|Publication number||US3534678 A|
|Publication date||Oct 20, 1970|
|Filing date||Jul 5, 1968|
|Priority date||Jul 5, 1968|
|Publication number||US 3534678 A, US 3534678A, US-A-3534678, US3534678 A, US3534678A|
|Original Assignee||Auto Pak Co|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Referenced by (9), Classifications (8), Legal Events (1)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
United States Patent CONTROL CIRCUIT v 11 Claims, snrawing Figs cally latched relay having a pair of COlIS energized through limit switches WhlCl'l sense the extremes of the forward and U.S-
reverse movement of the blade one of the switches also 100/ 100/53 controls the energization of a main relay for controlling the  Int.C| B30b 15/16 energization f th mp and the solenoids. The system is of Search 48, capable of everal modes of operation a ingle cycle 51, 52, 53 of operation initiated manually or photoelectrically and terminated automatically, and continuous cycling initiated and  References C'ted terminated manually. A pressure-responsive switch deac- UNITED STATES PATENTS tivates the system when a compaction container is full but may 3,070,003 12/1962 Stacy 100/51 be overridden by jog switches to permit pinning of the load 3,229,618 1 1966 OConnor [OD/52X and precise positioning of the blade.
Inventor Appl. No.
Filed Patented Assignee I-IYDRAULICALLY DRIVEN COMPACTION APPARATUS WlTI-I IMPROVED ELECTRIC Milton Clar 3,336,861 8/1967 Clar lOO/SOX Bethesda, Maryland 3,368,478 2/1968 Clar 100/50 742,899 3,384,007 5/1968 Boje et a1 l00/50X July 1968 Primary Examiner-Peter Feldman 1970 Attorney-Shapiro and Shapiro Auto Pak Company H 1..
Bladensburg, Maryland a corporation oflhe District of Columbia ABSTRACT: Compaction apparatus for refuse and the like in which the compaction blade is driven forwardly and reversely by a hydraulic system including a ram, an electric pump and a solenoid-actuated, center-neutral control valve. The solenoids of the control valve are energized alternately by a mechani- SENSING KE YLOCK PRESS, SW.
REVlJOG so I72 Patented Oct. 20, 1970 Sheet 2 of2 SOL. B
INVENTOR MILTON C LAR HYDRAULICALLY DRIVEN COMPACTION APPARATUS WITH IMPROVED ELECTRIC CONTROL CIRCUIT BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION This invention relates to compaction apparatus, and more particularly to improvements in the electric control circuit employed in compaction apparatus, as for example, the apparatus disclosed and claimed in the applicant's prior US. Pat. No. 3,368,478, granted Feb. 13, 1968, for "Compaction Apparatus".
The aforesaid Letters Patent discloses compaction apparatus in which the compaction blade is driven forwardly and reversely by a hydraulic ram which forms part of a hydraulic system including a three-position control valve for directing hydraulic fluid to the ram so as to cause the ram to move forwardly or reversely. The electric control circuit therein disclosed employs separate forward and reverse relays for energizing corresponding solenoids of the control valve in response to the actuation of corresponding limit switches which sense the extremes of forward and reverse movement of the blade. Through the failure of a relay both solenoids of the valve can become energized concurrently. It is desirable to avoid this condition and the resultant overload that can cause burnout of the solenoids.
The circuit disclosed in the said Letters Patent also provides for forward and reverse jogging of the blade and for deactivation of the control system when the hydraulic pressure reaches a level indicative of the filling of the container into which the material is being compacted. In order to pin" the load in the container so that the container may be closed it is sometimes necessary to exceed the pressure level which would normally deactivate the system, and it is desirable that the system remain active even though the pressure level is exceeded. It is also desirable to provide other modes of operation in addition to the manually started and stopped operation of the said Letters Patent.
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION It is accordingly a principal object of the present invention to provide improved compaction apparatus, and more particularly a control system therefore which fulfills the foregoing needs.
Briefly stated, the preferred embodiment of the invention is concerned with compaction apparatus of the type having a compaction blade driven forwardly and reversely by a hydraulic system including a hydraulic motor or ram, an electric pump, and a solenoid-actuated control valve. A mechanically latched relay is employed to energize the solenoids of the control valve alternately, and the relay is actuated by a pair of limit switches which sense the extremes of forward and reverse movement of the blade. One of the limit switches also controls the holding circuit of a main relay which extends electric power to the solenoids and to the pump motor starter relay. A pressure switch senses when the container into which material is compacted is full and actuates another mechanically latched relay for deactivating the system until a reset switch is operated. Reverse and forward jog switches permit energization of the valve solenoids selectively in order to pin the load and to position the blade precisely, and the pressure switch is overridden when the jog switches are operated. In a manual operating mode the system operation is initiated manually and continues indefinitely until stopped manually (or by the pressure switch). In a first automatic mode operation is initiated manually, proceeds through one cycle of reverse and forward blade movement, and then terminates automatically. In a second automatic mode the same cycle is initiated in response to the sensing of material to be compacted.
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS The foregoing and other objects, advantages, and features of the invention, and the manner in which the same are accomplished will become more readily apparent upon consideration of the following detailed description of the invention taken in conjunction with the accompanying drawings, which illustrate a preferred and exemplary embodiment, and wherein:
FIG. I is a schematic diagram of the electrical control circuit of the invention;
FIG. 2 is a schematic diagram of the hydraulic circuit of typical compaction apparatus in which the invention may be incorporated; and
FIG. 3 is a side elevation view of typical compaction apparatus in which the invention may be incorporated.
DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION Referring to the drawings, FIG. 3 illustrates compaction apparatus of the type disclosed in the aforesaid Letters Patent, to which reference is made for a complete description of the apparatus. The apparatus shown in FIG. 3 and described briefly hereinafter is by way ofexample only, since it will be apparent to those skilled in the art that the invention may be employed in many other and different types of compaction apparatus and the like. As shown, the compaction apparatus may comprise a packer having a frame 10 with a rectangular compaction chamber 12 at one end thereof surmounted by a hopper 14 into which material to be compacted may be placed for admission to the compaction chamber through an inlet opening at the top thereof. The front 16 of the chamber has an outlet opening which communicates with a corresponding opening in the rear of a suitable container 18 detachably connected to the packer. A compaction blade 20 reciprocates through the chamber 12, moving forwardly through an opening at the rear 22 of the compaction chamber and forcing material into the container 18. The compaction blade is of boxlike configuration having a vertical front wall 24 constituting the packing surface, a top wall 26, which blocks the inlet opening to the compaction chamber 12 when the blade is extended forwardly, a pair of L-shaped side walls 28, and a short bottom wall 30. The rearward extensions of the side walls along the top wall 26 support blade guide means 32 which engage longitudinally extending, tracks 34, and the bottom wall 30 similarly supports the blade upon the bottom wall of the compaction chamber. A vertically adjustable deck 36 is provided to permit the user to move a receptacle to the hopper l4 and to empty the receptacle therein.
The compaction blade is driven forwardly and rearwardly by a hydraulic ram 38, which in the exemplary form comprises a pair of hydraulic cylinders 40 and 42 fixed to each other side-by-side, one above the other, the cylinders containing pistons the rods 44 and 46 of which extend in opposite directions and are fixed, respectively, to the back of the front wall 24 of the blade and a transverse frame member 48. As described in the said Letters Patent, when hydraulic fluid is supplied to the ram 38 to extend the blade, both cylinders, which are supported by their piston rods, move away from the frame member 48, and the blade moves away from the cylinders (to the right in FIG. 3). When the blade is retracted, the movements are reversed.
FIG. 2 illustrates the hydraulic circuit, including a pump 50 driven by an electric motor 52 and a three-position control valve 54 actuated to first and second positions by solenoids A and B, respectively, and returned to the illustrated centerneutral position by the usual springs 56. In the neutral position the pump withdraws fluid from the reservoir 58 and merely returns the fluid to the reservoir. When solenoid A is energized, the valve 54 is shifted so that hydraulic fluid is directed to cylinders 40 and 42 to cause the blade to move rearwardly. When solenoid B is energized, valve 54 is shifted to reverse the fluid flow to the cylinders and cause the blade to move forwardly. A pressure switch 60 responds to the hydraulic pressure from the pump 50 for a purpose to be described more fully hereinafter.
Referring to FIG. 1, wherein the solenoids A and B and the pump motor 52 and pressure switch 60 just described are also shown, the electrical control circuit of the invention may be supplied from a three-phase source 62, the pump motor 52 being operated directly from the three-phase supply and the remainder of the system operating upon single phase AC by means of a transformer 64 the secondary winding 66 of which has one side connected to ground and the other side (the hot side) connected to a fuse 68, Motor 52 is energized upon energization of a motor starter relay CR3, the coil of which has one side connected to ground by conductors 70, 72, 74 and switch section 76 of mechanically latched relay ML-l. The other side of the coil of relay CR3 is connected by conductors 78 and 80, switch section 82 of a main relay CR1, and conductors 84 and 86 to the hot side of secondary winding 66. The coil of relay CR1 has one side connected by conductor 88 and one section 90 of a keylock switch and by conductors 72 and 74 and switch 76 to ground. The other side of the coil of relay CR1 is connected by conductor 92 to one section of an automaticmanual switch and then by conductor 96 to switch 98 of a photoelectric relay 100, the circuit continuing through a sensing on-off switch section 102 and conductor 104 to the hot side of secondary winding 66. The said other side of the coil of relay CR1 is also connected by conductor 106 to one section 108 of a cycle start switch and then to the hot side of the secondary winding 66, and also through section 110 of a reverse jog switch and by means of conductor 112 through a similar section 114 of a forward jog switch to a stop switch 116 and then by means of conductor 118 to the hot side of secondary winding 66.
When relay CR1 is energized, its switch section 120 closes and provides a holding circuit for the relay through conductor 122 and either (1) through conductor 124, section 126 of the automatic-manual switch, section 128 of the reverse jog switch, conductor 130, section 132 of the forward jog switch, stop switch 116, and conductor 118 to the hot side of secondary winding 66 or (2) through the upper contact of a limit switch LS1 and conductor 134 and then through switch section 128, etc. as before. Energization of relay CR1 also extends a circuit from the hot side of secondary winding 66, conductors 86 and 84, and closed switch section 82 to conductor 80 and then through conductor 136 to switch sections 138 and 140 of a two-position mechanically latching relay ML-2. Switch sections 138 and 140 are closed alternately upon energization of coils 142 and 144, respectively, the moving switch contacts being mechanically latched to close one switch section after energization of the corresponding coil, until the energization of the other coil, whereupon the alternate switch section is closed and mechanically latched. Switch sections 138 and 140 extend energization circuits to solenoids A and B which are connected to ground through a switch 146, conductor 148, conductor 74 and switch section 76. Coils 142 and 144 are energized when the corresponding limit switches LS1 and LS2 are closed upon their lower contacts so as to extend energization circuits from conductor 134.
Coil 142 may also be energized through a circuit including conductor 150, section 152 of the automatic-manual switch, conductor 154, section 156 of the sensing on-off switch and section 158 of the cycle start switch to the hot side of the secondary winding 66. A further energization circuit for coil 142 is provided by conductor 160, section 162 of the reverse jog switch, stop switch 116, and conductor 1 18 to the hot side of secondary winding 66. Coil 144 may be energized by a circuit including conductor 164, section 166 of the forward jog switch, stop switch 116 and conductor 118 to the hot side of the secondary winding 66.
Relay ML-l is a mechanically latching relay, which, like relay ML-Z, includes a pair of coils 168 and 170 for closing the switch sections 76 and 172 alternately. Coil 168 is energized by a circuit which extends from ground, through the coil, conductor 174, section 176 of the forward jog switch, section 178 of the reverse jog switch, conductor 180, the previously described pressure switch 60, and conductor 86 to the hot side of secondary winding 66. Coil 170 may be energized by a circuit extending from ground, through the coil, through a normally open reset switch 182, conductor 184, and conductor 86 to the hot side of secondary winding 66. When switch section 172 is closed, an indicator lamp 186 is lit. Similarly, when the keylock switch is closed, switch section 188 completes an energization circuit for an indicator lamp 190. The photoelectric relay has its own source of illumination, lamp 192, which is energized when section 102 of the sensing on-off switch is closed.
The operation of the circuit of FIG. 1 is as follows:
To prepare the system for operation, the keylock switch, including sections 90 and 188, is closed, and lamp 190 lights to indicate that the system is operative. it is assumed that the sensing on-off switch is in the off position as illustrated, that is, with switch section 156 closed, and that the automatic manual switch is in the manual' position as illustrated, that is, with switch sections 94 and 152 open and switch section 126 closed. To start a manual cycle, the normally open cycle start switch is actuated momentarily, so as to close switch sections 108 and 158. The momentary closing of switch 108 completes a circuit through conductor 106 for energizing the coil of relay CR1, and this relay closes its contacts. The closing of switch of the relay completes a holding circuit for the relay through conductor 122, conductor 124, switch section 126, switch section 128, conductor 130, switch section 132, switch 116, conductor 118, to the hot side of the secondary winding 66. Relay CR1 thus remains energized when the cycle start switch is released. The closing of switch 82 of the relay extends an energization circuit from the hot side of the secondary winding 66 through conductors 84, 80 and 78 to the coil of relay CR3, which closes its contacts and energizes pump motor 52. Hydraulic fluid is now supplied to the control valve 54(F1G. 2).
The closing of switch 82 also extends an energization circuit through conductors 80 and 136 and through whichever of switch sections 138 and is closed to solenoid A or solenoid B. One of the solenoids will thus be energized and will move the control valve 54 so as to cause the compaction blade to move in the direction in which it was moving when the circuit was last energized. Assuming that switch section 138 is closed, as shown, solenoid A will be energized, and the blade will move rearwardly until an actuator cam (not shown) supported at the rear of the blade engages the actuating arm of limit switch LS2, which is positioned at the rear of the compactor frame as indicated in FIG. 3. When switch LS2 closes, coil 144 is energized, opening switch section 138 and closing switch section 140. Solenoid A is thus deenergized and solenoid B energized, so that the control valve 54 moves to reverse the flow of hydraulic fluid to the driving ram and thus to cause the blade to move forwardly. The blade moves forwardly until the actuating cam engages the actuating arm of limit switch LS1, which may be supported adjacent to the rear of the compaction chamber 12 as shown in FIG. 3, closing switch LS1 upon its lower contact and energizing coil 142. Switch section 140 will thus be opened and switch section 138 closed, deenergizing solenoid B and energizing solenoid A again so as to reverse the movement of the blade and cause the blade to move rearwardly again. The blade will continue to cycle in this manner until the stop switch 116 is actuated, which will break the holding circuit for relay CR1 described previously. The blade will stop in whatever position it is located when the stop switch 116 is actuated. When the cycle start switch isagain actuated, the blade will commence moving again in the same direction it was moving when it was stopped.
For automatic operation the automatic-manual switch is shifted to close switch section 94, open switch section 126 and close switch section 152. When the cycle start switch is again actuated momentarily, relay CR1 will again be energized through switch section 108 and conductor 106 and will close its contacts. Limit switch LS1 will be closed upon its upper contact (assuming that the blade is not in its extreme forward position) and will complete a holding circuit for relay CR1 as described previously. Energization of relay CR1 will cause energization of motor starter relay CR3 as before. The momentary closing of switch section 158 of the cycle start switch will complete a circuit through switch section 156, conductor 4, switch section 152, and conductor 150 to coil 142 of relay ML-Z. Switch section 138 will thus be closed, energizing solenoid A and causing the blade to move rearwardly. in automatic operation the blade always commences its movement by moving rearwardly, unless the blade is already at its extreme rearward position The blade will continue to move rearwardly until limit switch LS2 is closed, and then relay coil 144 will be energized and the blade movement reversed as described in connection with the manual mode of operation. The blade will now move forwardly until limit switch LS1 is actuated, whereupon the limit switch will transfer from its upper contact to its lower contact, breaking the holding circuit for relay CR1 and deenergizing the motor starter relay CR3. The blade will now come to rest.
For automatic operation initiated in response to the presence of material to be compacted, the sensing on-off switch is moved to close switch section 102 and open switch section 156, thereby energizing the lamp 192 and the photoelectric relay 100. The lamp 192 may be located at the inlet opening of the compaction chamber slightly above the blade, as indicated in FIG. 3, with the photoelectric cell located at the opposite side of the compaction chamber, suitable openings in the side walls of the chamber being provided to permit a light beam to pass from lamp 192 to the photocell. A more detailed description of such a sensing scheme may be found in the applicant's prior US. Pat. No. 3,231 ,107, granted Jan. 25, 1966, for Apparatus for the Compaction and Disposal of Refuse. Switch 98 of the relay will normally be open. If, however, the light beam is interrupted by material placed in the hopper 14, switch 98 will close, completing a circuit from the hot side of secondary winding 66 through conductor 104, switch section 102, switch 98, conductor 96, switch section 94, and conductor 92 to relay CR1. The apparatus will then operate as above stated for manually initiated automatic operation, the light beam being reestablished and switch 98 opening when the blade moves rearwardly sufficiently to permit the material on top of the blade to drop into the compaction chamber.
if during the course of operation the container becomes filled or a serious obstruction is encountered, the hydraulic pressure supplied by the pump will rise sufficiently to actuate the pressure switch 60, which is set to operate at a predetermined high pressure level, and coil 168 of relay ML-1 will be energized, opening switch section 76 and closing switch section 172. The opening of switch section 76 will deenergize relays CR1 and CR3, and the blade will come to a halt. The closing of switch section 172 will light lamp 186 to indicate that the container is full or that attention of the operator is required. To reinstitute operation the operator momentarily closes reset switch 182 in order to energize coil 170 and return the mechanically latched relay to the condition illustrated in FIG. 1.
The forward and reverse jog switches permit precise positioning of the blade and permit the blade to be moved forward sufficiently to pin the load in the container, so that the container may be closed. it will be noted that when the jog switches are actuated, the circuit to the pressure switch is broken, so that the pressure switch does not interfere with the pinning operation even though the actuating level of the pressure switch is exceeded temporarily. Switch section 162 of the reverse jog switch is connected to relay coil 142 and switch section 166 of the forward jog switch is connected to relay coil 144, so that solenoids A and B may be energized selectively. Switch sections 128 and 132 are opened when the jog switches are actuated, so as to disable the circuits through the limit switches LS1 and LS2 and render the limit switches ineffective.
Switch 146 is provided to permit warmup" of the hydraulic fluid in cold weather. If this switch is opened, the cycle start switch may be actuated to energize pump while energization of the solenoids is prevented. The control valve will thus remain in its neutral position until switch 146 is closed.
While a preferred embodiment of the invention has been shown and described, it will be apparent to those skilled in the art that changes can be made in this embodiment without departing from the principles and spirit of the invention, the scope of which is defined in the appended claims. For example, if conductor 122 is connected to an upper contact of LS2, rather than to LS1, the compaction blade can be made to stop automatically in its fully retracted position and to move forwardly to start an automatic cycle.
1. in compaction apparatus and the like having a compaction blade driven forwardly and rearwardly by a hydraulic ram, valve means for controlling the supply of hydraulic fluid to said ram and for determining the direction of movement of said blade, a single relay means having a pair of separately energizable means for moving a common switch to corresponding positions in order to control the operation of said valve means for forward or rearward movement of said blade depending upon which of said energizable means is energized, a pair of limit switches corresponding. respectively. to the extremes of forward and rearward movement of said blade, the forward limit switch having a first position for permitting completion of an energization circuit for one of said energizable means, the rearward limit switch having a first position for permitting completion of an energization circuit for the other energizable means, said blade having means for moving said forward limit switch to said first position when said blade reaches said forward extreme and having means for moving said rearward limit switch to its first position when said blade reaches said rearward extreme, whereby said energizable means are energized alternately for controlling said valve means and for causing said blade to move between said rearward and forward extremes.
2. The apparatus of claim 1, said valve means having a pair of electrical actuating means for positioning the valve means to cause said blade to move forwardly or rearwardly, respectively, said switch of said relay means comprising means for energizing said actuating means alternately.
3. The apparatus of claim 2, said relay means comprising a pair of actuating coils connected to said limit switches, respectively, and having means for latching its switch in whichever position it is moved by one of said coils until the other coil is energized.
4. The apparatus of claim 2, further comprising additional relay means for controlling a circuit through the switch of the first-mentioned relay means to said valve actuating means, one of said limit switches having an alternate position for controlling the energization of said additional relay means.
5. The apparatus of claim 4, further comprising an electric pump for supplying hydraulic fluid to said valve means, said additional relay means having means for controlling the energization of said pump.
6. in compaction apparatus and the like having a compaction blade driven by a hydraulic ram, valve means for controlling the flow of hydraulic fluid to said ram for causing said ram to move forwardly or rearwardly in accordance with the position of said valve means and having a pair of solenoids for moving said valve means to its forward and rearward positions, respectively, and a single forward and rearward relay means including a mechanically latched switch for energizing said solenoids alternately.
7. The apparatus of claim 6, further comprising switch means responsive to forward and rearward movement of said blade, respectively, for actuating said relay means to place said mechanically latched switch in one position or the other.
8. The apparatus of claim 6, said relay means having forward and rearward actuating coils, said apparatus further comprising a pair of limit switches for energizing the forward and rearward relay coils when the blade reaches corresponding rearward and forward positions, respectively, and further comprising reverse jog switch means and forward jog switch means for energizing said rearward coil and said forward coil, respectively, and for preventing said limit switches from energizing said coils.
9. ln compaction apparatus and the like of the type having a 11. In compaction apparatus and the like of the type having compaction blade driven by a hydraulic system including cona compaction blade driven forwardly and rearwardly by a "Oi VQiVC means fOl' determining WhCIhCl' said blade 15 (.iliVCl'l hydraulic system including an electric pump and control valve fol'wardly or rearwardly- Pressure switch means responsivc to means for determining whether said blade is driven forwardly the hydraulic P in Said System for deactivating Said or rcarwardly, a pair of limit switches each having a first posi- F when a predmcmlincd Pressure level is reached Jbg tion to which the switch is moved when the blade reaches an Sw'tch means for actummg and control valve means extreme of its forward and rearward movement, respectively means responsive to operation of said jog switch means for for actuatin 1 said control valve means to r w rs I he rendering said pressure switch means incapable ot deactivat- L L x t dlrum n ol movement of said blade and one of said switches having an ing said system. It)
The apparatus Ofcluim 9 Said system having a mcchzm-b alternate position tor controlling the energization ot said cally latched relay normally responsive to said pressure switch pump means for deactivating said system.
|Citing Patent||Filing date||Publication date||Applicant||Title|
|US3717090 *||Sep 8, 1971||Feb 20, 1973||Whirlpool Co||Refuse compactor with cooperating exposed and hidden control means|
|US3721182 *||Dec 30, 1970||Mar 20, 1973||Harsco Corp||Stationary refuse packer and associated container apparatus|
|US3785278 *||Apr 29, 1971||Jan 15, 1974||Compackager Corp||Machine for compacting trash|
|US4453880 *||May 22, 1981||Jun 12, 1984||Fahrzeugbau Haller Gmbh||Control device for a loading device for bulk goods containers|
|US4603625 *||Jul 18, 1984||Aug 5, 1986||Marathon Corporation||Apparatus for monitoring the fullness of a compactor|
|US4643087 *||Jan 3, 1986||Feb 17, 1987||Marathon Corporation||Process for monitoring the fullness of a compactor|
|US5016197 *||Jun 1, 1990||May 14, 1991||Mgm Services, Inc.||Automated trash management system|
|US5299493 *||Oct 13, 1992||Apr 5, 1994||One Plus Corp.||System for monitoring trash compactors|
|US5303642 *||Jul 2, 1993||Apr 19, 1994||One Plus Corp.||System for monitoring trash compactors|
|U.S. Classification||100/50, 100/52, 100/229.00A, 100/269.6|
|International Classification||B30B9/30, B30B9/00|
|Feb 20, 1981||AS||Assignment|
Owner name: GENERAL DEFENSE CORPORATION, P.O. BOX 127, RED LIO
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST.;ASSIGNOR:NATIONAL ACCEPTANCE COMPANY OF AMERICA;REEL/FRAME:003846/0815
Effective date: 19801209
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNOR:NATIONAL ACCEPTANCE COMPANY OF AMERICA;REEL/FRAME:3846/815
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNOR:NATIONAL ACCEPTANCE COMPANY OF AMERICA;REEL/FRAME:003846/0815