US 3527927 A
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Sept. 8, 1970 w. J. BIJLEVELD ET AL PROCESS AND APPARATUS FOR PRODUCING AND READING ARABIC NUMBERS ON A RECORD SHEET Filed Sept. 3, 1965 4 shets-sheet 1 EERSTE Cim TWEEDE CIJFER i VIE D CIJFER VL: DE cum ZEVENDE CIJFER FIG. I
ERSTE C DERDE CIJF ER VIERD CIJ FER L1 EDE CIJFER FIG. 2
HONDERDGULDEN TIENTJES CENTEN HONDERD GLLD TIENTJES DUBBELTJES CENTEN FIG. 4
INVENTORS W. BIJLEVELD ATTORNEY VAN DER TOORN Sept. 8, 1970 w. J. BIJLEvr-:LD ET AL 3,527,927
PROCESS AND APPARATUS FOR PRODUCING AND READING ARABIC NUMBERS ON A RECORD SHEET Filed Sept. 5, 1965 4 Sheets-Sheet 2 GULDENl UBBELTJEs CENTE' Hf f.
*.7 x z l GULDENS m FIG. 5
INVENTORS f W. J, BTJLEVELD A. J. VAN DER TOORN BY ATTORNEY Sept. 8, 1970 w. .LBIJLEVELD ET AL 3,527,927
PROCESS AND APPARATUS FOR PRODUCING AND READING ARABIC NUMBERS ON `A RECORD SHEET F1160. Sept. 5, 1965 4 Sheets-Sheet 4 Fam I sI-IEET EDGE Fc D Y DETECTING PHoTocELLs Fbl] 1 n m l! I 1234512345123l|51235123l5; READINGSTATION tyIIIIlIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIII I PHoTocELLs S i..
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INVENTORS w. J. BIJLEVELD A. J. VAN DER TooRN ATTORNEY United States Patent O U.S. Cl. 23S-61.11 1 Claim ABSTRACT OF THE DISCLOSURE A process for producing a visually readable, rectangular record sheet or card with horizontal code eld strips of prearranged visual rectangular areas each of which areas indicate in three horizontal rows in only visually readable printing: (a) all ten Arabic digits in different predetermined positions therein and (b) the digital loca- 'tion for that digit. These strips of rectangular areas are arranged so that they can be easily marked with both visually and machine readable digits over the printed indications by any person in his or her natural left to right sequence of writing Arabic numbers, with the position of that persons marks in each rectangular area making the sheet then machine readable.
An apparatus including an electronic circuit for reading these marks comprises a first plurality of horizontal scanning devices with one device for each digit indication in two of the horizontal rows; and a second plurality of vertical scanning devices, with one device for each row of indications, which vertical devices successively scan the edge of the card parallel to these rows as the card moves past them. The circuit also includes AND-gates controlled by more than one of the first plurality of horizontal scanning devices to be responsive to the digit location or position marking in the third row of each code field strip on the card.
BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION The invention relates to a record sheet the face of which is provided with a number of horizontally aligned figure recording tracks pre-printed in a visually perceptible but not machine detectable contrast, each of which tracks consists of three equally long contiguous horizontal subtracks placed below each other. Two of these sub-tracks, hereinafter referred to as figure sub-tracks, are divided into five aligned boxes, each of these ten boxes being preprinted with one of the Arabic figures from to 9 in a visually perceptible but not machine detectable contrast and intended for recording per track one visually as well as machine readable handwritten ligure corresponding to the figure pre-printed in the relevant box, the recorded gures constituting the visually readable number being at the same or approximately the same level. The third subtrack, hereinafter referred to as additional sub-track, which is preferably located between the two figure sub-tracks, is
3,527,927 Patented Sept. 8, 1970 lCe intended for marking an indication, pre-printed in the additional sub-track, concerning the nature of the figures to be recorded, as e.g. the order of the figures in a number, or a unit in which the figure to be recorded is expressed, if not all the pairs of figure sub-tracks are used for recording the numerical datum, such as a number or amount, which indication, if marked, e.g. by striking out, acts as a visually perceptible as well as machine detectable additional mark, so that the recorded numerical datum, together with the additional mark recorded in the additional sub-track exhibits self-checking and errorpreventing properties, while the recording can easily be effected in the normal sequence and the normal direction from left to right.
Vertical code fields consisting of a plurality of vertical marking columns placed beside each other and each cornprising ten vertically aligned marking positions are wellknown.
ln each column the figures 0 to 9 are pre-printed in the respective marking positions. Recording a number is done by applying a machine detectable mark to one marking position in each column. The place of a marking column indicates which denomination of the number is recorded in it; the digit value of each domination depends on the position of the mark in the marking column. The extreme right marking column is intended for the units, the adjacent column at the left of it for the tens, the next column toward the left for the hundreds, and so on. So each marking column of such a vertical code field is intended for a specified power of 10.
This arrangement of the code field urges the writer to record the figures from the right to the left, which is against the normal direction of writing. Only if the number of figures of the numerical datum to be recorded is equal to the number of marking columns, can the recording be effected from the left to the right without special precautions.
The scanning-technique frequently requires, for the sake of a reliability check on the scanning, that all the marking columns are marked, particularly in the case when the number of significant digits of a numerical datum is smaller than the number of marking columns. In practice this inequality often occurs, e.g. when amounts have to be recorded or numbers of a historically growing series. Thus e.g. the number of figures of postal account numbers varies from one to seven. If the writer has to record a number consisting of a number of figures smaller than the number of marking columns of a code field, he has rst to nd out the number of digits of the number to be recorded, next he has to look for the number of marking columns in the Vertical code lield or how many figures recording tracks is in a horizontal code field, then he has to ascertain the difference between these two numbers and to count out this dilerence, and then he can proceed to mark the lirst significant digit of the numerical datum in the proper column or track and to mark the digit zero in the columns or tracks that are not used. Experiments have shown that in the case where numerical data consisting of different numbers of digits have to be recorded in succession, shifting errors frequently occur. Moreover this ever recurring necessity of calculating in which column or track the first significant gure of a number has to be recorded, or the unnatural recording from right to left provokes a permanent psychological resistance against the use of code fields for recording numbers.
Thus, the placing of marks in the zero positions at the left before the significant digits, is at variance with the normal Way of writing numbers. The necessity is not seen by a major part of a heterogeneous public, as e.g. transfer account customers, which causes in many cases either the omission of these zeros or the recording of figures in` wrong columns, as experiments have shown; and this seemingly superfluous work provokes a psychological resistance as well.
In the code fields so far known, it is undesirable to Start recording the numbers from the left to the right, starting in the extreme left column or track and, if the numerical datum consists of a number of digits smaller than the number of columns or tracks, to mark the zero positions in the remaining columns or tracks, because in that manner a different existing number is recorded, which is ten times or a power of ten times larger than the number intended to be recorded.
It is to be observed that a code field comprising a plurality of horizontal figure recording tracks, each consisting of two figure sub-tracks placed one lbelow the other is known from the British patent specification 817,902, FIG. 2, with regard to which the following remarks can lbe made:
The recording and scanning of figures, for example, the figure 6, requires four sub-tracks, namely two figure sub-tracks and 12) and two signal sub-tracks (11 and 13). A uniform vertical dash is used to mark the signal tracks; and it is placed in the signal track 13 n case of an even figure and in track 11 in the case of an odd figure. Thus the writer can easily make a mistake by placing a mark indicating an even figure in the signal track 11 instead of in the signal track 13.
In the code field according to this British patent specification, no indications are given as to the denominations of the figures in the number. This, as experiments have shown, easily leads to shifting errors, if the number of figures to be filled in is smaller than the number of tracks.
A further disadvantage of the code field in this British patent specification is the use of a uniform signal mark (a vertical dash) which according to the example in its FIG. 2 will not be able to be read at one glance by the general public and thus is a serious difficulty for its general use. Furthermore there is no proprio-ceptoric muscle control when the writer makes these uniform marks in the proper places for the different figures, and if a vertical dash is placed in the wrong position a third person cannot ascertain from the recorded information that a mistake has been made nor what has been the writers intention in that the vertical mark isnot a reproduction of the number or figure' which the marker wishes to record. This also is a serious drawback for large scale accounting systems as in clearing house services, in that such an error could only be found out if the information were recorded in the Arabic figures elsewhere on the information bearer, card or form.
A still further disadvantage of the code field according to this British patent specification consists in that it does not contain any information concerning the nature of the figures to be recorded, as for example the order of the figures, nor any protection against undesirable additions in case fewer figures have been inscribed than the codel field can record.
SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION This invention relates to an information bearer or record sheet, the face of which is provided with a plurality of horizontally aligned figure recording tracks preprinted in a visually perceptible but not machine detectable contrast, each of which tracks consists of (a) three equally long contiguous horizontal sub-tracks or rows placed successively one below the other and (b) equally spaced vertical lines dividing these rows or each track into rectangular areas, one corresponding to each digit or figure of the longest number to be written or marked therein. Two of these rows or sub-tracks, hereinafter referred to as figure sub-tracks, are divided into five aligned boxes, each of these ten boxes being pre-printed with one of the Arabic figures from 0 to 9 in a visually perceptible and at substantially the same insensitivity level, but not machine detectable contrast. These pre-printed boxes are intended for recording one visually as well as machine readable handwritten figure or digit per track, corresponding to the figure pre-printed in the relative box. The third row or sub-track, hereinafter referred to as the additional sub-track, preferably is located between the two figure sub-tracks, and is intended for marking in each rectangular area an indication, preprinted in the additional sub-track, concerning the nature of the figures to 'be recorded, such as for example the order or location of the figures or digits in a number, or the unit in which the figure to be recorded is expressed, such as first digit, second digit, third digit, etc. Also if not all of the rectangular areas are used for recording the numerical datum, the indication in the additional sub-track of the unused rectangular area or areas, if marked by striking it out, acts as a visually perceptible as well as a machine detectable additional mark which exhibits self-checking and error-preventing properties that can easily be effected in the normal sequence and the normal direction of writing from left to right.
Furthermore, the sheet has an edge parallel to the horizontally aligned rows or tracks, which edge is machine detectable for determining which row or sub-track is being read by the mark scanning devices.
Thus the apparatus of this invention includes the information bearer or sheet as a part thereof, as well as a first row of scanning devices corresponding in spacing to each of the spaced boxes along the horizontal figure sub-tracks to respond only to the marks written therein, and a second row of scanning devices perpendicular to the first row of scanning devices corresponding in spacing to each of the parallel rows or sub-tracks in each of the code field strips on the information bearer, sheet, or card. The outputs of all of the scanning devices are connected together in an AND-gate matrix for recording which position in each row has been marked, which position corresponds to the number to be recorded. Regarding the scanning of the additional sub-track, at least two of the horizontal row scanning devices are connected to another series of AND-gates for the sole detection of marks in this addiitonal sub-track, which marks must be long enough to simultaneously energize at least three adjacent scanning devices, so that in the event a person writes a figure in one of the figure sub-tracks which crosses the additional sub-track it will not be detected for a position indication or mark in the additional sub-track.
OBJECTS AND ADVANTAGES The record sheet provided with code fields according to the invention is free from the above-mentioned prior art disadvantages and in addition exhibits the advantages that it can be filled in by a heterogeneous public more easily and more accurately in the natural writing direction from left to right, that is, to begin writing in the first extreme left track, and that it allows of a machine check as to whether in each track only one and not more than one machine detectable figure or additional mark has been recorded.
In comparison with the code field according to the above mentioned British patent specification 817,902, the figure sub-tracks and the associated signal sub-tracks in the code field of the present invention have been combined into two figure sub-tracks, so that the scanning and reading of the figures requires only two instead of four sub-tracks. Also applicants figures are pre-printed in a visually perceptible but not machine detectable color and ink in boxes acting at the same time as marking positions for the recording of a visually as well as machine readable iigure corresponding to the ligure pre-pritned in the box. Thus an error of mistaking one track for another as in said British patent is prevented, and the number itself is recorded in the code field which can be read at one glance by the general public. Thus if the writer records an otherwise correct ligure in the wrong box not corresponding to this figure, the machine reads an erroneous number it is true, but the visual check carried out by an operating staff will reveal the writers intention, supposing the shape of the ligure primarily renders this intention due to the writers proprio-ceptoric muscle control to express this intention. Thus a double recording for checking purposes can be dispensed with if a record sheet according to the present invention is used.
Furthermore the code iield of this invention contains provisions against fraudulent additions of one or more digits to a number which, as regards the number of digits, is smaller than the capacity of the code lield strip. This is done Iby cancelling out the words in the additional subtrack in the rectangular areas in which no figures have. to be recorded. This cancellation thus acts visually as well as being machine detectable, so that an automatic one out of eleven check device for each rectangular area in the code lield can be operated by the scanning devices in the machine or apparatus.
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE VIEWS The above mentioned and other features, objects, and advantages, and a manner of attaining them are described more specifically below by reference to an embodiment of this invention shown in the accompanying drawings, wherein:
FIG. 1 shows one type of code field or strip marked with the visually perceivable but not machine detectable digits and digit positions in three horizontal rows or subtracks according to the present invention;
FIG. 2 is a view of the code strip shown in FIG. 1 marked in accordance with the process of this invention with a specific number of digits less than there are rectangular areas for the digits;
FIG. 3 is a code strip according to this invention indicated in numerical amounts of Netherlands guilders and cents;
FIG. 4 is a code strip according to FIG. 3 marked for seventy-three (7 3) cents according to the process of this invention;
FIG. 5 discloses three code strips similar to that shown in FIG. 3 in which 16 guldens and no cents is marked in three different manners, all of which are detectable similarly lby the apparatus of this invention;
FIG. 6 is a sample of a Netherlands post check card embodying two code strips according to this invention, one for the post check number of the party to whom payment is to be made, and the other for the amount to be paid to that party;
FIG. 7 is a schematic diagram of a portion of a card with a code strip according to this invention passing by two rows of scanning devices, one a horizontal row for each digit box in each row or ligure sub-track, and the other a vertical row for sensing each horizontal row on the card; and
FIG. 8 is a schematic block wiring diagram of a matrix of AND-gates controlled by the vertical and horizontal rows of scanning devices shown in FIG. 7.
DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF PREFERRED EMBODIMENT (I) The process of producing a record sheet FIG. 1 exemplies a horizontal code field consisting of seven ligure recording tracks, in which a number, e.g. a transfer account number, consisting of seven digits or fewer can be recorded. If in this example the number consists of seven digits, one box, pre-printed with the relevant ligure, is lilled in in each of the seven tracks. If in this example the number consists of six digits or fewer, these digits are recorded from the left on in the respective tracks, notably in the boxes pre-printed with the relevant digits. In the tracks in which no digit is recorded, the words pre-printed in the "additional subtrack are lined through (see FIG. 2). This cancellation is carried out in a visually perceptible as well as machine detectable contrast and acts as an additional mark that does not change the value of the recorded ligure, after which the recorded number is self-checking when scanned, because in each track one mark must occur in one of the eleven possible marking positions, i.e. either as a ligure in one of the ten ligure boxes occurring in the two ligure sub-tracks or as a horizontal dash, or the additional mark in the additional sub-track.
The ladditional mark in the shape of a horizontal dash is as long or at least practically as long as the cancelled words pre-printed in the additional sub-track, so that it can be detected in the machine by only a plurality of horizontal scannings. Thus a short accidental contrast between the two ligure sub-tracks, caused by a too long stroke of a ligure inscribed in one of the ligure sub-tracks can be distinguished from lan additional mark, because the length of an excessively long stroke seldom exceeds the width of a ligure box, while in practice an additional mark is always longer than twice the width of a box.
FIG. 2 exemplifies a horizontal code ield designed according to the invention, consisting of seven ligure recording tracks. in which the number 16435 has been recorded in such a manner that the down-stroke of the ligures 1, 3 and 5 and the up-stroke of the ligure 6 have been drawn through the additional sub-track, while additional marks have been placed in the sixth and the seventh track.
The code field according to the invention is quite suited for recording amounts in visually easily readable as Well as machine detectable figures, in such a manner that the total image of the recorder number can be read at one glance by a heterogeneous public, e.g. transfer account customers.
FIG. 3 exemplifies a code field for recording amounts to a maximum of fl 999.99. For that purpose the code iield of this example is divided into live figure recording tracks, in each of which the additional sub-track between the two figure sub-tracks contains an indication, notably from the left to the right hundered gulden (hundred guilders), tientjes (ten guilders), guldens (guilders), dubbeltjes (ten cents), centen (cents).
(a) Il the recorded amount is larger than f1 9.99 but smaller than f1 100.-, an additional mark is placed through the words hondered gulden.
(b) lf the recorded amount is larger than f1 0.99 but smaller than f1 10.-, additional marks are placed through the words hondered gulden en tientjes (c) If the recorder amount is larger than f1 0.09 but smaller than f1., additional marks are placed through the words hondered gulden, tientjes en guldens If desired the writer can confine himself to recording one additional mark, notable in case (b) through the word tientjes and in case (c) through the word guldens, because in such a case the additional mark constitutes a maximum-restriction mark allowing for a machine check as to whether in the machine reading amount read equals the amount indicated in the tracks at the right of the additional mark, notwithstanding the addition of one or more ligure, blocks or rectangular areas in the tracks at the left of the additional mark (FIG. 4).
If the amount consists of whole guilders, the tracks for dubbeltjes and centen may be marked either by inscribing a 0 in the zero boxes or by drawing additional marks through the words dubbeltjes and centen in the analogy of the common practice of Writing a dash after the decimal point in round amounts.
FIG. exemplifies how, according to the invention, an amount of jl 16.- can be recorded in three manners Without losing its self-checking properties.
(II) A record sheet The machine sending and checking of data recorded in code fields on record sheets according to the invention will be described hereinafter.
FIG. 6 exemplifies a practical embodiment of a record sheet according to the invention in the shape of a transfer card on which the transfer account customer records the account number of the payee and the acount to be transferred in the figure recording tracks, boxes, and rectangular areas of code field strips in a manner as described above according to the invention.
(III) The apparatus The following figures exemplify a device for the automatic handling of data recorded on record sheets.
FIG. 7 shows a part of the record sheet R having two figures and one additional sub-tracks. The record sheet R is moved by pusher means M at a uniform speed in the direction of the arrow shown. During this transport, the information recorded on the record sheet R can be scanned by means of photo-electric cells located in the reading station S. During the scanning period the sheet edge detecting photocells Fa, Fb, Fc and Fd are successively covered by the record sheet R. As soon as the top edge of the record sheet R covers the photocell Fa, the upper limit a of the figure recording tracks are just under the photoocells I1 through V5 of the reading station S. In the arrangement shown the scanning of each figure recording track requires five photocells. Thus the first figure is read by the photocells I1 to I5, the second figure by the photocells III to IIS, etc. When the record sheet R moves on, the limit b reaches the photocells of the scanning staiton, when the photocell Fb in the transport path is covered by the top edge of the record sheet.
Similarly the lower part of the figure recording tracks will be scanned when the cell Fc has and the cell Fd has not yet been covered by the sheet R.
The photocells I1 through V5 of the reading station S can be Connected to a circuit as shown in FIG. 8. This circuit is intended for handling and recording only one figure or major rectangular area from only one figure recording track. An identical circuit is used for each of the ohter figures or rectangular areas. The output terminals of the photocells I1 to I5 are connected to the input terminals of the amplifiers V1 to V5. The output terminal of the AND-gate P11 is positive when only the photocell Fa (FIG. 7) is covered. Therefore the output terminals of the photocells Fa to Fd are connected via amplifiers to triggers not shown. The output terminals of these triggers are connected to logic circuits comprising the AND-gates P11, P12 and P13 which have inputs marked according to those photocells from which their corresponding two trigger output terminals are indicated with and without primes.
The output terminal of the amplifier V6 is connected to the input terminals of the AND-gates P1 to P5. If e.g. during the time when the output terminal of V6 is positive the photocell I1 detects a marked box on a record sheet R, there appears a positive pulse at the output terminal of the amplifier V1. At that time the output terminal of the AND-gate P1 is positive too, so that the trigger T1 is changed over. In an identical manner one of the triggers T1 to T5 can be changed over for one of the boxes 1 through 5 filled in with the first figure or number on the record sheet.
The lower part of the track is scanned by the reading station S during the time when the photocells Fa to Fc are covered. During that time the AND-gatel P12 is positive. The output terminal of the amplifier V7 is connected to the AND-gates P6 to P10. If a figure appears in one of the boxes 6 through 0 one of the corresponding triggers T6 to T10 is changed over.
The sub-track enclosed by the limits b and c under the reading stations, when the photocells Fa and Fb are covered. During that time the output terminal of the AND-gate P13 as well as that of the amplifier V8 can become positive. This output terminal becomes positive if the output terminal of the amplifier V3 becomes p0sitive during the scanning of the additional sub-track via conductor V3. Thus horizontal line marked in the additional sub-track is only significant, when three or more adjacent photocells detect this line. If such a line is detected the trigger T11 is changed over. This must happen if one of the following combinations of output terminals of the amplifiers V1 to V5 are positive: V1, V2, V3 or V2, V3, V4 or V3, V4, V5. The result is that in the circuit the output terminals of the AND-gates P14 o1 P15 or P16 become positive. The trigger T11 is changed over then by means of the OR-gate P17.
By means of the circuit of FIG. 8 the significant information of the record sheet R can be recorded in a number of triggers T1 through T11, etc. It is clear that the circuit can be completed with well-known checking circuits, e.g.: only one box may be filled in, etc.
The record sheet can also be moved on in a horizontal direction. In that case the reading station need only to contain three photocells, but provisions must be made then for horizontal synchronization.
While there is described above the principles of this invention in connection with specific apparatus, it is to be clearly understood that this description is made only by Way of example and not as a limitation to the scope of this invention.
1. An apparatus comprising:
(a) an information bearer having:
(l) an edge,
(2) a plurality of tracks (ab, bc, cd) parallel to said edge,
(3) visually readable symbols in predetermined equally spaced locations along each of said tracks with one of said tracks (bc) having symbols extending over a distance in said one track of more than one of the adjacent locations in the other tracks (ab, cd), and
(4) visually readable marks in some of said locations detectable by said machine,
(b) a first row of scanning devices (S) corresponding in spacing to each of said equally spaced locations along said other tracks and responsive to said marks on said bearer,
(c) a second row of scanning devices (Fa-Fc) perpendicular to said first row of scanning devices and corresponding to the spacing of said parallel tracks and responsive to said edge of said bearer,
(d) means (M) for moving said bearer along said second row of said scanning devices and transverse of said first row of said scanning devices,
(e) first and second rows of AND-gate means P1- P5, P6-P10 corresponding and connected to each scanning device in said first row of scanning dev1ces,
(f) first, second, and third AND-gates (P11, P12, P13), connected to the scanning devices of said second row of scanning devices, said first and second AND-gates being connected to said first and second rows of AND-gate means, respectively, and being operated by detection of marks in said locations in said other tracks (ab, cd), and
(g) a third row of AND-gate means (P14-P16) connected to said third AND-gate and to predetermined different adjacent pluralities of said scanning devices in said first row of scanning devices, said third row of AND-gate means being operated by extend over more than one of said adjacent 1ocations.
References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS Betts 23S-61.603
Rauch 23S-61.12 X
Tarasuk 23S-61.12 Woodland.
Quinn et al. 23S-61.12 Bailey et a1. 235--61.12
DARYL W. COOK,
Luhn 235-61.115 Kolanowski et al. 340-146.?,
Atkinson 23S- 61.603
Primary Examiner R. M. KILGORE, Assistant Examiner U.S. C1. X.R.
(Our ReLWP 169'7'13,
ggo [JN-[TED STATES PATENT OFFICE CERTIFICATE OF CORRECTION Patent No. 3,527,927 Dated Sept. 8, 1970 Inventor(s) W. J. BIJLEVELD et al It is certified that error appears in the above-identified patent and that said Letters Patent are hereby corrected as shown below:
Column 6, line 21, "Scannngs" should read Scanners line 39, "recorder" Should read recorded line 47, "hundred" (first occurrence) should read honderd line 57, "recorder" should read recorded --5 line 58, "f1.," should read fl1., line 6l, "notable" should read notably line 65, before "amount" insert the Column 7, line 11, "acount" should read amount; line 37, "staton" should read station line 47, "ohter" should read other Column 8, line 4, "stations" should read statonS line l0, "V3" should read V3 SGW ANU LI in M970 (SEAL) Attest:
I mm E. suumm, JR.
I Attesling Offl Gomssioxmlof Patente J