US 3530905 A
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United States Patent  inventors Christian Drager;
' Karl F. Molleringtl-lans Georg Breiling,
Lubeck, Germany ] Appl. No. 761,089
 Filed Sept. 20, 1968  Patented Sept. 29, 1970  Assignee Dragerwerke, Heinr. 8: Bernh. Drager,
Lulieck, Germany  Priority Sept. 20, 1967  Germany  VAPORIZER FOR ANESTHETIC 14 Claims, 7 Drawing Figs.
 US. Cl. 141/18,
141/113, 141/349, 141/366 [5l] lnLCl B65b 3/04  Field ofSearch l4l/l 13,
Primary ExaminerRobert B. Reeves Assistant Examiner- Hadd S. Lane Attorney-Curtis, Morris and Safl'ord ABSTRACT: A vaporizer for an anesthetic has been provided which comprises a container for said anesthetic in which said anesthetic is vaporized, a filling and an emptying means therefor, said filling and emptying means being positioned at the lowest point of said vaporizer, said filling and emptying means being swingable around an inlet bore or channel to said vaporizer container sealingly engaging the same and removable therefrom, a cylinder coupling means provided in said swingable filling and emptying means for detachable fastening of a cylinder containing said anesthetic, and a valve means activatable by said cylinder coupling means for filling and emp tying said vaporizer container for the anesthetic. Further, a vaporizer for an anesthetic has been provided which comprises a container for said anesthetic in which said anesthetic is vaporized, a filling and emptying means therefor, said filling and emptying means being positioned at the bottom of said vaporizer and communicating with said container, a valve means positioned inside the filling and emptying means, a coupling means within said filling and emptying means for receiving a male coupling connection on a flexible conduit connected to a cylinder containing the anesthetic, said valve means being activatable by said male coupling means on the flexible conduit.
- INKENTORS CHRISTIAN; DRAGER KARL Fj MOLLERING HANS GEORG BREILING 01476 ATTORNEYS Patented Spt. 29,1970 "3, i I 7 Sheet 2 026 \40 l 1 9 I 20' v 2/ ATTORNEYS Patented Sept. 29, 1970 Sheet 3 01'6 l u m INKENTORS CHRISTIAN DRAGER KARL F. MOLVLERING- HANS GEORGBREILING ATTORNEYS Patented Sept. 29, 1970 3,530,905
Sheet 4' of6 52 INKENTORS CHRISTIAN DRAGER KARL F. MOLLERING BY HANS GEORG BREILING AT TORNEYS Patented Sept. 29,1970 7 7 3,530,905
Sheet 5 016 v lNKENTORS- CHRISTIAN DRAGER KARL F. MOLLERING BY HANS GEOR-G BREILING ATTORNEYS Patented Sept. 29, 1970 Sheet Q 016 FIG] ' ATTORNEYS' 1 VAPORIZER FOR ANESTHETIC This invention relates to vaporizers for anesthetics, more paticularly to a vaporizer provided with improved filling -emptying means, and coupling links cooperating with cylinders holding suitable anesthetics.
Vaporizers for anesthetics are known which are provided either with a top-positioned filling connection or a bottompositioned discharge valve. The filling connection is provided with a screw closure which must be removed to effect filling. After use, the vaporizer is emptied by opening the discharge valve. Vaporizers for anesthetics are also known in which the container has no filling connection or discharge valve. These containers are taken apart before and after use for filling and emptying, respectively. Furthermore, the known vaporizers are so devised that they can be used in each case only for a given anesthetic or for a given group of anesthetics. This means that these vaporizers give the desired concentration of anesthetic in a gaseous mixture only for the specific anesthetic or the group of anesthetics. However, all the known apparatus have the disadvantage that the vaporizer can also be filled by mistake with different anesthetics without the operator being able to note this in any manner. For example, a vaporizer for anesthetic of the known construction intended for ether can be filled with halothane or some other anesthetic, although the vaporizer itself is not adjusted to the use of a different anesthetic. This can lead to the poisoning of the patient.
The object of the present invention is to avoid the disadvantages described and to provide a vaporizer for anesthetic which makes it impossible to introduce an anesthetic which is unsuitable for the particular vaporizer. As a point of departure, the invention proceeds from the basis that the anesthetics are kept on supply in cylinders. These cylinders in turn are provided with a separate connection for each anesthetic or-each group of anesthetics.
Thus, the invention relates to a vaporizer for an anesthetic having improved filling, emptying, and coupling means. The invention resides in the fact that the filling and emptying connection (with coupling means) connected at the lowest point of the vaporizer is provided with a filling and emptying means having coupling means therein. The filling and emptying means is swingable about a horizontal axis and being sealably engaged with a conduit through which the anesthetic is introduced in the container. This filling and emptying means has a suitable coupling for a cylinder connection for detachable coupling of a cylinder containing the anesthetic, so that said cylinder can be brought either into a filling position or into the emptying position. When other anesthetics are used, the swingable filling and emptying means with the particularly sized coupling means can be replaced with a similar means but which correspond to the proper coupling connection on a cylinder containing the different anesthetic.
' According to the invention, another solution is to provide the filling connection located at the lowest point of the vaporizer for the anesthetic with a flexible connecting piece for a flange connector for the detachable fastening of a cylinder containing the anesthetic so that the cylinder can be brought either into the filling position or into the emptying position.
The invention provides the advantages that the vaporizer for the anesthetic can be filled only from the cylinders and with the use of the cylinders of the corresponding anesthetic.
Further details and other aspects of the invention will be obvious from the discussion or claims and will be explained on basis of the embodiments shown schematically in the drawings in which the same numbers designate the same elements or elements functioning in substantially the same manner and wherein:
'FIG. 1 shows a vaporizer for the anesthetic in side view with connection or coupling means thereon shown in section;
FIG. 2 is a side view seen in the direction of the arrow P of FIG. 1, with the connection means shown in section along the plane A-B;
FIG. 3 is a section through a headpiece for a storage cylinder for the anesthetic;
FIG. 4 is a section through the upper end of an anesthetic storage cylinder provided with a tightly secured filling closure;
FIG. 5 is a side view of a vaporizer for anesthetic in accordance with a different construction with the connection shown in section;
FIG. 6 shows the connection piece for connecting the cylinder containing the anesthetic for the attachment in the container of FIG. 4;
FIG. 7 illustrates a three-way valve connection providing for a coupling to a cylinder containing an anesthetic which is attached during filling, using and emptying cycle.
In the vaporizer for the anesthetic 1 the horizontal filling connection 2 is so arranged that its bore 3 discharges below the bottom surface (not shown) or at the height thereof, so that the vaporizer can be emptied through the bore 3.
The bore 3 terminates in a vertical transverse bore 4 which exits into an annular groove 5. Furthermore, the filling connection 2 is provided with a recess 6 over which the connecting piece 7 having a corresponding bore 8 is placed or from which it is removed. The connecting piece 7 is thus supported swingably and is held by the screw cap 9 which forms the abutment of a coil spring 10 which presses against the connecting piece. The connecting piece is sealed from the connection 2 by two sealing rings 11.
In the upward swung position shown in the drawing of FIG. 1, the bore 4 is in communication with the bore 12 which terminates in a valve seat 13. A washer 14 rests against said bore. A closure plug 15 acted upon by a spring 16 presses against said washer 14. The abutment for the spring 16 is formed by a screw cap 17. From the space 18, in which the closure plug 15 moves, a bore 19 shown in FIG. 2 extends on the side of 6 downwardly; this bore has a sealing surface 20 and a screw thread 21. I
The swingable connecting piece 7 in FIG. 1 is provided with a projection 7a which engages in a corresponding recess on the top of the filling connection 2 as a result of which the connecting piece 7 is held in the position shown. Further locking means can also be provided on the filling connection 2 in order to hold the connecting piece 7 also in other swung positions. Various places in which the filling connection can be positioned are illustrated in FIG. 2 by the dashed lines, showing in part the cylinder nozzle inserted in recessed screw thread 21.
FIG. 3 shows the neck of a cylinder for an anesthetic which is provided with a thread 23. On this thread there is screwed a cap 24, its being sealed off in screwed-on position by means of a gasket 25. The cap 24 carries a connection 26 with a thread 27 which corresponds precisely to the thread 21 in FIG. 2. The connection 26 is provided with an extension 28; this extension and the connection 26 being traversed by a bore 29, from which, at the end of the extension 28 lateral boreholes 30 extend. The extension 28 or connection 26 bears a packing 31. Furthermore, the cap 24 is provided with a bore 32 extending into the inside of the cylinder and terminating in a pipe length 33. The pipe 33 terminates in a nozzle 34.
The cylinder containing the anesthetic (not shown) can, however, after the filling also be connected with the illustrated screw cap 24 in a manner other than by a threaded connection. Thus, for instance, the screw cap 24 can be forced by a false seat into the neck of the cylinder. In this case the cylinder filled with the anesthetic is placed on the market together with the cap 24 and the structural parts fastened thereto, which serve for the filling process described further below.
Such an embodiment is shown in FIG. 4 in which the cap 24a is forced into the neck of cylinder 22. The cap bears the same structural parts as in FIG. 3 and is furthermore closed by a closure cap 35 which is provided with a thread 37 which engages in the cylinder thread 36. The closure cap is so developed that when it is placed on the cylinder, it seals tightly and securely the cylinder.
In order to fill the vaporizer container for the anesthetic l, the cylinder coupling shown in FIGS. 3 and 4 is screwed by means of the thread 27 into the thread 21, the front end of the extension 28 is pressing against the closure plug 15 and is lifting it from the washer 14 illustrated in FIG. 1. When the cylinder is screwed in further, a liquid-tight connection is created. The cylinder and the connection piece 7 are now swung in the direction indicated by the arrow P in FIG. 2 until the filling and emptying means 7 assumes the position 7b, shown in dashed line, while the cylinder assumes the position shown by dashed line 40. The bore 12 assumes the position 12a shown in dashed line. Further details have not been shown in order not to clutter the drawing. The anesthetic now flows through the bores 29 and 30 and the bores 12 and 3 into the anesthetic vaporizer 1, while air flows from the outside via the bore 32 and the nozzle 34 into the cylinder. The nozzle 34 is in this connection so small that air will definitely flow out of said nozzle rather than allowing the liquid to emerge. The vaporizer for the anesthetic l is not hermetically closed in the ready position so that the liquid may overflow. Dependable flow can furthermore be assured by proper dimensioning of the length of the extension 28 and the length of the pipe section 33.
As customary, the vaporizer 1 has an inspection window 41 in which the liquid level marks Maximum 42 and "Minimum" 43 are arranged. The vaporizer 1 is filled up to the permissible mark. The connecting piece 7 is now again swung back into the initial position shown in solid line. When too much anesthetic has been introduced, it empties, i.e., flows back into the cylinder containing the anesthetic until the upper filling mark 42 lies at the height of the valve seat. No further return flow of the anesthetic takes place. The cylinder can now be unscrewed, the valve elements 15, 14, and 13 then closing.
If the vaporizer for the anesthetic 1 is not operated with a pressure system but rather with a draw over system, the cylinder can remain screwed-on during the anesthesia operation.
In order to empty the vaporizer for the anesthetic l, the cylinder is again screwed to the connecting piece 7 and the latter together with the cylinder now swung into the position 7c shown in dashed line in FIG. 2. The bore 12 in this connection assumes the position 12c shown in dashed line. Since the valve illustrated by elements 15, 14, and I3 is open, the anesthetic from the vaporizer now flows downwardly through the bore 12 into the cylinder until the vaporizer 1 is completely empty.
Furthermore, the pipe length 33 together with the nozzle 34 of the cylinder containing the anesthetic provides assurance against the overfilling of the cylinder containing the anesthetic.
In the embodiment of FIGS. and 6, the filling connection 44 is directed downwardly from the bottom of the vaporizer for the anesthetic I. In the filling connection there is fastened a valve seat 45 which is passed through by a valve stem 46. The latter bears at its upper end the valve cone 47. The valve stem 46 is fastened to an annular piston 48 which is sealed off from the inner wall 50 of the filling connection 44 by a sealing ring 49. The piston 48 and the valve seat 45 constitute the abutments for a compression spring 51 which normally holds the valve 47, 45 in its closed position.
At the lower end of the filling connection 44, there is pro vided a thread 52 which matches the thread 53 of the connector 54 illustrated in FIG. 6 ofa flexible connecting line 55 also illustrated in FIG. 6. The connector 54 and the thread 53 in this figure bear in a bore of a connecting spout 56. the front end of which is provided with a collar 57. To the other end 58 ofthe connecting spout 56. the connecting hose 55 is fastened. Upon the screwing in the connecting spout 56, its collar 57 comes tightly against the annular piston 48 illustrated in FIG. 5 and pushes the latter finally in front of it whereby the valve illustrated by elements 47 and 45 is opened.
Returning to FIG. 6, at the other end of the flexible connecting line 55, there is fastened the connecting nipple 59 of the screw cap 60, the thread 61 of which is screwed onto the thread ofa cylinder containing an anesthetic (not shown). For venting, there is provided a vent tube 62 and for sealing, a circumferential seal 63. After the connecting of the cylinder containing the anesthetic at the thread 61, the spout 56 is connected, in the manner described above, to the filling connection 44 shown in FIG. 5, the valve illustrated by elements 47 and 45 thereby opening. Now the vaporizer for the anesthetic 1 can be filled up to the maximum mark 42 by suitably raising the cylinder containing the anesthetic.
In reference to FIG. 5, on the filling connection 44, below the valve seat 45, there is arranged a riser pipe 64 which terminates in a downwardly directed bend above the mark 42. After the above-described filling of the vaporizer 1, the connector 54 together with the thread 53 is screwed back up to the mark 42 so that the annular piston 48 is pressed downwardly under the pressure of the spring 51, its remaining pressed hermetically against the collar 57 of the connecting spout 56 so that the anesthetic cannot flow out downwardly. Furthermore, the collar 57 can also be developed so that it rests in piston-like and tight fashion against the inner wall 50 of the filling connection 44 so as definitely to avoid any emergence of anesthetic.
When the cylinder is now swung downwardly air enters via the riser pipe 64 so that the anesthetic located below the valve seat 45 can flow back into the anesthetic cylinder until the connecting line 55 is completely empty. 5
In accordance with a further development of the invention, the flexible connecting piece 55 can be firmly connected with the interposition ofa multi-way cock 65 shown in FIG. 7 to the filling connection 44, in which case the latter is not provided with a valve 45, 47. The multi-way cock 65 is so developed that in a first position it opens the connection between the flexible connecting piece 55 as illustrated in FIG. 7 and the inside of the vaporizer for the anesthetic 1, while in a second position it closes the connection and in a third position it opens the connection between the flexible connecting piece 55 and the riser pipe 64. In order to fill the vaporizer for the anesthetic 1, the multi-way cock is brought into the first position and the storage cylinder held at a high level until the vaporizer has been filled up to the mark 42. Thereupon the multi-way cock is brought into the second position. The anesthetic can now be utilized. For emptying, the multi-way cock is brought into the third position and the cylinder containing the anesthetic is lowered so that the anesthetic flows completely back into it.
In this case also the vaporizer 1 can be filled at all times only with the proper anesthetic, the cylinder of which is provided with a thread which matches the thread 61 shown in FIG. 7.
Similarly, in the case of the embodiments illustrated in FIGS. I to 3, the vaporizer 1 can only be filled with an anesthetic, the storage cylinder of which is provided with a thread corresponding to the thread 21.
1. A vaporizer for an anesthetic comprising a container for said anesthetic in which said anesthetic is vaporized, a filling and an emptying means therefor, said filling and emptying means positioned at the lowest point of said vaporizer, said filling and emptying means being swingable around an inlet channel means to said vaporizer container sealingly engaging the same and removable therefrom, a cylinder coupling means provided in said swingable filling and emptying means for detachable fastening of a cylinder containing said anesthetic, said cylinder being swingable between a level below said lowest point and a level above that of said anesthetic in the filled vaporizer, and a valve means activatable by said cylinder coupling means for filling and emptying said vaporizer container for the anesthetic.
2. A vaporizer for an anesthetic comprising a container for said anesthetic in which said anesthetic is vaporized, a filling and an emptying means therefor, said filling and emptying means being positioned at the bottom of said vaporizer and communicating with said container, a valve means positioned inside the filling and emptying means, a coupling means within said filling and emptying means for receiving a male coupling connection on a flexible conduit connected to a cylinder containing the anesthetic, said cylinder being movable between a level below said lowest point and a level above that of said anesthetic in the filled vaporizer, said valve means being activatable by said male coupling means on the flexible conduit.
3. The vaporizer for an anesthetic according to claim 1 wherein the valve means are spring loaded.
4. The vaporizer for an anesthetic according to claim 2 wherein the valve means are spring loaded.
5. The vaporizer for an anesthetic according to claim 1 wherein a female coupling means in said swingable filling and emptying means is adapted to receive a male coupling means of a cylinder holding an anesthetic in a tightly sealing relationship, said male coupling means having an extension with a bore and side ports therefor, said extension being activated by lifting a spring loaded, movable valve element in said valve means.
6. The vaporizer according to claim 1, wherein the female coupling means in said swingable filling and emptying means in the filling position communicates with the inlet bore to said container and in the highest filling position is located at a height of a maximum filling level to which the container is filled.
7. The vaporizer according to claim 1, wherein the seat for the spring loaded valve means in the swingable filling and emptying means forms the closure at the end of a filling and emptying bore in the swingable filling and emptying means and which is communicating with said inlet bore of said vaporizer container.
8. The vaporizer for an anesthetic according to claim 5. wherein the male coupling means of the cylinder closure is provided with a vent tube extending into the inside of a cylinder holding the anesthetic and wherein said vent tube is capped off by a nozzle.
9. The vaporizer for an anesthetic according to claim 1, wherein the swingable filling and emptying means is provided with indexed holding means holding said swingable means in an indexed position.
10. The vaporizer for an anesthetic according to claim 2, wherein the valve means allowing the filling and emptying of said container is seated centrally, axially, and movably within a conduit communicating with said container and is provided with an annular piston displaceable longitudinally and axially in said conduit in an open and a sealing position.
11. The vaporizer according to claim 10, wherein the annular piston is sealed off with an O-ring from the inner wall of the conduit.
12. The vaporizer according to claim 10, wherein the male coupling means is provided with a connecting spout and a sealing collar whichspout is inserted in the female coupling means, the end of which spout rests in a sealing manner against the annular piston of the movable valve means and the sealing collar rests against said walls of said conduit.
13. The vaporizer according to claim 12, wherein the valve means is provided with an open conduit line seated below the upper valve seal, the upper portion of which conduit line is above the maximum height to which the container is filled.
14. The vaporizer according to claim 2, wherein the flexible conduit to a tank holding the anesthetic is coupled to the filling and emptying means having an interposed, multi-way cock between the container and a tank, the multi-way cock in its first position communicating with the tank holding the anesthetic in an open position, the multi-way cock in its second position closing off said connection and the multi-way cock in its third position communicating with the flexible conduit and a vent in said coupling means.