibrations are applied to a hair strand on the head while it is in contact with a roughened rod or roller, with or without the application of treating fluids. Such sonic treatment of a dry hair strand, or a hair strand moistened with water, results in changing the form or configuration of the hair, in a manner which depends on a number ofconditions. Thus,-for example, straight hair treated in this way, wound on a serrated cylindrical rod, becomes wavy or curled. However, the change in configuration has limited durability, for upon shampooing the hair, the hair returns largely to its configuration before treatment.
' By sonic treatment of a hair strand wrapped around a serrated cylindrical rod in the presence ofa solution ofa keratin reducing agent, preferably followed by neutralization with or without sonic treatment, the time required to impart a permanent wave to the hair is greatly reduced. Furthermore, the concentration of keratin reducing agent may be much lower than is conventionally employed in the cold permanent waving process, and the pH of the solution may be reduced. This enables the more general useof keratin reducing substances, which heretofore have had restricted applications. The greatest time reduction is gained by subjecting the hair to sonic vibration during both treatments with the keratin reducing agent and the cold wave neutralizer.
By having reactive liquidspresent in the hair during sonic treatment, the speed of reaction is greatly increased so that the time needed to carry out the reaction is decreased. A temporary hair set may be produced by sonic treatment of a hair strand wrapped on a rod and wetted with an oxidizing oil of animal or vegetable origin while exposed to air. Oxidation of the oil by atmospheric air is accelerated by the sonic treatment, and the then solid resinous film of oxidized oil on the hair maintains the hair in curled form. This treatment also imparts a sheen to the hair which is frequently desirable. The hair may be also set, more or less temporarily, by developing resinous compounds on the hair by other means, as by treatment with, a liquid that solidfies by solvent evaporation, polymerization, condensation, copolymerization and the like, as all such actions are accelerated by sonic vibration.
Bleaching and dyeing ofthe hair is accomplished rapidly by sonic treatment, in many cases with improved uniformity. If it is desired to wave the hair at the same time that the hair is dyed or bleached, the strand is wound on a roller during the sonic treatment.
Under influence of sonic vibration, penetration of liquids into the hair shaft is increased, so that the sonic vibration treatment of hair may be combined with treatment with conditioners and other fluids to increase their penetration. Thixotropic treating solutions show reduced viscosity and do not throw off a mist. Furthermore, moist hair which is subject to sonic vibration throws off the moisture into the air as a fine mist generally called cold boiling." This action may be utilized to dry the hair, and to accelerate drying by application of heat in any conventional manner. It also may be utilized to limit the amount of treating liquid, such as dye, bleach, keratin reducer, oxidizing oil, etc. on the hair. Where it is desired to reduce loss of low viscosity liquid from the hair by misting, the hair can be suitably covered with a pad of suitable material. g
Any suitable type of apparatus may be employed to generate the'sonic vibration. Such devices are generally called resonators, and a wide variety of resonators are known in the art. Examples of such resonators known in the art which may be used herein as the vibration generator include powerdriven whistles and sirens, magnetostriction transducers, piezo-electric crystal transducers, and piezomagnetic transducers, such as those using nickel-copper-cobalt ferrites. The apparatus selected will depend on the frequency to be employed, the amount of power to be transmitted, and other factors. The upper limit of the audible sonic range is generally regarded to be about fifteen thousand to eighteen thousand cycles per second. and the ultrasonic range is above the audible range. By way of example, suitable frequencies are in the range of about 15,000 cps. to about 60,000 cps. Frequencies as high as 100,000 cps. and higher may be used depending on many factors, such as cost, power requirements, equipment used, and the like. In general, because of cost and other factors and limitations inherent in the resonators the lowest frequency which will deliver the desired wave length is preferred.
At the present time, the mechanism by which the various effects on the hair are attained by sonic vibration is not fully understood. In some instances, the results appear to be due to microagitation with or without cavitation effect, and possibly accompanied by some elevation of temperature. While, thermal devices positioned in a hair strand that is properly coupled to the resonator show a small temperature rise, the indicated temperature rise does not account for the increased chemical activity of agents under sonic vibration. Under certain conditions, temperature effects can be obtained so the hair is scorched, but in treating the hair on the head, such conditions generally are to be avoided. The apparatus and materials employed in coupling the hair to the source of vibration have an influence on the results produced.
As is understood in the art, the tool to be vibrated by the resonator is attached thereto at a point of minimum stressin' such manner as to transmit longitudinal vibrations. Heretofore, it has been the practice to provide a tool of such length that it is a multiple of a half-wave length at the frequency employed, so that a loop of motion occurs at the working end .of
the tool. When using a cylindrical rod or roller as the tool, the longitudinal surface of such tool is roughened in accordance with this invention, (i.e., the surface running in the direction of the longitudinal wave) adjacent a loop of motion. By this means, especially when the hair is arranged to be transversely of the length of the tool, the longitudinal wave transmission or coupling action between the tool and hair or liquid for treating the hair is improved, and the hair is retained on the tool against lengthwise dislodging or expelling forces due to the vibration. Especially when the hair is wetted or a liquid treating agent is used, the transmission of energy is improved. One theory is that such roughness results in a dispersing action of the longitudinal wave or wave energy in planes or directions diverging from the longitudinal direction, but the invention is not limited to such theory.
Furthermore, in accordance with the invention, by providing a rod or roller for receiving the hair which is composed of non-brittle plastic material of low density compared to metal, the length of such rod is not so critical a factor at the lower frequencies. This may be due to development of a shorter sonic wave length which is related to the velocity of sound in such materials. By providing a rough surface on the rod or roller adjacent such loop to receive the strand of hair, a strand of hair of considerable size can be treated. Also, such plastic tool may be formed in the conventional spool-shape of hair waving rods with roughened surface.
A large variety of roughening forms of the tool may be employed. Examples of such forms are combs, circumferential grooves spaced longitudinally on the tool, screw threads, interrupted screw threads, knurling, and the like. While the various forms of roughening are not exactly alike in their ability to transmit vibrations to the hair or liquid, they are all effective for the purposes of this invention. Examples of non-brittle plastic material that may be used for the roller include, nylon, polyethylene, hard rubber, artificial ivory, and the like. Brittle material which shatters under vibration cannot be employed.
Because of the vibrating forces involved, it was, heretofore, believed necessary to weld or otherwise integrally attach the tool to the vibrating core of the resonator. I have found the plastic tool may be connected by screw threads to an intermediate metal tool and the connection may be made by a quickly detachable coupling described hereinafter in detail.
Any of the known keratin reducing agents may be employed in this invention for imparting a permanent deformation to the hair. Examples of such agents are ammonium thioglycolate solution, thiolactic acid, cysteine, ammonium sulphite and bisulphite, thioglycerine, thiopropionic acid, thiocarbonic acid esters of glycolic acid, dithiocarbamates prepared according to US. Pat. No. 2,84l,530 issued to Anderson et al, the half-amide of the ammonium salt of thioitamalic acid, acetyl-mercaptoacetamide and triethanolamine, ethylene diamine mono-thioglycolate and mixtures of any of the known keratin reducing agents. With such agents may be used thickeners, opacifiers, wetting agents, buffers, and other desirable additives. Any of the conventional neutralizers may be employed in the neutralizing step, as for example, alkali metal bromates, perborates, hydrogen peroxide and the like, and in some cases, the use ofneutralizer is not necessary.
The degree of tension conventionally employed in winding the hair on rollers or rods in the cold permanent waving process is generally sufficient in winding the hair on a roller for sonic treatment, and accordingly, those persons skilled in the art of cold permanent waving of hair will understand the degree of tension to be employed in the sonic treatment ofthis invention.
In the sonic cold permanent waving process, the concentration of the keratin reducing solution and/or its pH may be lowered. Thus, for example, using ammonium thioglycolate, I may employ a concentration of about 2 percent at a pH of 9.3 compared to the concentration of about 7 /2 percent at this pH used in the conventional cold permanent waving fluids for professional use. However, concentrations above 2 percent can be employed ifdesired. Or, the pH of the keratin reducing agent may be lowered to about 6.5 to 8 and the concentration may be about 2 percent to 8 percent for use in the sonic process. It is preferred to cover the strand of hair during the sonic treatment to reduce the amount of keratin reducing solution dissipated into the air. Although some heat generation in the sonic treatment occurs, we believe such heating is incidental and not a primary function of the sonic treatment. Other effects such as microagitation, cavitation and reduction of friction, we believe are primarily responsible for the improved results in the sonic treatment.
For bleaching the hair, I may employ, for example, sodium persulfate solutions, hydrogen peroxide and the like. For permanently dyeing the hair, in general, the arylenediamines alone or modified by phenolic couplers are employed in the art, and such dyeing compositions may be employed in conjunction with sonic vibration in accordance with this invention. Improved dyeing is also accomplished in the use ofdirect dyes and dyes which ordinarily have little affinity for hair, as for example, the various dyes certified for cosmetic and drug use. The particular dye is selected to give the desired color and fastness. Probably due to improved penetration of the hair, the fastness to shampooing generally is improved by this invention.
The invention is especially applicable to imparting a set to the hair and, in this connection, various hair setting lotions may be employed. Such conventional setting compositions comprise generally water and alcohol soluble gums, resins, proteins, and the like. Some examples of conventional setting preparations usable in this invention include alcohol and aqueous solutions of polyvinylpyrrolidone, mixtures of the latter and polyvinyl acetate, polyacrylic acid resins, copolymers of laurylmethacrylate and diethylaminoethyl methacrylate, polymerized N-vinyl lactams, and dimethylhydantoinformaldehyde resin. In addition, I may employ resin forming liquids which produce a solid film upon the hair by oxidation, polymerization, copolymerization, condensation and the like.
The invention is described in greater detail in the following specification including illustrative examples, and described in connection with the accompanying drawing illustrating preferred embodiments of the invention by way of example. In the drawing:
FIG. 1 is a side elevational view illustrating a transducer incorporating a sonic treating tool; FIG. 2 is a vertical axial section of FIG. 1;
FIG. 3 is a section taken on line 33 of FIG. 2;
FIG. 4 is a fragmentary view showing one form of roughened surface on an exaggerated scale;
FIG. 5 is a view similar to FIG. 2 illustrating another form of roughened surface;
FIG. 6 illustrates a preferred form of hair waving rod; and
FIGS. 7 and 8 illustrate a form of quick coupling to the hair waving rod.
Referring to the drawing, FIG. 1, the resonator comprises a housing composed ofa cylindrical sleeve 1, having at one end a plug or partition 2 with a reduced circular flange 3 to receive the end of sleeve 1. A tubular member 4 in the sleeve is mounted at one end on a boss 5 extending inwardly from partition 2, and at the other end is enlarged at 6 and is provided with a flange 7. The enlarged portion 6 fits closely in the sleeve 1 and has two grooves 8 and 9 interrupting its surface adapted to receive O-rings. Also, adjacent one end is a boss I] of generally triangular shape which serves as a spacer while providing an open continuation for the circumferential space 12 between sleeve 1 and tubular member 4. A wire coil [3 is wound around member 4 and does not completely fill the space 12. This coil is ofthe required number ofturns and wire thickness, and it has leads (not shown) passing out through the holes l4, 15 by which the coil is connected to a suitable power source which supplies alternating voltage of suitable frequency, and a direct current supply if required.
The tubular member 4 has a bore 16 passing through the enlarged end, and it has a counterbore 17. A resonator core indicated generally at 18 consists of a stack 19 of laminations of annealed oxide coated nickel suitably attached, as by welding, or silver solder, to a cylindrical rod 21 of suitable metal as, for example, Monel metal K. A gland 22 has a bore 23 therein which receives the rod 21 with a loose clearance, and a sealing ring, illustrated as a rubber O-ring 24 in recess 25 seals the clearance. The gland has a reduced stem 26 received in the counterbore 17 with a loose clearance, and this clearance is sealed by O-rings 27 provided in grooves therein. The rod 21 and stack 19, thus, are mounted to permit longitudinal vibration and the O-rings serve as seals and reduce or prevent transmission of vibration to the sleeve I which serves as a handle for grasping the resonator. The gland 22 may be pinned to the rod 18 at the node after assembly, so as to allow quick interchange of core assemblies.
The coil, stack and tool are cooled by coolant, water for example, which enters the stack chamber 28 through a tube 29, flows along the stack and exits by radial holes 31 to the space 12. The water flows through space 12 to cool the coil 13, crosses through the triangular boss 11 and exits through tube 32. A cap 33 positioned on the end of partition 2 has a bore 34 through which is lead in the tubing for supplying cold water to tube 29 and carrying away warm water from tube 32. Also, the lead wires for the coil pass through opening 34. Preferably, the sleeve 1, partition 2, tubular member 4, gland 21 and cap 33 are composed of a synthetic plastic material, as for example, nylon. The stack 19 is one-half wave length long, and the rod 18 is also one-half wave length long at the frequency employed, and the attachment of the two is at a node. This provides a vibrating loop at the extreme end of the rod. The rod 18 is provided with a roughened section adjacent its end 21, diagrammatically shown in the drawing as a screw thread interrupted by circumferentially spaced longitudinal grooves.
In the modification shown in FIG. 4, the rod 18a is provided at its end with a series of parallel circumferential grooves 35 similarly interrupted and which may be substantially V-shaped in cross section. Such grooves, as well as the threads on the rod (shown in FIG. 2) may be about one-sixteenth inch apart. Any standard thread, or the spacing thereof may be employed.
In FIG. 5, the rougheningconsists of serrations 36 to form a comb. In this case, the rod 18b is preferably oval in cross section at the serrated area, substantially like a conventional comb. Preferably, it is made of nylon.
In FIG. 6, the roller 37 is shown as generally spool shaped and having grooves 38 formed along its length. These preferably are parallel and may be spaced for example about one-sixteenth inch apart, and are interrupted by longitudinal grooves. Preferably the spool has an axially threaded bore 39 bywhich it is connected to the core rod 18 of the resonator. The spool preferably is made of nylon.
A preferred form of resonator rod is shown in FIGS. 7 and 8.The rod 180 has a necked down or amplifying section 41 as understood in the art which may be an exponential curve, terminating in a thinner rod 42. Rod section 42 is screw threaded at 44 and provides a radial shoulder 45. The entire rod structure is one-half wave length long and is attached to the laminated stack, with the neck 41 located at a quarter wave length from the free end of the rod. The spool shaped curling rod shown in FIG. 6 may be threaded thereon with the end 46 engaging the shoulder 45. I provide a quickly disengaged coupling by providing two flat faces 47, 48 on the threaded rod portion 44 and provide similar flats in the bore 39 of the curling rod 37. By registering the flats of the curling rod and rod section 42. the curling rod can slide until it loosely engages shoulder 45 andthen a quarter turn engages the threads to lock the spool on the rod. If desired, the portion 42 adjacent shoulder 45 may be screw threaded, and a lock nut may be provided thereon to engage the face 46 ofthe curling rod. The shoulder 45, accordingly, should be suitably located relative to the threads on the rod and spool.
It will be understood the apparatus herein described is illustrative. For example, the rod 21 may be connected to a barium titanate tube excited to lengthwise vibration, to a stack of piezoelectric crystals, or the like.
The invention is explained further in connection with the following examples.
EXAMPLE I Curl relaxing The hair is first shampooed and towel-dried. It is then divided in sections or strands across the scalp in the usual manner. The operator then grasps the end of a section and combs through the hair with a nylon comb as illustrated in FIG. 5, coupled to the resonator so as to develop longitudinal vibration lengthwise of the comb. A frequency of about 19,500 c.p.s. is used. The comb is pushed deeply into the hair strands so that the hair comes into contact with the valleys between the teeth. The comb is moved rapidly and to ensure contact with all the hair, it is passed through each section two or three times. The hair acquires a relatively straight configuration and then can be set in any desired coiffure.
A more permanent straightening effect is produced by wetting the hair with a five percent solution of ammonium thioglycolate before combing, and followed by neutralization after combing.
EXAMPLE 2 Hair setting A small quantity of linseed oil is worked into the hair using just enough to moisten the hair. About one ounce is sufficient for the average head. The hair is then wound on nylon rollers of the desired size and configuration, as for example, that shown in FIG. 6, and each roller is coupled to the resonator for about five seconds. The hair is removed from the rollers and the hair is set in the desired coiffure. The hair has acquired a temporary wave which lasts until the resinified oil is removed. Preferably, boiled linseed oil is used.
EXAMPLE 3 Cold permanent waving Using the rod structure shown in FIG. 2, the strand of hair is wound on the rod 18 at the threaded tip 21, beginning at the tips of the hair. The curl is saturated with a 7% percent solution of ammonium thioglycolate at pH 9.3 and is subjected to vibration at about 19,500 cps. for 20 seconds. The hair is rinsed and a neutralizer solution comprising 12 percent sodium bromate is then poured on the curl and it is vibrated for 5 seconds. This operation may be repeated for each strand of hair on the head till the entire hair has been waved. The hair is then washed and set. The hair has a permanent wave.
EXAMPLE 4 A strand of hair is wrapped around a rod having interrupted threads, specifically a steel screw tap (No. 8-32) attached to the end of a resonator core, and a sheet of cellulose feltthen' was wetted thoroughly with a 2 percent solution of hexamethylenetetraamine in water and wrapped around the strand. The tap was vibrated longitudinally for 20 seconds at a frequency of about 25,000 cps. and the felt then removed. Another piece of cellulose felt was saturated with a 3 percent solution of caprocyl chloride in perchloroethylene as a solvent, and wrapped around the strand, and the tap was again vibrated at the same frequency for about 20 seconds. The cellulose felt then was removed and the tap was vibrated for about ten seconds to dry the hair. The hair then was unwound from the tap and showed a tight curl. Microscopic examination did not reveal a coating on the hair and thus indicated the polymerized nylon was absorbed or diffused in the hair. I I
It will be understood that the apparatus here disclosed is not limited to the treatment of hair.
1. In the treatment of hair on the human head witliul trasonic vibration of a predetermined wave length, the process comprising contacting the hair .with a solid transducer member in the form of a bar, circular in cross section, having circumferential grooves therein adjacent a vibration loop at the wave length employed and about one-sixteenth inch apart, the hair being wound about said bar in the grooves, said bar being subject to and transmitting longitudinal vibrations at ultrasonic frequencies to the hair.
2. The process as specified in claim 1 wherein the hair is subject to the action of a reactive liquid during contact with the solid member. v
3. The process as specified in claim 1 wherein the groovesin the solid member are interrupted circumferentially.
4. The process as specified in claim 1 wherein the member is spool-shaped.
5. The process as specified in claim 2 wherein the liquid contains a keratin reducing agent.
6. The process as specified in claim 2 wherein the liquid comprises a cold wave neutralizing agent.
7, The process as specified in claim 2 wherein the liquid comprises a hair bleaching agent.
8. The process as specified in claim 2 wherein the liquid comprises an agent for imparting color to the hair.
9. The process as specified in claim 2 wherein the liquid comprises a solidifying composition.
10. The process as specified in claim 2 wherein the liquid comprises a keratin reducing agent, and the hair is subsequently treated with a neutralizing agent.
11. Vibration apparatus comprising a tool in the form of a