|Publication number||US3530618 A|
|Publication date||Sep 29, 1970|
|Filing date||Oct 9, 1968|
|Priority date||Oct 9, 1968|
|Publication number||US 3530618 A, US 3530618A, US-A-3530618, US3530618 A, US3530618A|
|Original Assignee||Panascope Inc|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (4), Referenced by (27), Classifications (8)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
pt 9, 1910 A. GROSSMM 3,530,618
COMPOSITE DOOR AND WINDOW CONSTRUCTION Filed Oct. 9, 1968 4 Sheets-Sheet 1 ABRAHAM 612055444 MAHo/us Ham/5A K5? 6: 5CH/CK Arm/2M5 Y5 Se t. 29, 1970 GRQSSMAN 3,530,618
' COMPOSITE DOOR AND WINDOW CONSTRUCTION FildOct. 9, 1968 4 Sheets-Sheet ABRAHAM GROSS/WAN N MAHoA/EY, HOEA/BAKER 8c SCH/CK ATTORNEYS v p 29, 1970 A. GROSSMAN 3,530,618
COMPOSITE DOOR AND WINDOW CONSTRUCTION Filed 1968 4 Sheets-Sheet 5 Z) ,4
( I FIG. 4.
, 75 7 M5204 "2/4 i Z 222 WWW 1 i f A---224 N5 7 1 /NVEA/R ABRAHAM GROSS/WAN 5y 2 MAHONEY, HORA/BAKEE & SCH/CK A TTORNEYS Sept. 29, 1970 A. GROSSMAN 3,530,618 7 I COMPOSITE DOOR AND WINDOW CONSTRUCTION I Filed Oct. 9, 1968 4 Sheets-Sheet 4.
M6 wa M/VEA/TOR ABRAHAM G/2055MAN 5y MA/mA/Ey, HORA/BA H52 8: 5CH/CK ATTOENE Y5 United States Patent Ofice Patented Sept. 29, 1970 US. Cl. 49--501 6 Claims ABSTRACT OF THE DISCLOSURE A fenestration device, such as a sliding door or window is provided with a composite frame and sash construction. The frame includes jamb and head members constituted by flexible sheaths formed of polyvinyl chloride or similar plastic and incorporating reinforcing means and the sash includes a plurality of reinforcing members encompassed in flexible sheaths of polyvinyl chloride plastic. The relationship between the plastic and the metallic elements of the frame is such that a weather-block construction is providedwhich prevents the conduction of external ambient temperatures through the metal reinforcements to the interior of the frame. The same weather-block construction is incorporated in the sash since no direct conduction of ambient temperatures is possible. Furthermore, the reinforcing members of the sash are fabricated from a plurality of sheet metal elements which are positively connected to each other and the sheath means for the reinforcing members is operatively connected to the reinforcing members in such a manner that, when the components of the sash are assembled, relative expansion between the sheath means and the metallic reinforcing members is permitted. In addition, since none of the sheath means are positively connected to each other at their extremities, there is no necessity for welding or covering or securing the adjacent extremities of the sheath means where they happen to be located in contiguity to one another.
BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION One of the major problems encountered in the utilization of metallic fenestration devices, such as aluminum doors and windows, where low temperatures are encountered is the fact that the aluminum components of the doors and windows are thermally conductive. Consequently, when low external temperatures are encountered these temperatures are conducted to the inner surfaces of the aluminum components of the doors and windows causing the accumulation of condensate thereupon which runs down the aluminum components and accumulates in pools on the adjacent floors of the building in which the aluminum doors and windows are installed causing considerable damage and unsightly stains.
In an effort to avoid this problem, sliding doors and windows have been fabricated from wood components but serious difficulties have been encountered with Warping in the larger size doors and windows. In addition, the larger size doors and windows are of considerable size and weight which militates against their being easily opened and closed.
Another approach to the problem has been the fabrication of doors and windows incorporating metallic reinforcements and having plastic covers on the reinforcements with the ends of the plastic covers being bonded together at the corners by fusion of the plastic material through heat or plasticizers to create a unitary plastic frame. One of the major difficulties encountered with this type of construction is that, when relative expansion takes place between the metallic reinforcement and the plastic covers, there is a tendency for the covers to separate at the corners where they have been previously joined because of the greater coefiicient of expansion of the metal lic reinforcements. In addition, such prior art devices have been characterized by the fact that the metallic reinforcements actually act as conductors to conduct ambient temperatures into areas of the internal structure where condensation thereupon can occur.
OBJECTS AND SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION It is, therefore, an object of my invention to provide a composite door and window construction which includes frame and sash members which incorporate plastic sheaths encompassing metallic reinforcing elements. The plastic sheaths of the frame and sash have their opposite extremities disposed in internested relationship to avoid the necessity for positive securement of said extremities to one another. Consequently, when differential expansion between the sheaths and the reinforcing elements occurs there is no tendency on the part of the sheaths to buckle or tear away from the reinforcing elements.
An additional object of my invention is the provision of composite construction of the aforementioned character wherein the composite sash construction has the reinforcing members thereof fixedly and positively secured to one another at adjacent extremities and wherein the sheaths encompassing the reinforcing members are disposed in internested relationship to eliminate the necessity for positive afiixation of the sheaths to one another.
A further object of my invention is the provision of a composite frame construction incorporating weather-block means to prevent the direct conduction of ambient temperatures into the internal surfaces of the frame for positive accumulation of condensate thereupon.
An additional object of my invention is the provision of a frame of the aforementioned character wherein the weather-block means is constituted by a frame constructed in such a manner that all of the metallic reinforcing element surfaces of the frame are isolated from contact with the internal atmosphere of a room or other enclosure by the plastic sheaths of the frame so that direct thermal transmission through the metallic reinforcing elements of the frame into the interior of the room is forestalled.
An additional object of the invention is the provision of a fenestration device of the aforementioned character wherein the sheaths can be fabricated from polyvinyl chloride plastic or any equivalent material so long as the material is sufficiently structurally stable to permit its day to day utilization in the door and window environment.
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS FIG. 1 is a front evalational view of a sliding door incorporating the teachings of the invention;
FIG. 2 is a rear elevational view of the door incorporating the teachings of the invention;
FIG. 3 is a transverse sectional view taken on the broken line 33 of FIG. 1;
FIG. 4 is a vertical sectional view taken on the broken line 44 of FIG. 1;
FIG. 5 is an exploded isometric view showing the relationship between the rail and stiles of the sash at the corner thereof;
FIG. 6 is an exploded isometric view showing the the relationship between the still and the jambs of the frame of the door.
Referring to the drawings and particularly to FIGS. 14 thereof, I show a sliding door construction 10 incorporating the teachings of the invention and including a parametrical frame member 12 which is adapted to' be inserted in a corresponding opening in a structure, not shown.
The frame includes a head 14 parallel jamb members 16 and a sill 18. Each of the frame elements is secured by means of screws or similar fasteners to a corresponding wooden or similar support 20. Since the backs of the head 14 and jambs 16 are flat correspondingly fiat boards may be utilized. However, since the underside of the sill 18 incorporates a variety of depressions and projections, the supporting board 22 therefor must be correspondingly configured, in a manner to be described in greater detail below.
In any event, when the elements of the frame 12 are shipped from the factory, they have secured to the rear or back thereof the supporting boards 20 and 22 respectively. Consequently, when the frame elements are assembled in the field the boards can be fastened to each other or to the contiguous structure of the opening in the building in which the door or window is to be installed.
The head 14 is of composite construction and includes an external sheath 30 which may be fabricated from any suitable synethtic plastic material such as polyvinyl chloride. The sheath 30 incorporates channels 32 for a screen, 34 for a fixed sash, and 36 for a movable sash.
The outer surface of the sheath which is oriented to the exterior of the building is constituted by a leg 38 having a return 42 provided thereupon defining a reinforcing element receiving recess 44 which is inwardly oriented toward the channel 32.
A common leg 48 is provided between the channels 32 and 34 and also has a return 52 provided therein which is oriented toward the interior of the structure in which the door is located. Another common leg 54 delimits the channels 34 and 36 and is provided with a return 56 which is oriented toward the exterior of the door. The interior leg 58 also includes a return 62.
A right angularly formed sheet metal reinforcing element 66 is supported in the spaces defined by the return 42 and the bead or flange 46. A U-shaped sheet metal reinforcing element 68 is correspondingly supported in the returns 52 and 56. It will be noted that the inner leg 72 of the sheet metal reinforcement is oriented away from and isolated from the interior of the building by the leg 54 which provides a weather-block forestalling the possibility of thermal communication between the ambient and interior atmospheres to which the door is subjected.
A right angularly formed sheet metal reinforcing element 74 is mounted in the return 62. Again it will be noted that, when the door is closed, in a manner to be described in greater detail below, the leg 76 of the reinforcing element 74 is isolated from thermal communication with the interior atomsphere by the depending interior leg 58 of the sheath 30. V
In the above described manner, thermal blocks are created which prevent the formation of condensation upon the inner surfaces of the frame and eliminate the undesirable accumulation of condensate in the room adjacent the door.
The two jambs 16 are identical in configuration and incorporate screen channels 82 fixed sash channels 84 and movable sash channels 86. An outer leg 88 on each jamb incorporates a return 92 for the reception of a reinforcing element 94 of right angular configuration. An intermediate leg 98 incorporates a return 102 for the reception of one leg of a U-shaped reinforcing element 104. The opposite leg of the reinforcing element 104 is received in a return 106 provided on a leg 108. A right-angularly shaped reinforcing element 114 has one leg received in a return 116 on the inner leg 118 of the sheath.
The same weather-block action as achieved by the sheath 30 of the head 14 is achieved by the sheath incorporated in the jamb 16.
When the upper extremities of the jambs and head are assembled the returns on the legs 38, 48, 54 and 58,
namely, the returns 42, 52, 56 and 62 are cut back, as
4 best shown in FIG. 6 of the drawing, to permit the plastic sheaths of the jamb 16 and the head 14 to be internested.
Consequently, as best shown in FIG. 6 of the drawings, when the corresponding extremities of the head 14 and the jambs 16 are disposed in internested relationship, the sheath 30 may expand differentially with respect to the reinforcing elements incorporated in the head 14 and the sheath of the jambs 16 may correspondingly expand with respect to the reinforcing elements incorporated therein since there is no positive connection between the adjacent and contiguous internested extremities of the reinforcing elements or the sheaths therefor.
The sill 18, as best shown in FIG. 4 of the drawings, includes a sheath 120 formed from polyvinyl chloride plastic material, said sheath having an exterior lip 122, an upstanding screen track 124, a pair of retention grooves 126 and a track receiving slot 128 which are received in corresponding recesses in the supporting board 22. An elongated metallic or nylon track member 132 is slidably engaged in the track receiving slot 128. An interior elongated upstanding leg 134 is provided on the sill sheath 120 and has a return 136 formed upon the upper extremity thereof for the reception of a reinforcing and kickplate 138 formed from sheet metal. The return 136 has an upwardly directed extension 142 thereupon for the reception in a slip joint of the lower extremity of the inner leg 88 of each jamb 16.
Consequently, the sill sheath 120 also serves a weatherblocking function in that there is no possibility of thermal communication being created between the ambient and interior temperatures to which the sill is subjected. Consequently, the frame structure of the door is completely weatherblocked and deleterious thermal communication between the exterior and interior surfaces of the frame is prevented.
While the frame elements and components have been described as incorporating sheaths formed of polyvinyl chloride plastic material and as incorporating sheet metal reinforcing elements, it will be apparent to those skilled in the art that substitutions of materials may take place without materially deviating from the teachings and principles of the invention. For instance, any one of a wide range of extrudable plastic material may be utilized for the sheaths and suitable metal substitutes may be made for the sheet metal reinforcements.
To insure that the sill sheath 120 will not create a parting line with the sheath of the jamb 16, the sill sheath 120 and the supporting board 22 therefor are rabbetted into the lower extremity of the jamb 16 and supporting board 22, as best shown in FIG. 2 of the drawings.
Incorporated in the frame 12 of the door 10, as best shown in FIGS. 1-4 of the drawings, are a movable sash and a fixed sash 150. Of course, it is not intended that the teachings of the invention be limited to any combination of fixed or movable sashes since it is quite common to provide a multiple of movable and fixed sashes and doors of the type under consideration here.
The movable sash includes stiles 152 which are operatively connected to rails 154 in a manner to be described in greater detail below. Each of the stiles 152 incorporates a sheet metal reinforcing stile member 156 consisting of a pair of U-shaped elements 158 and 162. The element 162 being nested within the element 158 to define an elongated tubular space 164 and a correspondingly elongated channel 166. It will be noted that the dimensions of the stiles 152 are somewhat different but that the basic shape and assembly of the stile reinforcing member 156 and the elements 158 and 162 thereof are essentially the same.
The sheet metal reinforcing elements 158 and 162 of the stile reinforcing members 156 are spot welded or otherwise operatively secured to each other and the extremities of the legs 168 of the elements 162 lie inwardly of the extremities of the associated elements 158,
for a purpose which will be described in greater detail below.
Each of the stiles 152 is enshrouded in a sheath with the jamb stile having a sheath 170 of U-shaped configuration having returns 172 incorporated therein adapted to receive the inner extremities of the legs of the reinforcing element 158 to slidably secure the sheath 170 in operative relationship with the corresponding reinforcing member 156. A Weatherstrip receptacle 174 extends longitudinally of the sheath 170 for the reception of Weatherstrip 176 engageable with the corresponding leg 98 of the associated jamb sheath.
The interlocking stile includes a sheath 180 having returns 182 for the reception of the extremities of the legs of the reinforcing elements 158 and is provided with an interlocker 184 thereupon. A Weatherstrip receptacle 186 is disposed outwardly of the interlocker for the reception of Weatherstrip 188, as 'best shown in FIG. 3 of the drawings.
Elongated channel-shaped spacers 192 are insertable in the channel-shaped recesses 166 to facilitate the reception of a predetermined size of light in the recesses. The spacers 192 are provided with detents 194 which engage the returns 182 to maintain the spacers 192 in operative engagement with the stiles 152.
Each of the rails 154 of the movable sash 140 includes an elongated rail reinforcing member 202 which includes oppositely oriented U-shaped reinforcing elements 204 and 206. The reinforcing element 204 defines a glazing channel and the reinforcing element 206 defines a channel adapted to overlie the track 132 and to receive wheels or rollers 208 to permit the movable sash 140 to be readily translated on the track 132.
Secured in overlying relationship with the reinforcing members 202 are identical sheaths or shrouds 212 which incorporate returns 214 for the reception of the extremities of the associated reinforcing elements 204 and 206 and the sheaths incorporate Weatherstrip receptacles 216 for the reception of weatherstrips 218. Vinyl plastic Weatherstripping 222 is utilized to locate and retain a light or pane of glass 224 in opportune relationship with the stiles 152 and the rails 154.
The connection at the corners between the stiles 152 and rails 154 is best shown in FIG. of the drawings wherein the reinforcing elements 162 of the stiles 152 have been out back to provide a receptacle 230 at the lower extremity of the stile 152. A corresponding receptacle is provided at the upper extremity of the stiles 152 by the same expedient. Of course, the extremities of the plastic sheaths are also internested in the receptacles 230 inwardly of the Weatherstrip receptacles 216.
Consequently, there is no necessity for positively connecting the contiguous extremities of the sheaths 212 of the rails and the sheaths 170 and 180 of the stiles in a positive manner to each other since they are, in essence, internested within each other. Consequently, differential expansion between the reinforcing members of the stiles 152 and the rails 154 will not cause a gap between the contiguous extremities of the sheaths nor will it cause the sheaths to buckle or to break away from the reinforcing members.
A bracket 236 which can also mount a wheel or roller 208 is secured by screws 238 to the walls of the reinforcing members 156 of the stiles 152 and the reinforcing members 202 of the rails 154. Consequently, the only positive connection between the stiles 152 and the rails 154 is created between the reinforcing members rather than the non-load bearing sheaths.
The construction of the fixed sash 150 is essentially similar to the construction of the movable sash 140 in that the interlocking stile construction of the fixed sash is identical with the interlocking stile 152 of the movable sash. Therefore, this construction will not be described in detail.
However, the jamb stile of the fixed sash 150 is quite different from the jamb stile of the movable sash in that it incorporates a single U-shaped reinforcing element 244 which is encompassed by a correspondingly U-shaped sheath 246 having returns 248 for securing it in operative relationship with the reinforcing element 244.
The reinforcing members of the fixed sash rails are identical with the reinforcing members of the movable sash rails as can be readily perceived from a consultation of the FIG. 4 of the drawings. However, the sheaths 250 utilized in conjunction with the fixed sash rails include offset legs 252 which, in the case of the lower rails are adapted to fit into the receptacles 126 in the sill sheath and in the case of the upper rails are adapted to be juxtaposed to the adjacent returns 52 and 56 of the legs 48 and 54 of the sheath 30 of the head 43.
The legs also serve another important function in receiving channel shaped reinforcing strips 256 which prevent the legs from deflecting under load and which thus serve to rigidly support the fixed sash in operative engagement with the frame 12.
Provided for cooperation with the fixed sash and the sill sheath 120 is a threshold member 260 which has detents 262 formed upon the legs thereof adapted to be received and retained in the receptacles 126. A channel shaped reinforcing member 266 prevents deformation of the threshold and provides additional support for the same.
I thus provide by my invention a fenestration device equally adapted in its principles to the fabrication of doors or windows which eliminates the condensation problems commonly encountered in climates where significant temperature differentials exist between ambient and internal air. In addition, I provide composite frame and door constructions wherein all of the load is borne upon the reinforcing members of the various frame and sash elements so that the plastic sheaths associated therewith function only as insulative and decorative elements for the reinforcing members associated therewith. In addition, the frame and sash components of the fenestration device are provided with weather-block means which prevent thermal transmission between exterior and interior and thus eliminate thermal communication between the exterior and interior.
1. In a composite sash construction the combination of: a pair of rigid metallic stile members having their opposite extremities positively secured to a pair of rigid metallic rail members adjacent the extremities of said rails, each of said rigid metallic stile members being of composite sheet metal construction and including a channel element extending the full length of said stile and a reinforcing element located within said channel element, said reinforcing element having its opposite extremities terminating below the upper extremity of said channel element and above the lower extremity of said channel element to provide receptacles at said upper and lower extremities of said stile; and flexible sheath means encompassing said stile and rail members, said flexible sheath means of said rail members being internested with the extremities of said rigid metallic stile members "by the penetration of the opposite extremities of said rigid metallic rail members encompassed in said flexible sheath means into said receptacles, saidreceptacles having a width greater than the width of said metallic rail members to accommodate said rail sheath means, said sheath means being slidably engaged upon said stile and rail members to permit relative longitudinal movement between said sheath means and said stile and rail members when said sheath means, said stile and rail members expand differentially with respect to one another.
2. A composite sash construction in accordance with claim 1 wherein said sheath means are fabricated from polyvinyl chloride plastic material.
3. In a composite sash construction, the combination of: a pair of rigid metallic stile members each comprising a channel and a reinforcing element operatively connected to each other to cooperatively define adjacent elongated tubular and channel-shaped spaces and a pair of rigid metallic rail members each comprising first and second metal elements operatively connected with each other to provide oppositely oriented channel-shaped spaces, said stile members each having said reinforcing elements shorter than said channel element at the extremities thereof to provide receptacles at the opposite extremities of said stile members for the reception of the corresponding projecting extremities of said rail members in internested relationship and sheath means slidably encompassing said rail members and stile members with said sheath means of said rail members being located within said receptacles of said stile members, said sheath means being disposed in encompassing relationship with the exteriors of said stile and rail members, said sheath means having returns thereupon positively and slidably engaging the interior surfaces of said stile and rail members.
4. A composite sash construction of the character of claim 3 in which said sheath means is fabricated from polyvinyl chloride plastic material.
5. In a composite fenestration construction, the combination of: a frame, said frame including a head, a sill and a pair of oppositely oriented jambs interposed between said head and said sill, said head and said jambs including flexible sheath members slidably encompassing metal reinforcing elements, said metal reinforcing elements of said jambs and head being constituted by a plurality of separate metal shapes and said flexible sheath members including a plurality of projecting ribs, each incorporating at its outer edge a return for receiving the outer edge of an associated shape in internested relationship, and composite sash means mounted in said frame including rigid metal stile and rail reinforcement means positively secured to each other, said metal stile reinforcement means having receptacles at their opposite ends and slidably encompassed by resilient sheath means, the resilient sheath means encompassing the ends of said rail reinforcing means of said rails being located in said receptacle in contact with the metallic walls thereof.
6. A composite fenestration device of the character defined in claim 5 in which said sheath means of said frame and said sash are constituted of polyvinyl chloride plastic material.
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|U.S. Classification||49/501, 49/425, 52/844, 49/504|
|International Classification||E06B3/32, E06B3/46|