US 3534896 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Oct. 20, 1970 T SPELLER ETAL 3,534,896
RIVETING MACHINE Filed Aug. 29, 1968 e Sheets-Sheet 1 INVENTOR. THOMAS H. SPELLER NORMAN H. NHELSON ALEXANDER KIIZYNYTZKY BY ATTORNEYS,
Oct. 20, 1970 SPELLER ET AL 3,534,896
RIVETING MACHINE 6 Sheets-Sheet 2 IN\ 'LNTOR. SPELLER Filed Aug. 29, 1968 1 THOMAS H.
NORMAN H. NlELSQN ALEXANDEQ KRYNVTZKY FIG. 2.
ATTORNEYS Oct. 20, 1970 SPELLER ETAL 3,534,896
RIVETING MACHlNE Filed Aug. 29, 1968 6 Sheets-Sheet Q THOMAS H. sDELLR NORMAN H. MElLSON ALEXANDER KQVNYTZKY B WMSKW AT TOENEVS Oct. 20, 1910 TfHSPELLER ETAL 7 3,534,896
RIVETING MACHINE Filed Aug. 29, 1968v 6 Sheets-Sheet THOMAS H. SDELLEQ NORMAN NEILSON ALEXANDEQ KRYNYTZKY BY ATTORNEYS Oct. 20, 1970 SPELLER ET AL 3,534,896
' RIVETING MACHINE Filed Aug. 29, 1968 6 Sheets-Sheet 5 FIG. 5..
THOMAS HSDELLIi NORMAN H. NIELSEN ALEXANDER KRYNYTZKY BY MA aw ATTORNEYS Oct. 20, 1970 T, 5 ET AL 3,534,896
RIVETING MACHINE Filed Aug. 29,- 1968 6 Sheets-Sheet 6 THOMAS H. SDELLEfZ NOQMAN H. NEILSON E A\L( EXANDER KQYNYTZKY ATTORNEYS United States Patent 3,534,896 RIVETING MACHINE Thomas H. Speller, Buffalo, Norman H. Nielsen, Orchard Park, and Alexander Krynytzky, Ebenezer, N.Y., as-
signors to General-Electra Mechanical Corporation,
Filed Aug. 29, 1968, Ser. No. 756,216 Int. Cl. B21j /10 US. Cl. 22751 9 Claims ABSTRACT OF THE DISCLOSURE Riveting apparatus which is movable to apply rivets at various points and on variously inclined axes with respect to a stationary work piece or assembly. A pair of axially alined riveting tools are mounted on blocks carried by opposed upper and lower arms of a C-frame. The blocks are jointly pivotal on a horizontal axis at right angles to the plane of the C-frame and the C-frame is pivotally mounted on a carriage for pivotal movement on a horizontal axis at right angles to the first-mentioned axis. The carriage is vertically adjustable in a frame and the frame is adjustable horizontally on a base in a direction parallel to the pivoted axis of the C-frame. The base in turn is mounted for horizontal movement at right angles to the direction of horizontal movement of the frame.
BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION This invention relates to riveting machines and, more particularly, to a riveting machine'for applying rivets to various points on a work piece having a compound curved surface.
In applying rivets to very large work pieces and assemblies of work pieces, such for instance as aircraft wing panels, great difficulties are encountered in properly positioning the work pieces or work assemblies relative to the riveting tools due to their size, and this problem is further complicated by the curving nature of the work surfaces which requires rivet hole formation and rivet application on varying axes.
In the prior art the foregoing problems have been partially met by maneuvering work pieces into proper position to be riveted and in some instances and to some extent by maneuvering the riveting instrumentalities with respect to the work pieces.
SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION The riveting machine of the present invention is particularly adapted to apply rivets to a compound curved surface, such as an aircraft wing panel, wherein the work piece surface is of relatively large area and of a length often exceeding 100 feet. To apply rivets effectively in a work piece of such size and extend the present machine is arranged to accomplish the entire riveting operation, including drilling of the rivet holes, inserting the rivets, riveting the same, and machining or shaving the rivet heads, with the work piece in a single fixed position.
The foregoing is accomplished by providing a riveting machine wherein opposed coaxial spindles which define a work axis for drilling, inserting, riveting and trimming, are adjustable angularly as a unit with respect to two generally horizontal perpendicular, axes, and wherein these axes are likewise adjustable bodily, both jointly in a vertical direction to raise or lower the plane in which these axes lie, and also separately in a horizontal direction. The spindle axis of the riveting machine is generally upright and intersects the aforesaid horizontal perpendicular axes and the upper and lower heads of the machine, which carry the opposed spindles, are jointly 3,534,896 Patented Oct. 20, 1970 rotatable on either or both of the aforesaid horizontal axes. In addition, the supports or heads, which are thus rotatably mounted, are adjustable along either of the aforesaid horizontal axes.
For convenience, the aforesaid horizontal axes will be referred to respectively as the longitudinal axis and the transverse axis. The entire machine is movable bodily along the longitudinal axis which has the effect of varying the point along the longitudinal axis where the transverse axis and the spindle axis intersect the longitudinal axis. The support for the spindle heads of the riveting machine is movable horizontally along the transverse axis which in effect moves the longitudinal axis bodily along such transverse axis in a direction toward and away from the general framework or supporting base of the riveting machine. This transversely movable support will be referred to herein as a sub-base or frame.
The opposed riveting heads are supported by opposed upper and lower arms of a C-frame which is pivoted on a horizontal axis extending parallel to the direction of horizontal transverse movement of the sub-base. The riveting heads themselves are jointly rotatable, with respect to the upper and lower arms of the C-frame upon which they are mounted, on an axis parallel to the direction of horizontal longitudinal movement of the supporting base of the machine.
The upper riveting head, in addition to the rotatable mounting on its C-frame arm, includes a transfer plate which is movable along the riveting head in a direction parallel to the transverse pivot axis of the C-frame proper to position various drilling, riveting and shaving tools in registry with the riveting axis and in coaxial alinement with a bucking tool carried by the lower riveting head.
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS FIG. 1 is a general perspective view of one form of the apparatus of the present invention;
FIG. 2 is a rear elevational view thereof;
FIG. 3 is a top plan view thereof with the superstructure of the apparatus removed for clearer illustration;
FIG. 4 is a fragmentary side elevational view with portions thereof broken away for clearer illustration and viewed from the left-hand side of FIG. 2;
FIG. 5 is a side elevational view of a C-frame member of the apparatus of FIG. 1; and
FIG. 6 is a fragmentary elevational view, partly in cross-section, showing the horizontal, longitudinal and transverse drive means of the apparatus.
DECRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENT Referring first to the general perspective view, FIG. 1, the entire machine is carried by a base 15 through the medium of a sub-base or frame 16. Base 15 is mounted for horizontal longitudinal movement on rails 17 and 18 by means of rollers 19 and sub-base 16 is mounted for horizontal transverse movement on base 15 by means of a pair of spaced parallel rails 20 on base 15 and rollers 21 at the underside of sub-base 16 (see FIG. 2).
Sub-base 16 includes a pair of spaced parallel upright side frame members 22 and an upper tie member 23. A vertically movable frame or carriage designated generally by the numeral 24 has a pair of upright side frame members 25 which are supported between the sub-base side frame members 22 and are guided for vertical movement therebetween.
The upper and lower blocks which directly support the opposed riveting devices and also, optionally, drilling and rivet feeding devices, are designated, respectively 27 and 28 and are carried by the opposed upper and lower arms of a C-frame 29 shown disassembled in FIG. 5. From the foregoing it will be seen that blocks 27 and 28 may be positioned at any point within the established limits of operation by movement thereof horizontally in both longitudinal and transverse directions and by vertical movement of frame 24 between the side walls 22.
In addition to the foregoing positioning movements the blocks 27 and 28 are jointly rotatable about two horizontal axes, one extending parallel to the direction of movement of base on rails 17 and 18, that is, longitudinally of the machine, and the other extending parallel to the direction of movement of sub-base 16 on base 15, that is, transversely of the machine. The manner in which these rotative movements are provided will now be described.
Movement of blocks 27 and 28 about the former of the above axes, namely an axis parallel to the rails 17 and 18, is effected by synchronously rotating the blocks relative to C-frame 29 by means illustrated in FIG. 5. Blocks 27 and 28 are guided for arcuate movement relative to C-frame 29 by means of an arcuate sliding connection between each of the blocks 27 and 28 and the arcuate complementary surfaces of C-frame 29. Such sliding connections are conventional and may comprise an arcuate dovetail connection, or a T-slot connection, such as that indicated at 115 in FIG. 1 and described later herein, excepting that in the present case the T-slots in C-frame 29 will be arcuate and the interfitting flanges of blocks 27 and 28 will likewise be arcuate. Blocks 27 and 28 have fixed thereto sectoral gear members 31 and 32, respectively. Pinions 33 and 34 mesh with sectoral gears 31 and 32 and are synchronously driven by shafts 35, 36 and 37 which are connected by right angle drive assemblies 38 through 41. A reversible rotary hydraulic motor 43 connects with shaft to rotate the blocks 27 and 28 in either direction about the aforesaid longitudinal axis.
Reference will now be had to the means for rotating C-frame 29 on a transverse horizontal axis, that is, an axis parallel to rails 20. FIG. 4 shows a bearing 45 which also appears in FIG. 1 and is fixed to the front of vertically movable carriage or frame 24. A shaft 47 which is fixed to C-frame 2-9 is journaled in bearing 45 and in a corresponding bearing 48 (FIG. 2) at the rear of the machine.
Motive power for adjustment of C-frame 29 on its transverse horizontal axis is by means of a hydraulic cylinder 51 (see FIG. 2), which is pivoted at one end to vertically movable frame 24 as at 52 and has a piston rod 53 which is pivoted to C-frame 29 as at 54. Thus movements of the piston of cylinder 51 in opposite directions produce pivotal movement of C-frame 29 through its shaft 47 and bearings 45 and 48.
Referring to FIG. 4, vertical movement of frame 24 between upright side frame members 22 of sub-base 16 is by means of vertical screw members which engage nut members 61 fixed to the lower opposite sides of the side frame members 25 of frame 24 and are rotatably journaled in their lower ends in bearings 62 mounted upon sub-base 16.
A central hydraulic motor 64 shown in FIG. 2 has drive shafts 65 and 66 which extend in opposite directions to worm drive units 67 which connect with the lower ends of screws 60 for rotating the same. Hydraulic cylinders 68 shown in FIGS. 2 and 4 are provided for counterbalancing the mass of vertically movable frame 24 and the instrumentalities carried thereby.
Reference will no be had to the drive means for producing longitudinal and transverse horizontal movements of the base 15 and the sub-base 16, respectively, reference being had particularly to FIGS. 3 and 6. The structure illustrated in FIG. 6, which is an elevational view taken in the direction of horizontal movement, is the same for both the longitudinal and transverse horizontal movements and, accordingly, a description of the structure of FIG. 6 is equally applicable to both.
Assuming that reference is now being had to transverse horizontal movement of sub-base 16 which, as previously described, is movable on tracks 20 by means of wheels 21 as shown in FIG. 2, a reducing gear box is mounted on sub-base 16 and a hydraulic motor 76 drives the input shaft 77 of the gear box. The numeral 78 designated a tachometer which reads back to the control console of the apparatus.
The output shaft of gear box 75 is designated 80 and carries a pinion 81 which meshes with a stationary rack 82. Rack 82 is carried by a plate 83 mounted upon a T-bar structure 84 which is fixed to. base 15. In the case of the longitudinal drive means this supporting structure will be secured to the floor or the building housing the apparatus. Further supporting structures for the stationary portion of the drive means is shown fragmentarily at 85 in FIG. 6.
A special problem exists due to the extreme length of rack 82, particularly in a longitudinal direction, and the consequent difficulty of maintaining proper meshing engagement between the rack and pinion along the entire length of the rack. Gear box 75 and consequently output shaft 80 and pinion 81, are mounted upon a plate 87 which is movable a slight amount to the left or right as viewed in 'FIG. 6. Plate 87 slides on wear plates 89 carried by a plate 91 which comprises a fixed part of sub-base 16.
A ring 88 carried by output pinion shaft 80 has a diameter equal to the pitch diameter of pinion 81 and bears against a stationary bar which has a longitudinal bearing surface alined with the pitch line of rack 82. Plate 87 is urged to the right by a hydraulic cylinder 92 to keep the ring 88 in rolling engagement with the bearing surface of bar 90*, whereby proper meshing engagement of pinion 81 with rack bar 82 is assured.
The following structure is provided for guiding subbase 16 (or base 15, as the case may be) in accurate lateral alinement in movements on their respective tracks. A rail 95 is adjustably fixed to plate 83 by means of gibs 96 and 97. Rollers 98 and 99, mounted upon sub-base 16 by shafts 100 and 101 which depend from sub-base 16, roll along wear plates at opposite sides of rail 95 to maintain accurate linearity.
For accurately measuring longitudinal movements of either sub-base 16 or base 15, each is provided with a relatively fine pinion 105 carried by sub-base 16 in the present instance, which engages with a rack 106 carried by plate 83. Rotation of pinion 105 is accurately calibrated by a motor device 108 which transmits a proportionate accurate impulse to the control console of the machine to provide a signal accurately indicating horizontal movements.
For convenient identification, the foregoing parts are identified in FIG. 3, as to longitudinal movements of base 15 on tracks 17 and 18, by adding 100 to the foregoing reference numerals. That is, the rack is designated 182, the gear box is designated 175, and so on.
Reference will now be had to the blocks 27 and 28 which carry the riveting tools and related instrumentalities. As shown in FIGS. 1 and 5, a rivet bucking tool 110 is mounted on a fixed axis with respect to 'block 28 and is adapted to be moved vertically by a hydraulic cylinder 111. This axis constitutes the central operational axis of the apparatus. Referring to upper block 27, a transfer plate 113 is slidably mounted at the lower face of block 27 in a T-slot formation 115 shown in FIG. 1, and is adapted to be moved in a direction parallel to the transverse pivot axis of the C-frame 29, that is, the axis of pivot shaft 47, by means of a hydraulic operating cylin der designated 114 in FIG. 1.
Transfer plate 113 carries drilling, riveting and shaving tool assemblies, designated, respectively, 116, 117 and 118. The initial position of transfer plate 113 is to the extreme left of the position illustrated in FIGS. 1 and 5 so that the drilling assembly 116 is in axial alinement with bucking tool 110, which, as stated above, is the working axis of the machine in the various operations. The next position is that illustrated in FIGS. 1 and 5 wherein the riveting tool 117 and bucking tool 110 are in axial registry.
The drilling and rivet forming positions must be accurately established relative to each other so that the rivet insertion performed by the riveting mechanism 117 is in accurate registry with the hole formed by the drilling mechanism 116 Accordingly, these two positions are arranged to represent the respective end positions of transfer plate 113 and adjustable end stops (not shown) at the opposite ends of the range of travel of transfer plate 113 provide accurate registry as between these two positions. The intermediate rivet head shaving position of tool 118 is not so critical from the standpoint of accuracy of registry.
A preferred embodiment of this invention having been hereinabove described and illustrated in the drawings, it is to be understood that numerous modifications thereof can be made without departing from the broad spirit and scope of this invention as defined in the appended claims.
1. Riveting apparatus adapted to move to a succession of riveting positions relative to a stationary elongated work assembly such as an aircraft wingpanel, said apparatus comprising a pair of coaxial riveting tools movable toward and away from each other and defining a riveting axis, means mounting said tools for joint rotational movement on a generally horizontal axis parallel to the longitudinal extent of said work assembly and intersecting said riveting axis, a C-frame having vertically spaced arms for supporting said mounting means, a carriage and means mounting said C-frame thereon for pivotal adjustment on a horizontal axis at right angles to said mounting means rotational axis, a supporting frame and means mounting said carriage for vertical adjustment relative to said supporting frame, a base and means mounting said supporting frame for horizontal movement on said base in a direction parallel to the axis of pivotal adjustment of said C- frame, and means mounting said base for horizontal movement lengthwise of said work assembly and parallel to the axis of rotational movement of said riveting tool mounting means.
2. Apparatus according to claim 1 including power drive means for effecting the horizontal movements of said supporting frame and said base.
3. Apparatus according to claim 1 including power drive means for eflecting rotational movements of said riveting tool mounting means and pivotal adjustments of said C-frame.
4. Apparatus according to claim 2 including power drive means for effecting rotational movements of said riveting tool mounting means and pivotal adjustments of said C-frame.
5. Apparatus according to claim 1 including power drive means for effecting vertical movement of said carriage relative to said supporting frame.
6. Apparatus according to claim 2 including power drive means for effecting vertical movement of said carriage relative to said supporting frame.
7. Apparatus according to claim 3 including power drive means for eifecting vertical movement of said carriage relative to said supporting frame.
8. Apparatus according to claim 4 including power drive means for effecting vertical movement of said carriage relative to said supporting frame.
9. Apparatus according to claim 8 wherein each of said power drive means comprises a hydraulic fluid motor means.
References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 1,894,938 1/1933 Brown 228-44 2,355,997 8/ 1944 Mueller et al 227-62 XR 2,749,421 6/ 1956 Mikulak et al 22845 XR 3,154,979 11/ 1964 Crispin 29-24354 XR GRANVILLE Y. CUSTER, JR., Primary Examiner US. Cl. X.R.