US 3533769 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Oct. 13, 1970 3533,769- I umuon FOR srmums' woo; FROM IenEouS hock I J. J. BAIER EM!- 2 Shee ts-Sheet 1 v Filed Sept. 1, 1967 NVENTORS ,Oct.13, 1970. I I I J. J. BAIER ETA!- v j v METHOD FOR srnmme *woon raom mucus no'qx Filed se i. 1. 1967 T ii 'rawfyf/7amefance' United States Patent 01 Ffice 3,533,769 Patented Oct. 13, 1970 3,533,769 METHOD FOR SPINNING WOOL FROM IGNEOUS ROCK John J. Baier, 518 Manhasset Woods Road, Manhasset, N.Y. 11030, and Raymond J. Demaison, 642 Locust St., Fleetwood, Mount Vernon, N.Y. 10552 Filed Sept. 1, 1967, Ser. No. 665,024 Int. Cl. C03b 37/04 US. Cl. 65-6 3 Claims ABSTRACT OF THE DISCLOSURE Method comprises spinning igneous rock, such as lava, basalt or black obsidian glass, into long fine fibers, which comprises the steps of melting or converting the igneous rock into a molten condition, forming the molten material into a continuous downwardly directed stream, breaking up the downwardly divided continuous stream into minute individual globules and then subjecting the individual globules to a series of continuously applied forces which will convert the globules into radially spun out fibers.
The present invention is related to a method for spinning long fibered wool from igneous rock, such as lava, basalt or black obsidian glass, on a rapidly rotating disc. In the practice of the invention it is possible to vary the fiber diameters and lengths and also the structure of the individual fibers from an amorphous to a crystalline state as desired.
In accordance with the present invention, it is proposed to melt lava, basalt rock or black obsidian glass in a suitable furnace arranged to discharge a constant molten stream of suitable viscosity downwardly onto a rapidly rotating disc which is used to spin the molten stream into long fine fibers. The speed of the rotating disc will be great enough to break up the continuous stream of molten material into continuous streams of minute globules on the face thereof. The continuous streams of minute globules are then subjected to a series of forces while they are still in a liquid form to cause them to spin out fibers of controlled lengths and diameters with either an amorphous or crystalline structure.
An object of this invention is to allow the production of either amorphous or crystalline structure fibers'on the same apparatus from the same continuous stream of molten material by the simple expedient of varying the temperature of the continuous stream of molten material being fed continuously downwardly onto the rapidly rotating disc.
A further object of the invention is to be able to control the lengths and diameters of the fibers by varying the peripheral speed of the rotating disc and the shape of the grooves formed on the face thereof as well as the volume of material contained in the constant stream of molten material.
A still further object of the invention is to make use of the natural force of gravity of the stream of molten material as well as the ability to vary the flame heat and velocity thereof being constantly applied to the rotating disc to thus supply forces which are variable to allow different diameters and lengths to be produced.
And a still further object of the invention is to provide a rotating disc which will automatically take care of variations in the placement of the continuous stream of molten material which normally occur during operation where eddy currents are formed.
It must be understood that there is no attempt being made herein to claim a furnace per se for melting the igneous rock therein as there are any number of designs which may be used which will insure the production of a continuous stream of molten material of given volume which may then be spun out into fibers to form the wool. The designs of these furnaces are such that they will even supply the flame for continuously heating the disc and also supply one of the forces used to cause the minute globules to be spun out into fibers. Where this is not possible, it is an easy matter to supply the flame from an auxiliary source separate from the furnace.
There is a great deal of prior art in the field of spinning fibers from glass, slag and other types of rock to produce wool but lava and basalt are very hard to spin as they require very close temperature control even up to the point of formation of the tiny globules and beyond to maintain the globule temperature until it has fully spun out all the molten material contained therein. The igneous rocks also tend to form slag on the rotating disc which prevents the proper use of the spinning means being used thereon. The rotating disc of the instant invention precludes this situation from taking place by first providing a disc of material which does not allow the slag to adhere to it and, secondly, the shape of the outwardly and upwardly ramped V shaped grooves is such that centrifugal force will spin the slag right off the disc. The prior art discs used on glass and other types of rock used turned up edges with various contours and in some instances the contoured raised edges contained a series of holes, notches or slots of suitable diameter to allow the material to be fed therethrough.
The rotating disc of the instant invention is formed with a suitable series of outwardly and upwardly ramped V-shaped grooves forming a series of parallel concentric annular depressions on its upper face, each successive groove proceeding inwardly from the outside edge being formed at a slightly higher elevation than the preceding groove to thus allow the fibers to be continuously spun outwardly from the continuous stream of minute globules contained therein without interfering with the fibers being spun from the adjoining grooves. The use of this series of concentric grooves allow for variations in the flow pattern of the downwardly descending continuous stream of molten material being continuously fed thereto and thus form a suitable series of multiple parallel paths into which the molten material may be continuously distributed and which form a plurality of continuous streams of minute globules that can be spun out into fibers of suitable lengths and diameters. The V-shaped grooves therefore form a series of concentric parallel paths which are self-cleaning due to their shape and temperature, even to the extent of throwing off any slag formed thereon. In addition, the instant rotating disc design cuts down the weight on the outboard edge, thus necessitating less power to bring the disc up to speed as well as less likelihood of rim failure due to a greater mass contained on said outboard edge. In other words, a built-in safety factor is automatically attained.
The disc may be made of suitable alloy steels having suitable grain structures to produce the type of fibers desired and must be very carefully balanced both statically and dynamically to insure perfect balance (both at rest and at top speeds) as it is operated at temperatures of around 2000 continuously day after day in order to keep the individual globules in a fiuid state to spin out maximum lengths of fibers before the viscosity increases and cuts off the fiber. The globule that is left is then flung off as shot and constitutes waste material, so that it is evident that in order to get maximum production it is necessary to keep the globules in a highly fluid state in order to keep the viscosity at a point Where all the material will be forced out of the globules and they disappear with little or no shot. It must be remembered that the rotating disc is being turned at an extremely high rate of speed resulting in high peripheral speeds which form one of the forces that are employed to spin out the fibers.
The rotating disc driving unit is self contained and is arranged to operate continuously 24 hours per day 7 days per week and is contained on wheels arranged to run on a suitable track which allows the unit to be removed from under the molten stream for servicing or replacement when necessary. The unit is arranged to 'be water cooled and has forced feed lubrication of oil which carries away a great deal of the heat from the bearings while the water takes care of the rest in addition to cooling the oil. The driving and pumping units are completely enclosed and the enclosure is also continuously air cooled. The diameters of the discs vary from 7" minimum to a maximum of 14" with rotative speeds varying from 5000 r.p.m. to 15,000 r.p.m. which naturally necessitate continuous flow of cool oil to both lubricate and carry off the heat. The peripheral speeds of the outside rims of the disc vary from a minimum of 9000 feet per min. to 55,000 feet per minute, and it is this variation in speed combined with the other variables which permits the spinning of fibers of any desired length and diameters. The other variant that is employed in the control of the spinning of the fibers is the shape and the depth of the series of outwardly and upwardly ramped V-shaped grooves which also supply some of the forces employed to cause the minute globules to spin out the fibers therefrom. The actions of the forces taking place in the spinning of the fibers from the minute globules are simultaneous and constantly applied and consist of the upwardly directed force caused by the upwardly and outwardly ramped V-shaped grooves in conjunction with centrifugal force and simultaneously subjecting the minute globules to the downwardly directed force caused by gravity and the flame impinging continuously thereon to thus form the initial spinning forces and continuously squeeze the minute globules and cause minute surface breaks or holes to open up in their sides in the direction of travel of the disc and cause the molten material contained therein to be squeezed out in a tangential direction as a fine fiber of desired diameter and length. The fiber length attained can vary from to 35 and the fiber diameters down to microns or below as desired.
It is readily apparent that, as the peripheral speed is increased and the volume of the continuous stream held constant, the continuous stream will be broken up into a greater number of minute globules and, conversely, as the speed is decreased the continuous stream will be broken up into a lesser number of globules with the globule size becoming smaller as the speed is increased and larger as the speed is decreased. The speed therefore forms a primary means for controlling the fiber diameter and length, and a secondary means being the volume contained in the continuous stream, while a tertiary means consists of variations in the flame being employed to impinge on the minute globules contained in the V-shaped grooves. The contour of the V-shaped grooves can be varied and thus vary the force applied to the globules by the outwardly and upwardly ramped V-shaped grooves operating in conjunction with centrifugal force. The continuous stream of molten material will in some instances bridge over one or more V-shaped groove depending on its diameter to thus cause variations in fiber diameters due to smaller globules being formed. It is therefore desirable to have the stream bridge two grooves to provide equal distribution of the molten material if at all possible.
The invention possesses other objects and features of advantage, some of which, with the foregoing statements will be set forth specifically or be made apparent in the following description of a typical embodiment of the invention which is illustrated in the accompanying drawings, in which FIG. 1 is a top view of the rapidly rotating disc showing the plurality of parallel concentric rings containing 4 V-shaped grooves with outwardly and upwardly ramped sides. The continuous stream of molten material is shown in section dropping downwardly into the V-shaped grooves to form a continuous stream of minute globules in each groove while the area covered by the flame is also shown;
FIG. 2 is a section taken along the line 22 of FIG. 1 and clearly shows the continuous stream of molten material falling into the V-shaped grooves and being broken up therein into streams of minute globules and in addition shows the flame impinging on the disc and wiping by the edge thereof. The difference in elevation of the V-shaped grooves is also clearly brought out;
FIG. 3 is a partial enlarged section taken along the line 33 of FIG. 1 and clearly shows the fibers being spun out from the minute globules in various planes one over the other with no interference whatsoever;
FIG. 4 is an enlarged section of a single V-shaped groove of FIG. 3 and clearly shows the minute globules being squeezed out as it lies on the outwardly and upwardly ramped face of said groove and is being acted upon by the spinning forces; and
FIG. 5 is a force diagram centered about the minute globule to depict the action of the forces on said globule.
A's clearly shown in 'FIG. 1, the rotating disc 10 is formed with a series of parallel concentric V-shaped grooves 11, 12, 13, 14, 15 and 16 which present upwardly and outwardly ramped up faces to allow the minute globules to be continuously formed from a downwardly descending continuous stream 20 of molten material and produce continuous streams 21 and 22 in the V-shaped grooves 11 and 12. The continuous streams of minute globules that are formed in the V-shaped grooves 11 and 12 are then acted upon by the forces employed, as will be explained later, to cause the spinning out of fibers from the individual globules as shown at 23. The whole area encompassed within the dotted rectangle 24 is continuously subjected to a downwardly directed tongue of flame to keep the rotating disc at a spinning temperature and in addition keep the stream of molten material and the minute globules also in a molten condition at a suitable viscosity for dispersion and spinning. -It can readily be seen that if the stream of molten material 20 moves inwardly toward the center of the rotating disc 10, it will still allow the molten material to fall into the V-shaped grooves 13, 14 and 15 where the minute globules will be formed and spun out into fibers. The fibers are spun off in a tangential direction starting from the point of contact of the molten material 20 with the disc 10 and the spinning action continues for approximately 270 therefrom. It is therefore necessary to have sufiicient space around the spinner in order to obtain fibers of maximum length and in addition control and collect the small amount of shot emitted therefrom.
The section shown in FIG. 2 clearly shows the continuous stream of molten material 20 dropping downwardly under the influence of gravity into the V-shaped grooves 11 and 12 to form the continuous stream of minute globules 21 and 22 therein. The downwardly directed tongue of flame 24 is also shown and it can readily be seen how this flame keeps the disc hot as it wipes over the forward edge and is redirected toward the center of the disc to insure even temperatures over the entire disc area. The main impact spot is in the V-shaped grooves and these, due to their upstanding teeth, absorb the heat very readily and form perfect backgrounds for the spinning of the fibers from the tiny globules by keeping the molten material in fluid form. The grain structure of the material of which the disc is formed also enters into the spinning process because of the materials ability to cause the globules to adhere thereto and not be thrown off.
The section shown in FIG. 3 is enlarged to more graphically show how the fibers are spun out without interfering with one another. The outwardly and upward- 1y ramped V-shaped grooves 11, 12, 13, 14, 15 and 16 are so arranged that the lip of each is higher as we proceed inwardly from the outboard edge to thus allow the fibers to be spun separately and independently from each V-shaped groove.
In FIG. 4 the section of a single V-shaped groove 11 of FIG. 3 is further enlarged to more clearly show how the minute globules 30-, starting and being formed at the bottom of the groove, are gradually forced outwardly up the face of the groove and thus be squeezed continuously to cause them to open up a minute hole in the side and exude the molten material contained therein to form a continuous fiber 31 therefrom.
The forces employed consist of the centrifugal force generated by the rotating disc in conjunction with the upwardly ramped face of the groove and the force of gravity of the downwardly descending stream of molten material together with the force of the flame directed downwardly onto the disc. These forces in combination therefore continuously react to cause the minute globules to spin out fibers practically all the way around the disc, as the action once started is continued under centrifugal force which tends to act in a flat plane in conjunction with the upward ramp of the V-shaped groove without the aid of the flame and gravity. The outwardly ramped up face may be changed in contour from a straight line as shown to an upwardly curved face depending on the type and length of fibers desired.
In FIG. 5 are shown the forces and their direction that are continuously operating on the minute globules to cause them to open a minute hole in their side and exude the molten material therethrough until the globule is empty. The force supplied by the downwardly directed flame can be varied and the force due to gravity can also be varied by changing the volume of the stream of molten material to thus vary the two downwardly directing forces which cause the initial flattening and the opening of a hole in the side of the globule to take place in conjunction with centripetal and centrifugal force and the ramped up face. This initial action is a squeezing action and once it is started it is carried on under the continuous action of centrifugal force which tends to spin the globule off in a flat plane against the restraining force of the ramped up face of the groove to cause the globule to continue to spin out the fiber until the globule is empty. As before stated, the fiber diameters and lengths may readily be controlled by varying the forces at work as well as by controlling the size of the minute globules.
What is claimed is:
1. A method for spinning molten igneous rock such as lava, basalt, black obsidian glass and the like, into long fine fibers which comprises forming minute individual molten globules of said rock by directing a continuous stream of said molten rock onto a peripheral marginal surface portion of a spinning disc which surface extends radially outwardly of the disc and backwardly with respect to said stream direction while encompassing said stream in a flame impinging on said disc, and exerting a force including the force of said flame on said globules to resist their outward radial displacement in globular form from the disc while spinning the disc at a speed to convert the globules into spun out fibers.
2. A method for spinning igneous rock according to claim 1, wherein dimensional characteristics of the fibers including length and diameter are varied by varying at least one of the operating conditions which include disc spinning speed, force of flame impingement on the disc, and stream volume.
'3. A method for spinning igneous rock according to claim 1, wherein the stream is varied in temperature to vary the physical structure of the resulting fibers.
References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 2,153,739 4/ 1939- Buss 6 2,884,659 5/ 1959 Powell 656 3,246,971 4/ l966 Rudin 658 S. LEON BA'SHORE, Primary Examiner R. L. LINDSAY, IR., Assistant Examiner U.S. c1. X.R.