US 3530807 A
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United States Patent  Inventor Solomon Zalman, 466,092 12/1891 Edwards 1 10/1 19X 114-08 Rockaway Blvd., Rockaway Park, 2,688,943 9/1954 Wickland 1 10/1 19 New York 11694 2,702,013 2/1955 Atteberry 110/18  Appl. No. 819,812 3,323,475 6/1967 Melgaard 110/18 1  Filed April 28, 1969 Continuation-impart of Ser. No. 698,221, Primary Examiner- Kenneth W. Sprague Jan. 16, 1968, abandoned Anomey--Allison C. Collard  Patented Sept. 29, 1970  ANTI POLLUTION APPARATUS 9Claims7 Drawing Figs ABSTRACT: An antipollution apparatus for removing the v smoke particles from exhaust gases of an incinerator or fuel  U.S. Cl 110/8, burning apparatus, having a plurality f Spin] coils with Steam 19 jets mounted against the internal walls of the chimney ad-  Int. Cl .1 F23g 3/06 jacem to its opening and suppfied with Steam under pressure  Fleld of Search l lO/B, 18, As an incinerator, the apparatus also utilizes a gas burner for I 261/17 127 igniting the refuse articles, and an air blower having an air jet manifold for maintaining a high temperature of combustion  References cued within the incinerator. The apparatus also includes a control UNITED STATES PATENTS panel connected to a temperature dispensing device for 173,981 2/1876 May 261/126X operating the gas burner, and air blower to maintain a high 254,122 2/1882 Deyell 1 10/1 19X temperature of combustion within its combustion chamber.
Patented Sept. 29, 1970 3,530,807
IN VEN TOR. 50L0/70/V ZALMfl/V Patented Sept. 29,1970
Sheet (Q3 STEAM GENERATOR TO WATER OUTLET To WATER SUPPLY CONTRO L- VALVE TIL ' INVENTOR.
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co/vmoL 77 r0 W475i? SUPPLY BY Q M 1 ANTIPOLLUTION APPARATUS This is a continuation in part of application Ser. No. 698,221. filed on Jan. 16, 1968, entitled Steam Scrubber, now abandoned.
The present invention relates to air pollution devices, and more specifically, to a steam scrubbing device which includes circular coils at the edge of the chimney for spraying a volume of steam upon the emerging smoke so as to precipitate the smoke particles to reduce air pollution.
In incinerators and oil fired furnaces, it is known to utilize smoke precipitation devices such as electrostatic fields and steam spraying apparatus in order to eliminate smoke particles from the emerging exhaust gases. Electrically operated smoke precipitating devices are costly to install and expensive to operate and are often unreliable, particularly if they are not cleaned and maintained.
Accordingly, the present invention provides a steam scrubbing apparatus for scrubbing the smoke particles from the exhaust gases of an oil fired furnace or incinerator. The in vention includes a plurality of helical coils which are mounted against the internal walls at the outlet of the chimney and provided with a source of steam for saturating the exhaust gases prior to their entrance into the atmosphere. The invention may include further helical coils disposed at each floor level of the incinerator, and a steam generating source consisting of an additional helical coil disposed over the fire of the incinerator or furnace so that the apparatus of the invention provides its own source of steam from the fire generating the. pollutant gases. In a preferred embodiment of the invention, the steam generating coils of the scrubber are also connected to a central steam generating source or supply or steam which is utilized to heat the building and maintain building facilities.
It is a particular advantage of the present invention that it functions and operates in direct proportion as to amount of exhaust and in direct relation to the time during which an exhaust is emitted. The exhaust is produced, for example, by the burning of rubbish in an incinerator. Since the head of steam is produced by the head of this very burning, the greater the burning the greater the head of steam produced. As the refuse is consumed and the fire extinguished, no head of steam is produced and the steam scrubber of the present invention remains dormant until the fire is restarted and its effluent reemitted.
It is c|ear-that great economies are effected by the present invention. In one embodiment, no outside source of energy is required other than that already existing and polluting. It may be made compactly to fit the smallest source of pollution and to fit the smallest pocketbooks. Conversely, it may be made as large as space will permit and thereby control and eliminate great amounts of pollution.
It is therefore an object according to the present invention to provide a steam scrubbing apparatus which will precipitate smoke particles from the emerging exhaust gases of an incinerator or oil fired furnace.
It is a further object according to the present invention to provide a steam scrubbing apparatus which is simple in design, easy to construct, and efficient in operation.
Other objects and features of the present invention will become apparent from the following detailed description considered in connection with the accompanying drawings which disclose several embodiments of the present invention. It is to be understood, however, that the drawings are designed for the purpose of illustration only and not as a definition of the limits of the invention, as to which reference should be made to the appended claims.
In the drawing, wherein similar reference characters denote similar elements throughout the several views:
FIG. 1 is a frontal partial cross-sectional view of an incinerator showing the steam generating coil and the steam spray coil of the present invention.
FIG. 2 is an enlarged cross-sectional view of a steam spray coil ofthe present invention.
FIG. 3 is a frontal view, partly in phantom, of the steam generating coils and steam spray head of the present invention.
FIG. 4 is a view of a steam spray head as seen across line 44 of FIG. 3.
FIG. 5 is a frontal partial cross-sectional view of the steam generating coil and steam spray head of the present invention shown installed in another incinerator.
FIG. 6 is a further embodiment of the steam scrubbing apparatus for use in multi-level buildings, and
FIG. 7 is a dual chimney embodiment of" the steam scrubbing apparatus of the invention.
Referring to FIGS. l-5, the steam scrubber of the present invention comprises a tubular coil 20 located closely above a source of heat for the generation of steam from water therein. The steam spray head comprises a tubular coil which may be either helical as at 30 or spiral at 300 and which communicates through tube 40 with steam generating coil 20. The end of steam coil 20 is connected through pipe 92 to control valve 90. The input of control valve is connected through pipe 91 to the conventional water supply under pressure. Control valve 90 is a pressure control valve which permits water from the water supply to maintain a sufficient quantity of water within coil 20 at all times. Steam spray coil 30, 30a is perforated around'its inner periphery to provide orifices for directing the steam centrally to the column of rising exhaust in the chimney in which steam spray coil 30, 30a is located.
In the operation of the present invention, water entering steam generating coil 20 is vaporized by the heat of the adjacent incinerator fire or other heat sources, the resulting steam being forced through tube 40 to steam spray head 30, 30a and thence outwardly into the steam of rising exhaust. The steam collects around the pollutant particles in the exhaust stream and condenses thereon with each particle acting as a center or nucleus of condensation. The condensate with its trapped particles of pollution drops of its own weight where it is either consumed by'the incinerator fire if that fire be directly beneath the chimneyor collected for removal in an open-topped tank 50 if provided for the purpose beneath the chimney.
While the foregoing embodiments are illustrative of preferred forms of the present invention, it is clear that other forms and embodiments may be provided. For an example, it is basic of this invention that steam be sprayed at an outgoing pollution carrying stream. While methods may vary as to how the steam is actually sprayed, the foregoing has also provided a self-generating system which is preferred for its economy and effectiveness. The steam generator has been described as a tubular coil but it certainly is within contemplation to use any suitable heat exchanger which would vaporize the water. Further, the steam spray head has been described as a tubular coil but it is within contemplation to use any spray head which would effectively disperse the steam into and throughout the outgoing exhaust stream so as to be most effective in removing pollutants therefrom.
Referring to FIG. 6, there is shown another embodiment of the invention having a steam generator 110, with a temperature control 111, connected to its boiler, and a steam safety valve 112 for relieving excessively high pressures. Generator also includes a water inlet 113 regulated by valve 171 for supplying the boiler of the generator with a supply of water. Water can also be supplied directly to heat exchanger coil 175, through pipe 113 by opening valve 175. Coil 175 is mounted within the combustion chamber of the apparatus so as to be disposed over the incinerator fire. Therefore, heat coil 175, which is connected through tube 124 to coils 125 and 126, can also provide a source of steam to openings 127. It is therefore possible, under preferred operating conditions, to eliminate external sources of steam, and utilize the incinerator fire to generate the steam required for coils 125 and I26.
Referring briefly to FIG. 5, there is also shown a steam generator 93 coupled to pipe '40, in front of coil 20, by means of pipe 96. Between steam generator 93 and pipe 96, is connected a control valve 95, which maintains a constant supply of steam from input pipe 94, to pipe 40. in FIG. 6, the outlet 115 of generator 110 is connected through valve 116 to a T- connection 119. T-connection 119 permits steam generated by the heating system of the building containing the apparatus of the invention to be supplied by line 117, through valve 1 18 into T-connection 119. The outlet of T-connection 119 is connected through line 120 to T-connection 123. The steam may be tapped off the bottom of T-connection 123 by opening valve 121 leading to line 122. The output ofT-connection 123 is connected to line 124 for conducting the steam to tubular spiral coils 125 and 125 secured against the internal walls of the chimney. Tubular coil 125 consists of several spiral turns of a hollow tube which is mounted adjacent to the chimney outlet. At least one single turn of additional tubes 126, coupled to tube 125, are disposed at each level of the chimney. Tubes 12S and 126 include a plurality of steam jet openings 127 communicatively mounted into pipes 125, and directed toward the axial center of the chimney. With valves 118 and 121 maintained in a closed position, and with valve 116 open, steam produced by generator 110 and directed through pipes 115, 120, 124 and 125 will be directed out ofjet openings 127 toward exhaust gases which emerge from a rectangularlyshaped screen cage l30 which collects the smoke emerging from chimney 131. The smoke will spread throughout the area of the rectangular cage 130 before emerging through the screen and create a slight back pressure so that the steam emerging from openings 127 will have sufficient opportunity to saturate the smoke particles. The smoke particles 145 will precipitate upon contact with the condensed steam, and drop down chimney 131, as shown in the direction of arrow 147.
The incinerator is connected at the base of chimney 131, and includes slanted wall 139 connected to vertical wall 150, terminating at floor 144. The back wall 143, which rises from floor 144, is interrupted by a plurality of chutes 129, which are located at each floor of the building. Chutes 129 are provided with covers 128 which are hinged to the wall by means of hinges 132. Refuse articles may then be inserted into the incinerator by opening covers 128, and dropping them through chutes 129, into the interior of the incinerator. The incinerator also includes a shelf consisting of a grate 141, an inclined member 140 connected to the extending end of grate 141, and a step 142 joining incline member 140 to wall 143. Disposed above grate 141 is a gas burner 133 having a nozzle 134 directed through wall 150, for incinerating the refuse articles which gather on top of grate 141. As an alternate heating supply, the incinerator also includes an air pump 135 connected to a manifold 136 which is directed through wall 150, and includes the plurality of air jets 137 directed over gas burner 133 toward grate 141.
The air directed through jets 137 onto the burning refuse supported by grate 141 significantly increases the combustion temperature of the articles being incinerated. The increased temperature of combustion cuts down significantly on the amount of smoke which will be produced by the burning refuse in order to reduce the air pollution of the exhaust gases emerging from chimney 131. The incinerator of the invention is also provided with a temperature regulator 138 which maintains the temperature at or below l600F. within the combustion chamber of the incinerator. A control panel 151 is also provided connected to temperature control 138 by means of conductor l52. Control panel 151 is further connected to air pump 135 by means of connector 153, and to gas burner 133 by means of conductor 154. Temperature signals transmitted by temperature control 138 will cause control panel 151 to shut offair pump 135 and/or gas burner 133, if the temperature of the incinerated articles increases above l600F. in a similar manner, control panel 151 will also maintain gas burner 133 and air pump 135 turned on in the event the temperature of the combustion chamber of the incinerator decreases to a pre-dctermined low temperature.
Control panel 151 is also connected through conductor 155 to steam generator 110, and regulates the amount of steam supplied to steam jets 127 in accordance with the temperature of the combustion chamber.
Although the present invention has been described for use with incinerators, it is also obvious that it is equally adaptable for use with oil and coal burning equipment, commonly employed by heating and electrical generating plants. in this embodiment, the coal or oil burning equipment will be located in the combustion chamber of the incinerator together with the boiler so that the steam jet openings will be directed upon the smoke particles from the exhaust gases.
FIG. 7 shows a still further embodiment of the invention including a dual chimney 231 having a partition 200 so as to provide separate chambers within the chimney. Disposed in the larger of the chimney partition, adjacent to its outlet, is disposed a spiral steam coil 225 having a plurality of steam jet openings 227 which are directed toward the center of the chamber. Steam coil 225 is coupled to steam pipe 124 which is connected to steam generating sources such as those shown in H0. 6. Likewise, the smaller chamber of the chimney includes a spiral steam coil 325 which is coupled through steam pipe 124" which can also be connected to similar steam generating sources. The larger chamber of the chimney which includes steam coil 225 is connected to the incinerator portion of the building while the smaller chamber which includes steam coil 325 is connected to the heating plant for exhausting the fuel gases.
While only a few embodiments of the present invention have been shown and described, it will be understood that many changes and modifications may be made thereunto without departing from the spirit and scope of the invention.
1. An apparatus for coupling to a chimney for removing smoke particles from the chimney exhaust gases comprising:
a first tubular helical coil for disposal in the chimney and surrounding its internal walls and secured adjacent to its outlet;
a plurality of steam jet openings disposed in said first coil, said jet openings being directed toward the axis of the chimney;
at least a second tubular coil disposed within said chimney, said further coil including a plurality of steam jet openings directed toward the axis of the chimney; and
steam generation means for producing a quantity of steam under pressure and having one end coupled to said first tubular helical coil and said second tubular coil, said steam generation means comprising a third helical coil disposed at the base of the chimney and having its other end adapted for receiving a supply of water.
2. The apparatus as recited in claim 1 additionally comprising a fuel burner disposed at the base of the chimney.
3. The apparatus as recited in claim 2 additionally comprising an air blower, and an air manifold connected to said air blower and secured at the base of the chimney, said air manifold having a plurality of air jets directed toward said fuel burner.
4. The apparatus as recited in claim 3 additionally comprising a temperature control mounted on said apparatus for detecting the temperature of the chimney base.
5. The apparatus as recited in claim 4 additionally comprising a control panel electrically connected to said temperature control, said air blower and said fuel burner, so that the temperature of the chimney base may be regulated at a predetermined temperature in response to said temperature control by selectively controlling said air blower and said fuel burner.
6. The apparatus as recited in claim 5 wherein said steam generation means additionally comprises a steam generator responsive to said control panel for generating an independent supply of steam for said steam jet openings.
7. The apparatus as recited in claim 6 wherein said steam generation means additionally comprises a second connection line coupled to said third helical coil and having its opposite end connected to a conventional steam heating supply source.
ing a screen secured over the outlet of the chimney, said screen having an enlarged cavity to collect the exhaust gases for contact with the steam spray emerging from said steam jet openings.