|Publication number||US3530059 A|
|Publication date||Sep 22, 1970|
|Filing date||May 17, 1968|
|Priority date||May 17, 1968|
|Publication number||US 3530059 A, US 3530059A, US-A-3530059, US3530059 A, US3530059A|
|Inventors||Foroulis Zisis Andrew|
|Original Assignee||Exxon Research Engineering Co|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (3), Referenced by (4), Classifications (9)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
"United States Patent 3,530,059 ARYL-SUBSTITUTED ALIPHATHC ALDEHYDES AS CORROSION INHIBITORS Zisis Andrew Foroulis, East Orange, N..l., assignor to Esso Research 8: Engineering Company, a corporation of Delaware No Drawing. Filed May 17, 1968, Ser. No. 729,926 Int. Cl. C23f 9/00, 11/00 US. Cl. 20847 21 Claims ABSTRACT OF THE DISCLOSURE BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION This invention relates to the prevention of corrosion of metals by aqueous acidic solutions, and more particularly to the prevention of corrosion of chemical and petroleum process equipment which is subjected to corrosive attack by aqueous acidic solutions in a nonoxidizing atmosphere as a result of condensation of water containing dissolved acidic substances.
Various acidic substances which are present in petroleum refining operations cause corrosion of metals with which they come in contact. Examples of destructive inorganic compounds include hydrochloric acid, sulfuric acid, sulfur dioxide, and hydrogen sulfide. Organic compounds causing corrosion include acetic acid, phenolic compounds, naphthenic acids, and aliphatic and naphthenic organic chlorides. Corrosioncausing acids enter the hydrocarbon process streams in petroleum refineries in various ways. For example, crude oils generally contain naphthenic acids. The organic chlorides do not usually occur naturally in crude oil, but are sometimes added by producers for removal of paraffin deposits in producing wells and pipelines. These tend to hydrolyze in the presence of water to produce hydrochloric acid. Hydrogen sulfide is formed in catalytic desulfurization processes using hydrogen, in which various hydrocarbon feedstocks including virgin and cracked naphthas, as well as gas oils, containing such impurities as mercaptans, disulfides, and thiophenes, are catalytically reacted with hydrogen in order to reduce their sulfur content. Sulfuric acid and sulfur dioxide are both procesing reagents, the former being used as an alkylation catalyst and the latter as an extractant for the removal of aromatics from hydrocarbon feedstocks. Hydrochloric acid and hydrogen chloride may result from several sources, including the hydrolysis of organic chlorides, hydrolysis of salt which is mixed with crude oil as a result of the use of brine in oil production operations, and as a result of hydrolysis of chlorine gas which is used in the regeneration of platinum reforming catalysts.
Acidic substances such as the foregoing will cause severe corrosion of the metals from which conventional petroleum refining equipment is constructed. Carbon steels, such as 1020 carbon steel containing 0.2% carbon, are used predominantly as materials of construction. While it would be possible to fabricate refinery equipment from steels which are less prone to corrosive attack, such as stainless steel and special alloy steels, the cost of 3,536,059 Patented Sept. 22, 1970 such equipment would be inordinately high and would make any process being conducted with such equipment uneconomical.
Corrosion in petroelum process streams is particularly troublesome in equipment, such as condensers and heat exchangers, where condensation of water takes place. Water vapor is invariably present, both in hydrocarbon process streams and in regenerator gas streams, as is well known. When this water condenses, acidic gas present in the process stream, such as hydrogen chloride, hydrogen sulfide, sulfur dioxide, and carbon dioxide, dissolve in the condensate and attack metal equipment. Such attack occurs in hydrocarbon process streams containing only trace amounts of oxygen or none at all, since the metal is oxidized by the hydrogen ions of the acid.
The overhead stream from an atmospheric pipestill is one example of a petroleum process stream containing acidic gases. Such a stream generally contains hydrogen chloride as well as organic chlorides. Upon condensation of this overhead stream, hydrogen chloride is dissolved in the water condensate and the quantity of hydrogen chloride is augmented by hydrolysis of a portion of the organic chlorides present. This condensate attacks the condenser surfaces.
Another location where corrosion may occur is on the downstream side of a hydrotreating unit. The effluent from a hydrotreater may contain water vapor, hydrogen chloride, and hydrogen sulfide. In. typical operations this effluent is condensed and the hydrogen sulfide removed. Corrosion is prone to take place in the condenser and the hydrogen sulfide stripper.
Acidic atmospheres are also found frequently during the regeneration of catalyst for hydroforming and other catalytic hydrogenation processes. It is necessary to prevent corrosion as a result of these acid gases while at the same time avoiding any significant adverse effect on catalyst activity as a result of contact of the catalyst with a corrosion inhibitor. This is. particularly important in the case of hydroforming catalysts where the catalysts are expensive and where it is extremely crucial, from a process economy point of view, to extend the catalyst life as long as possible.
One possible technique for inhibiting corrosion by acids is to neutralize the acid with a base. However, such a solution would not be practical because there is a tremendous daily throughput of feed streams through petroleum or chemical processes which contain acidic materials, thereby requiring a correspondingly large amount of base for neutralization. A further problem arises from the fact that the most likely bases for use in such neutralizations would be either organic nitrogen compounds or ammonia. Nitrogen, however, is a severe poison for many petroleum conversion catalysts such as reforming catalysts. Its use would, therefore be contraindicated in any fluid stream which would eventually contact such conversion catalysts. It is thus evident that a meaningful answer to the problem facing the petroleum industry would not be based on neutralization or removal of the acidic corrosive agents in the feed stream since such techniques would either be prohibitively expensive or would result in deactivation of reforming catalysts. Instead, it is necessary to provide a corrosion inhibitor whose effectiveness does not depend on neutralization of acid. present and which does not adversely aifect the catalyst to any significant degree, if at all.
SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION It has been found that corrosion of metals by acids can be markedly inhibited by the presence of an aryl-substituted aliphatic aldehyde having the formula Ar(CH CI-IO 3 Where AI is an aryl radical and n is an integer having a value of 1 to 5. Ordinarily the aryl radical contains not more than two rings. In a preferred embodiment Ar is a monocyclic aryl radical. These compounds are particularly effective in inhibiting corrosion by aqueous acids in non-oxidizing atmospheres.
DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION A preferred corrosion inhibitor according to this invention is beta-phenylpropionaldehyde, which has the formula CH2OH2OHO Other aryl-substituted aliphatic aldehydes can also be used effectively as corrosion inhibitors. Such compounds include phenylacetaldehyde, gamma phenylbutyraldehyde, delta phenylvaleraldehyde, o hydroxyphenylacetaldehyde, p hydroxyphenylacetaldehyde, o hydroxyphenylpropionaldehyde, p tolyl beta phenylpropionaldehyde, and beta-naphthyl-beta-propionaldehyde. Compounds in which the aryl radical contains more than two rings are generally not useful since such compounds ordinarily have water solubilities too low to provide an effective corrosion-inhibiting concentration. The presence of long chain alkyl substituents which markedly decrease solubility should also be avoided. On the other hand, compounds having a substantial water solubility are also poor inhibitors for preventing corrosion by acids. Desired water solubility can be achieved in compounds having both solubilizing and insolubilizing groups. Best results are obtained with compounds which are substantially, but not completely, water insoluble. Referring to the general structural formula for inhibitors of this invention, the preferred aryl radical Ar is phenyl and the preferred value of n is 2.
Araliphatic aldehydes of this invention are better corrosion inhibitors than aromatic aldehydes having the same number of rings in which the CH group is attached directly to the aromatic nucleus. As an illustration, betaphenylpropionaldehyde is far superior to benzaldehyde as a corrosion inhibitor.
The inhibitors of this invention may be used effectively in widely varying concentrations. Effective inhibition is obtained in concentrations ranging from about moles per liter up to about 0.5 mole per liter in the aqueous acidic phase. Actually, there is no upper limit on the effectiveness of the inhibitors of this invention, and the maximum concentration is limited only by the solu bility of the compound. However, concentrations in excess of 0.5 m./l. do not give inhibitory action substantially greater than that obtained at concentrations under 0.5 m./l.
The araliphatic aldehydes of this invention function most effectively in a non-oxidizing atmosphere. The atmosphere may be either inert, e.g., a nitrogen atmosphere, or reducing, e.g., a hydrocarbon gas atmosphere. These aldehydes offer more effective protection against corrosion by non-oxidizing acids than against corrosion by oxidizing acids. Oxidation of the aldehyde to the corresponding acid may occur in the presence of an oxidizing acid or an oxidizing atmosphere.
Any metals which are subject to acid attack in a nonoxidizing atmosphere can be protected with the inhibitors of this invention. These inhibitors are particularly useful for protection of ferrous metals, and especially low carbon steel, such as 1020 carbon steel (containing 0.2% carbon). Low carbon steels are ideal for construction of petroleum processing equipment from the standpoint of cost and other significant qualities such as strength and their ability to withstand the process stream temperatures. The princi pal drawback to low carbon steel is its susceptibility to acid corrosion, and problems arising from this are substantially obviated by the use of the inhibitors of this invention.
Non-oxidative corrosion by acids is ordinarily a problem where the pH of the acidic solution is about 4 or lower. The aldehyde inhibitors of this invention offer excellent protection even in solutions which are decidedly on the acid side, e.g., those having a pH of 1 or lower.
A few types of apparatus used in the petroleum processing industry will be cited as examples of apparatus which may be protected against corrosion according to this invention. One such type of apparatus is the regeneration circuit used in hydroforming. It is necessary in hydroforming to use a catalyst having a small chloride content. During regeneration coke is burned from the catalyst, producing an effluent which has a fair concentration of CO and small quantities of S0 and S0 During this step, the chlorides to be found in the gas vapor will increase due to an increase in water content of the gas which serves to strip chlorine off the catalyst. The second step is to remove any water left on the catalyst. This means thorough drying of the flue gas, which is a mixture of nitrogen, CO CO, S0 S0 and HCl. After most of the water has been removed, chlorination is started in a manner such that chlorine will be progressively absorbed by the catalyst. During the subsequent rejuvenation of the catalyst to rearrange the crystal structure, some chlon'ne will still be carried over with the flue gas. The last step in the regeneration operation is purging the stream with nitrogen, an inert gas, to remove air and finally pressure up with hydrogen. The inhibitor of the instant invention is injected into the hydroformer regenerating gas stream either continuously throughout the regeneration cycle or by intermittent high rate injection of inhibitor at the same total amount per regeneration cycle. The presence of the inhibitor serves to reduce or minimize corrosion in heat exchange equipment and transfer lines where water condensate, containing the acidic components mentioned previously, accumulates. The inhibitor compound is adsorbed on the metal surface and minimizes corrosion by markedly lowering the rate of corrosion reactions. As indicated earlier, the presence of aryl substituted aliphatic aldehydes, preferably in the absence of oxygen, serves to inhibit the corrosion effects of various acid base corrosion causing substances. An inert gas, e.g. nitrogen, is present and, in addition, corrosive substances such as hydrogen sulfide, hydrochloric acid, and sulfuric acid are present. The addition of an aryl substituted aliphatic aldehyde serves to minimize corrosion with no adverse effect on the platinum or palladium catalyst.
Another area where corrosion in an inert atmosphere is widespread and has a deleterious efiect is hydrotreating. Substantial quantities of hydrogen sulfide are produced in the hydrotreater by reduction of sulfur compounds such as mercaptans, disulfides, and thiophene. This causes corrosion in the presence of water condensate. Also present is hydrogen chloride, which may result from the decomposition of organic chlorides such as carbon tetrachloride and trichloroethylene in the process stream, or from the hydroformer treat gas which contains HCl from decomposition of the chlorine treated catalyst base. In any event, the hydrotreater efliuent condenser and other overhead equipment has been plagued with problems instigated by the presence of hydrogen chloride. Again, corrosion is greatly reduced by the injection of an araliphatic aldehyde into the process stream.
An advantage of the aldehydes of this invention is that they do not poison platinum catalysts, as do inhibitors containing nitrogen or sulfur. The hydrotreater efiiuent is frequently passed through a platinum catalyst bed in a hydroformer, and in those cases it is imperative to avoid corrosion inhibitors which could poison the platinum catalyst.
A significant advantage of the use of corrosion inhibitors is that it is possible to use inexpensive construction materials such as low carbon steel, instead of costly corrosion resistant alloy steels which would render the cost of the process prohibitive.
In both of the above illustrations, the oxygen content of the process stream is substantially nil. Best results are obtained with the corrosion inhibitors herein described when little or no oxygen is present.
While ferrous metals have been cited as an illustrative example of metals which can be protected according to this invention, it should be understood that other metals and alloys, such as nickel, zinc, brass, and copper, may also be protected. While copper is more resistant to acid attack in a non-oxidizing atmosphere than the other metals and alloys mentioned, nevertheless it may be prone to slight attack by strong acids, and such attack is mitigated by aliphatic aldehyde corrosion inhibitors.
The problem of corrosion attack is most severe in those units, such as condensers, heat exchangers, and transfer lines, where water condenses. The acid gases present in the process stream are dissolved in the condensate, and attack the metal process equipment. It has been found that the corrosion inhibitors herein are effective under the entire temperature range in which water is present in the liquid phase. Since some processes are run at high pressure, the actual temperature may be considerably above the atmospheric boiling point of water; nevertheless, the inhibitors do not lose their effectiveness at such temperatures. Likewise, they remain eifective at low temperatures down to 32 F.
The inhibitor is preferably injected into the process stream just a short distance upstream for best results. This mitigates loss of the inhibitor, and also protects the inhibitor from decomposition from high temperatures which prevail in some units of process streams.
While the mechanism for the inhibiting action of araliphatic aldehydes such as beta-phenylpropionaldehyde is not completely understood, the following explanation is offered for the purpose of illustration and as an aid in understanding the invention, and should not be taken as limiting the scope of the invention in any manner. The corrosion additive is believed to be adsorbed on the metal surface in the form of a continuous or nearly continuous thin film. This film would serve to inhibit any chemical or electrochemical interaction between the acidic corrosive material in solution and the metal surface. The very small quantities of inhibitor that are utilized to form this thin film are not believed to undergo any significant chemical reaction with the acidic corrosive material. Thus, only small amounts of additional inhibitor would be necessary to maintain long term protection on metal surfaces, these additions being possibly necessitated by attrition losses due to physical interactions of the flowing stream with the film.
As previously noted, the corrosion inhibitor should not be markedly water soluble, nor should it be substantially completely insoluble. In short, the water solubility must be enough to establish an effective concentration, which as earlier noted is generally at least m./l. in the aqueous acidic phase.
The present invention will be more fully understood with reference to the following specific examples. It is understood that these examples are illustrations of specific embodiments of this invention and are not to be taken as limitations.
EXAMPLE 1 This example illustrates the efficacy of beta-phenylpropionaldehyde as an inhibitor of acid induced corrosion of 1020 carbon steel exposed to 0.1 N hydrochloric acid, which has a pH of l. Corrosion rates were measured by weight loss of carbon steel specimens having a size of approximately 1" x 4" x 4;", and a surface area of approximately 58 square centimeters. The specimens were abraded through 4-0 emery paper, degreased in benzene, and washed in distilled water. Immediately after drying, the specimens were weighed and placed in a corrosion cell and immersed in the corrosive solution. Each of the corrosive solutions, except those used for control purposes, contained a predetermined concentration of betaphenylpropionaldehyde. The amount of corroded metal was determined by weight loss. The corrosion cell was basically a 2000 ml. Erlenmeyer flask with a special top to permit entrance and exit of nitrogen for deaeration and to prevent air contamination. The cell had a removable chimney with Pyrex hooks from which the metal specimens were suspended. The corrosive solution was deaerated with nitrogen before a run. Nitrogen was also bubbled through the solution continuously during a run to prevent contamination with air. A constant temperature was achieved by the use of constant temperature oil bath. All runs were carried out for two days at a constant temperature of 25 C.
The results of representative experiments utilizing the above procedure are summarized below in Table I. In this table, corrosion rate in milligrams per square deci meter per day (mg./dm. /day or mdd.) and percentage inhibitor efficiency (which equals where I is the corrosion rate without inhibitor and I, is the corrosion rate with inhibitor) are given for various concentrations of inhibitor in moles per liter (m./l.).
This example demonstrates the corrosion inhibition properties of beta-phenylpropionaldehyde to control corrosion of 1020 carbon steel in a catalytic reformer re generation circuit condensate. The pH of this solution was 0.5 and the temperature of the test was 100 C. This represents an extremely corrosive environment for carbon steel. With the exception of solution identity and temperature, the procedure utilized was that of Example 1. The time of testing in this instance was about 2 days. The average corrosion rate of steel test specimens exposed to solutions containing 10- m./l. of beta-phenylpropionaldehyde was 277 mg./dm. /day (mdd.), while the average corrosion rate of steel test specimens exposed to solutions containing no inhibitor was 41,114 mdd. This represents an inhibitor efficiency of 99.5%.
EXAMPLE 3 This example illustrates the eflicacy of phenylacetaldehyde as an inhibitor of acid induced corrosion of 1020 carbon steel exposed to 0.1 N hydrochloric acid, which has a pH of 1. The procedure utilized was that of Example 1. The results of representative experiments utilizing the above procedure are summarized below in Table II.
TABLE II Inhibitor Corrosion Percent concentration, rate (mdd.), inhibitor m./l. mgJdmfl/day efficiency Phenylacetaldehyde, although an excellent corrosion inhibitor, is not quite as elfective as betaphenylpropionaldehyde, as comparison of Tables I and II shows. At any given concentration of inhibitors, efiicacy increases with increasing length of the aliphatic side chain. However, when the side chain contains more than about 6 carbon atoms the solubility of the compound is so low that an effective inhibitory concentration cannot be obtained.
While this invention has been particularly described with reference to petroleum processing streams, it will be understood that similar acid corrosion problems may also occur in chemical processing equipment and in containers for storage and shipment of acidic materials. Such equipment and containers can also be protected with the corrosion inhibitors of this invention.
What is claimed is:
1. A process for inhibiting corrosion of a metal by an aqueous acidic solution which comprises adding to said solution a corrosion inhibiting amount of a compound having the formula Ar(CH CHO where Ar is an aryl radical and n is an integer having a value of l to 5.
2. A process according to claim 1 in which Ar is a monocyclic aryl radical.
3. A process according to claim 1 in which A1 is phenyl.
4. A process according to claim 1 in which n equals 2.
5. A process according to claim 1 in which the compound is beta-phenylpropionaldehyde.
6. A process according to claim 1 in which the metal is a ferrous metal.
7. A process according to claim 1 in which said solution and the surrounding atmosphere are non-oxidizing.
8. A process according to claim 1 in which said solution has a pH not greater than about 4.
9. A process according to claim 1 in which said cor rosion inhibiting compound is present in a concentration of about 10- m./l. to about 0.5 m./l. in the aqueous acidic solution.
10. A process according to claim 1 in which said acidic solution is a condensate in a hydrocarbon process stream.
11. A process according to claim 1 in which said corrosion inhibiting compound is added to a hydrocarbon process stream upstream of the area to be protected.
12. A process for inhibiting acid induced corrosion in a metal vessel containing hydrocarbonaceous fluids containing acidic corrosive agents, said process comprising adding a compound having the formula Ar(CH CHO where Ar is an aryl radical and n is an integer having a value of 1 to 5.
13. A process according to claim 12 in which Ar is a monocyclic aryl radical.
14. A process according to claim 11 wherein said vessel carries a hydrocarbon process stream.
15. An aqueous acidic solution inhibited against corrosive attack on metals, said solution comprising water, an acidic substance normally tending to cause corrosion of metals, and a small but efiective amount of a corrosion inhibiting compound having the formula Ar (CH CHO Where Ar is an aryl radical and n is an integer having a value of 1 to 5.
16. A solution according to claim 15 in which Ar is a monocyclic aryl radical.
17. A solution according to claim 15 having a pH not greater than about 4.
18. A solution according to claim 15 in which said compound is present in a concentration of about 10" m./l. to about 0.5 m./l.
19. A solution according to claim 15 in which Ar is phenyl.
20. A solution according to claim 15 in which n equals .2.
21. A solution according to claim 15 in which said compound is beta-phenylpropionaldehyde.
References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 2,415,161 2/1947 Camp 20847 2,571,739 10/1951 Marsh 21--2.5 2,965,577 12/1960 Heimann et al 252-148 DELBERT E. GANTZ, Primary Examiner G. E. SCHMITKONS, Assistant Examiner US. Cl. X.R.
|Cited Patent||Filing date||Publication date||Applicant||Title|
|US2415161 *||Apr 19, 1945||Feb 4, 1947||Standard Oil Dev Co||Prevention of corrosion|
|US2571739 *||Oct 28, 1949||Oct 16, 1951||Pure Oil Co||Prevention of corrosion of structural metals by hydrogen sulfide, air, and water|
|US2965577 *||Feb 1, 1957||Dec 20, 1960||Technion Res & Dev Foundation||Corrosion inhibitor composition and method of using same|
|Citing Patent||Filing date||Publication date||Applicant||Title|
|US4734259 *||Nov 22, 1985||Mar 29, 1988||Dowell Schlumberger Incorporated||Mixtures of α,β-unsaturated aldehides and surface active agents used as corrosion inhibitors in aqueous fluids|
|US6180057||Jun 19, 1998||Jan 30, 2001||Nalco/Exxon Energy Chemicals L.P.||Corrosion inhibiting compositions and methods|
|US6399547 *||Feb 24, 2000||Jun 4, 2002||Schlumberger Technology Corporation||Well treatment fluids comprising mixed aldehydes|
|US20050123437 *||Dec 3, 2003||Jun 9, 2005||Cassidy Juanita M.||Methods and compositions for inhibiting metal corrosion|
|U.S. Classification||208/47, 422/12, 252/396, 422/7, 208/48.0AA|
|International Classification||C23F11/12, C23F11/10|