US 3534413 A
Abstract available in
Claims available in
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
P. P. Y R. PLASSERAUD SWIMMING EXERCISER HAVING WATER JETS Filed Nov. 6, 1967 Oct. 20, 1970 INVE/V TOR Mm y- R- Ilnxsmub United States Patent Ofiice 3,534,413 Patented Oct. 20, 1970 3,534,413 SWIMMING EXERCISER HAVING WATER JETS Prosper Pierre Yven Ren Plasseraud, 103 Rue des Tennerolles, Saint-Cloud, France Filed Nov. 6, 1967, Ser. No. 680,784 Claims priority, application gggembourg, Nov. 18, 1966,
Int. Cl. A63b 31/00 US. Cl. 4172.16 7 Claims ABSTRACT OF THE DISCLOSURE The present invention relates to swimming apparatuses.
Swimming apparatuses have already been proposed comprising a pool of water of which at least the upper layer (in which the body of the swimmer was located) was put in movement in its entirety at a speed at the most equal to the maximum speed which the swimmer could attain in still water, so that the swimmer, swimming against the current thus created, which had substantially parallel streams, could remain practically stationary.
Such an apparatus is described in Swiss Pat. No. 176,562 (France No. 779,225).
The present invention relates to other means permitting swimming to be practiced in a limited space.
Swimming apparatus according to the present invention comprises a pool of water and jet producing means adapted to produce a submerged jet of water of fixed direction in said pool, said jet having a substantial horizontal component, and said jet decreasing in force with increasing distance from said jet producing means, said pool being deep and large enough for a swimmer to perform therein swimming strokes tending to propel him against the repelling action of said jet on his body, whereby said swimmer can assume a stable position in said jet where his swimming force just balances the action of said jet on his body.
In the preceding definition, the word jet signifies a flow of water ejected at high speed (more than two metres fifty centimetres per second, and in general, much more) from a constricted delivery conduit.
Preferred embodiments of the invention will now be described, merely by way of example, with reference to the accompanying drawings, in which:
FIGS. 1 and 2 show schematically, in vertical section and in plan respectively, a swimming pool equipped in accordance with the present invention; and
FIG. 3 is an explanatory schematic diagram.
The swimming apparatus of the present invention can be used for physical training or for medical reeducation.
Referring now to the drawings, the swimming apparatus comprises a pool 1 having, as will be supposed hereafter by way of example, the form of a rectangle, and constructed in any appropriate manner and of any appropriate material, such as masonry, metal or plastic material. This pool can have any dimensions large enough to permit a swimmer to perform swimming strokes in the pool. These dimensions can, for example, correspond to an area much less than that of conventional pools, and can have, again for example, a width of 2.5 in. (meters) and a length of 3.5 m., the depth being preferably such that it permits all the swimming strokes to be performed (about 1 m. is sufficient).
The usual means for filling and emptying this pool are provided.
The pool is equipped with a motor pump unit 2, advantageously electric, but which can be driven by any source of energy, whose delivery conduit 3 passes through the middle of one of the small vertical faces of the pool near the top of that face, with the outlet of this delivery conduit 3 submerged in the water. The inlet conduit 4 of the motor pump unit 2 is connected to any point 5 on the submerged wall of the pool. This point 5 can advantageously be located towards the bottom of one of the vertical walls of the pool, for example on the small face on which the delivery conduit 3 is located.
As for this delivery conduit 3, it can preferably comprise, at its outlet end, an outlet passage preceded by a convergent portion.
It is advantageous to divide this outlet passage into at least two separate elements, each comprising an outlet orifice '6. These orifices are then fed by conduits arranged in parallel, in such a manner that the delivered water is ejected in as many jets as there are outlets, the axes of these jets being disposed symmetrically about the vertical plane containing the swimming axis, which, in the embodiment illustrated, is the longitudinal axis of the pool. If ther are two outlets as shown in FIG. 3, they are separated by a distance D.
Each of these outlets has a jet axis directed either along a perpendicular to the small vertical wall of the pool or along a neighbouring direction making, with this perpendicular, an angle a in horizontal projection and an angle b in vertical projection, a or b being able to have the value zero.
These angles a and b will be discussed later on, but, in any case, the jets, if there are an even number of them, for example two, preferably converge on each other and permit the swimmer to place his head in a median axial position where the action of the jets will be felt only slightly or not at all.
it can be seen that the thrust P exerted by the system of jets on the body of the swimmer can be varied for example by a variation of the delivery pressure of the pump, or by a mechanical modification of the form or cross section of the outlet passage of the system of jets.
This variation can be regulated when the apparatus is stopped or during operation of the apparatus, the regulation being controlled either by a gate actuated manually or by any automatic means, for example with the intervention of a photoelectric cell.
Similarly, it can be seen that, other things being equal, the thrust P will decrease rapidly as the swimmer moves away from the outlet orifices of the jets and will increase as he approaches these orifices.
In this manner, an automatic regulation will be assured of the counter-thrust (also equal to P) that the swimmer should exert by his swimming movements. When the swimmer reduces his effort, he will move backwards until a new position of equilibrium is reached; on the contrary, he will advance if he increases the force that he exerts.
This effect of automatic regulation can easily be regulated by acting on the distance D, on the angles a and b and on the delivery pressure of the pump.
According to one solution adapted to satisfy an average swimmer, the outlet orifices of the two jets (situated at the same level) are separated by an average horizontal distance -D or 60 cm. (centimetres), and they converge towards each other (the angle a being of the order of 15 to 20).
Besides, the outlet of the jets are preferably disposed:
either less than 25 cm. below the surface (for example p=10 cm.), b being of the order of 10 in the downward direction,
or more than 30 cm. below the surface (for example p=40 cm.),' b b'eingof the order of 15 to 20 in the upward direction.
The outlets of the jets can, in one embodiment, be mounted with the interposition of swivel joints 7 at the end of the outlet portion =8 which is adapted to be moved and oriented so as to be able to adjust at least one of the factors D, p, a and b mentioned above to any desired value.
In any case, the motor pump is chosen in such a manner that the outlet speed and the rate of flow of the jets gives an appropriate thrust. In practice, a power corresponding to a consumption of electricity of 1.5 kw. (kilowatt) and to a speed of rotation of 21,850 revolutions per minute (hourly flow of 25 m. of water, for a manometric elevation of 12 in.) has been perfectly suitable in a particular case which has been tried, with a total outlet cross section of the jets of 1.4 cm.
Needless to say, the assembly which has just been described is preferably completed by the conventional means of heating 9 and of purification 10 of the water delivered to the outlets 6.
Furthermore, at least certain of the walls of the pool 1 can be replaced by transparent walls, which permits an observer to watch the movements of the swimmer either to follow his training or to control his treatment.
The present invention provides swimming apparatus providing swimming conditions which are practically identical to those which exist when swimming in water of which all the particles have parallel displacements of equal amplitude.
This apparatus has the following advantages, among others:
the possibility of practicing swimming, for sporting or therapeutic purposes, in a pool of exceptionally small dimensions;
the elimination of turns corresponding to the obligatory frequent changes of direction in usual swimming pools, and hence the possibility of always swimming in the same direction, as long as is desired;
the possibility, by the regulation of the power of the jets,
to adapt the apparatus to more or less vigorous swimmers.
It should be understood that the term pool as used herein is not limited to a man-made or artificial pool, but includes any body of Water of sulficient depth, for example a part of a usual swimming pool or of a river, a lake, or any pond of water, the outlet portions of the jets being then fixed to any appropriate support.
Although the present invention has been described with reference to particular embodiments, it should be understood that the invention is not limited thereto, as various modifications are possible without departing from the 'spirit or scope of the invention.
What I claim is:
1. Swimming apparatus for practicing swimming comprising a pool of water deep and large enough for a swimm'er to perform swimming strokes and at least one inlet means disposed inside said pool for delivering at least two jets of water into the pool through adjustable nozzle means so as to provide streams of water at varying angles with respect to the horizontal plane and vertical direction, the horizontal distance between said jets being approximately centimeters, and the delivery end of both said nozzle means being substantially identical in cross-section, whereas the delivery end of each of said nozzle means has the height thereof substantially identical to its width.
2. Swimming apparatus according to claim 1 in which each of said nozzle means is oriented slightly downwards to produce a jet which is likewise directed slightly down wards.
3. Swimming apparatus according to claim 2 in which each of said nozzle means is located at a depth of less than 25 centimetres and is directed downwards at about 10 to the horizontal.
4. Swimming apparatus according to claim 1 in which each of said nozzle means is oriented slightly upwards to produce a jet which is likewise directed slightly upwards.
5. Swimming apparatus according to claim 4 in which said outlet of said jet producing means is located at a depth of more than 30 centimetres and is directed upwards at about 1S20 to the horizontal.
6. Swimming apparatus according to claim 1 in which said pool is entirely defined laterally by at least one wall.
7. Swimming apparatus according to claim 1 which contains recirculating means comprising an outlet located near the bottom of the pool and on the wall containing said inlet means which is in the vertical plane containing the horizontal axis of symmetry of the jets and further comprising a motor pump connected to said outlet and said inlet means which recirculates the water from said outlet to said at least one inlet nozzle means.
References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 1,331,270 2/1920 Lippincott 272-71 1,630,797 5/1927 Marwick 272-71 1,796,291 3/1931 Lippincott 4-172 2,315,951 12/1957 Baldanza 272. 57
RICHARD C. PINKHAM, Primary Examiner R. W. DIAZ, JR., Assistant Examiner US. Cl. X.R. 2727l