|Publication number||US3535664 A|
|Publication date||Oct 20, 1970|
|Filing date||Aug 23, 1968|
|Priority date||Aug 25, 1967|
|Also published as||DE1764863A1|
|Publication number||US 3535664 A, US 3535664A, US-A-3535664, US3535664 A, US3535664A|
|Inventors||Staar Marcel Jules Helene|
|Original Assignee||Staar Marcel Jules Helene|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Referenced by (23), Classifications (6)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
Oct. 20, 1970 M. J. H. STAAR 9 3,535,664 I DEVICE FUR BREAKING A BE OF LIGHT RAYS v OR THE LIKE AND/OR ELECTRIC CURRENT 2 sheets sheet 1 Filed Aug. 23, 1968 g i Q I i E 5 I l I i M. J. H. STAAR 3,535, 64 DEVICE FOR BREAKING A BEAN OF LIGHT RAYS OR THE LIKE AND/0R ELECTRIC CURRENT 2. Sheets-Shula;
Filed Aug. 23, 1968 .m. Ldm mt 3 3 Emmdt Emma:
United States Patent 01 :"fice Patented Oct. 20, 1970 US. Cl. 335-153 9 Claims ABSTRACT OF THE DISCLOSURE A device for breaking a beam of light rays or the like and/or electric current comprising a casing or housing made of a non-magnetic material inside which a ballshaped magnet can move so as to occupy two positions in each of which it abuts one or more members made of a ferromagnetic material, so that the magnet can retain itself thereon by its own magnetizing power, the magnet being moved into one or the other position by a momentary magnetic action produced outside the casing or housing by the momentary action of an outside winding or by the displacement of another magnet. The magnet can be utilized for breaking a beam from a lamp acting on a cell.
The invention relates to a device for breaking a beam of light rays or the like and/or electric current, an object of the invention being to provide devices of the kind specified which ensure satisfactory positioning and satisfactory electrical contact.
The device according to the invention is mainly characterized in that it comprises a casing or housing made of a nonmagnetic material inside which a ball-shaped magnet can move so as to occupy two positions in each of which it abuts one or more members made of a ferromagnetic material, so that the magnet can retain itself thereon by its own magnetizing power, the magnet being moved into its position by a momentary magnetic action produced outside the casing or housing by the momentary action of an outside winding or by the displacement of another magnet.
A particularly advantageous use of the device according to the invention is that in which the ball-shaped magnet releases or interrupts a beam of light or a ray which has a similar wavelength coming from a lamp or like element and acting on a photoelectric, photosensitive, photoconductive or like cell.
The invention will become clearly understood from the following description of a number of embodiments thereof, with reference to the accompanying drawings, wherein:
FIG. 1 is a longitudinal section through the simple device, the ball-shaped magnet being retained on an abutment by its magnetizing power;
FIG. 2 shows the ball-shaped magnet following the outside magnet in its movement along the casing;
FIG. 3 shows the ball-shaped magnet after it has completed its movement in the casing and is retained by its magnetizing power on the other abutment;
FIG. 4 shows the device when the ball-shaped magnet is breaking a beam of light rays;
FIG. 5 shows the device when the ball-shaped magnet has changed its position and releases the beam of light rays, which can thus energize a photosensitive cell;
FIGS. 68 correspond to FIGS. 1-3, but show the abutments at the ends of the casing constructed in two parts;
FIGS. 9A-9G illustrate the various phases of the rotation of the ball-shaped magnet by the effect of the magnetic field set up between the outside magnet, the abutments and the ball-shaped magnet during the displacement of the latter in the casing;
FIGS. 10 and 11 are views which substantially correspond to FIGS. 4 and 5, but in which the outside magnet is replaced by an electromagnet, the abutments being in two parts;
FIGS. 12 and 13 are similar views to FIGS. 1 and 11,
showing the device used only as an electric switch;
FIG. 14 shows a device which is similar to that shown' in FIGS. 12 and 13, but in which the neutral position of the ball-shaped magnet has been obtained by disposing another electromagnet at the centre of the length of the casing;
FIG. 15 is a view similar to FIG. 12, but in which the windings of the outside electromagnet have been disposed directly around the casing receiving the ball-shaped magnet.
Referring to the drawings, the switch comprises a casing 1 made of a non-magnetic material, such as plastic or glass. The casing 1 has been evacuated, and in its interior a ball-shaped magnet 2 can move so as to occupy two positions in each of which it abuts one or more members 3 of a ferromagnetic material at the ends of the casing, so that the ball-shaped magnet 2 can retain itself thereat by its own magnetizing power exerted on the members 3 forming abutments.
The ball-shaped magnet 2 is displaced by a momentary magnetic force exerted in the space 4 in the casing.
The momentary magnetic action can be produced by the displacement outside the casing of a magnet 5 (FIGS. 1-9) or by an outside winding (FIGS. 10-15).
As regards the displacement of magnet 5, FIG. 1 shows an end position in which the elements 2 and 5 are disposed as also shown in FIG. 9A, wherein the outside magnet 5 has no magnetic action on the ball-shaped magnet 2; the latter has been placed automatically substantially in the position illustrated in FIG. 9A.
If the magnet 5 is then displaced along the casing 1 in the direction of displacement of the ball-shaped magnet, the magnetic action of the magnet 5 on the ball-shaped magnet 2 will occur and increase as the element 5 approaches the element 2. The south poles of the elements 5 and 2 will exert a repelling action on one another, so that the ball-shaped magnet 2 will tend to rotate about its own axis in the direction indicated by the arrows in FIG. 9B, so as to successively occupy the positions shown in FIGS. 9B and 9C.
As the magnet 5 continues to move, the north pole of the magnet 5 will exert an attracting action on the south pole of 2, and this action will progressively increase (FIG. 9D) until finally it acts so as to determine for the ball-shaped magnet 2 a displacement in which the ball 2 follows the magnet 5 (FIG. 9E) until the ball 2 reaches the abutment 3 at the other end.
After the ball 2 has reached the abutment 3, the magnet 5 continues to move, and its north pole exerts an attracting effect on the south pole of the ball 2, so that the ball 2 again rotates about its own axis in the direction indicated by the arrows in FIG. 9F; finally, as the magnet 5 continues its travel it has no further influence on the ball 2, so that the latter occupies, by its own magnetization, the position shown in FIG. 9G.
Clearly, since the ball-shaped magnet 2 can rotate, it will exert a cleaning action at the places where the abutments 3 contact the ball 2.
The arrangement and operation are therefore such that when the ball-shaped magnet 2 is attracted against its abutment, it has a direction of lines of force which differs from the direction of lines of force of the outside element which is to cause the displacement of the ballshaped magnet so as to rotate it on itself.
The device described can be so used that the ball 2 can or a ray 9 of similar wavelength coming from a lamp 10 or some other element and acting on a photoelectric 'or photosensitive cell 11.
The abutments 3 of ferromagnetic material can be in two parts 3 3 (FIGS. 6-8) and so connected to electric conductors that the ball-shaped magnet 2 can be retained in a position in which it short-circuits the parts 3 3 and can thus close an outside electric circuit.
Satisfactory permanent contact is ensured because of the magnetizing power of the ball on the abutments which it contacts.
If necessary, the ball-shaped magnet 2 and the abutments 3 can be covered with a highly conductive metal.
FIGS. 10-14 show two windings 6, 7 connected to terminals 6 6 7 7 and disposed, aroundthe soft iron.
double horseshoe armature 8 of an electromagnet. v The magnetic action of the magnet is replaced by magnetic fluxes set up momentarily in the winding 8 when a pulse is delivered in the windings 6 and 7.
If the ball-shaped magnet is in the position shown in FIG. 10, it will be displaced by the action of a momentary flow of current in the winding 6, releasing the beam 9, and vice versa the ball-shaped magnet will leave the position shown in FIG. 11 as a result of the effect of a momentary'flow of current in the winding 7, to return to the position shown in FIG. 10, in which the beam 9, is interrupted.
FIGS. 12 and 13 relate to an embodiment with an electromagnet in which the ball-shaped magnet co-operates at each end of the casing with pairs of contacts 3 3 As shown in FIG. 14, halfway up the casing a further electromagnet can be disposed formed bya Winding 12 and a soft iron armature 13, so that when an electric pulse occurs in the winding 12, the ball-shaped magnet 2 is attracted opposite the armature 13 and is retained there by its own magnetization producing a neutral position of the ball-shaped magnet in which neither of the two circuits 3 3 is closed.
As shown in FIG. 15, the windings 6, 7 can also be formed directly around the casing 1.
What I claim is:
1. A device for breaking a beam of rays, said device comprisinga casing of a non-magnetic material, a ballshaped magnet adapted to move inside the casing so as to occupy two positions, at least one member made of a ferromagnetic material located at each of said two positions, whereby the magnet can retain itself at said positions by its own magnetizing power, and means for moving the magnet to said positions by a-momentary magnetic action produced outside the casing.
2. A device according to claim 1 in which the means for moving the magnet comprises another magnet adapted to be displaced. i
3. A device according to claim 1 in which the means for moving the magnet comprises another magnet displaceable along the casing in the direction of movement of the ball-shaped magnet.
4. A device according to claim 1 in which the means for moving the magnet comprises outside windings disposed around a soft iron double horseshoe armature of an electromagnet.
5. A device according to claim 1 in which the members of ferromagnetic material for contact with the magnet shaped magnet to rotate about its own axis.
7. A device according to claim 1 wherein said member of ferromagnetic material at each position comprises two parts connected toelectrical conductors so that the I ball-shaped magnet can be retained in a position in which it short-circuits the said parts, while assuring contact, due to the magnetizing power of the ball-shaped magnet on said parts.
8. A device as set forth in claim 4 wherein said outside Windings are disposed around the casing.
9. A device as set forth in claim 4 comprising a supplementary electromagnet disposed intermediate said two positions and including a winding and a soft iron armature, so that when an electric pulse occurs in the winding, theball-shaped magnet is attracted to a position opposite the armature and is retained thereat'by its own magnetization, thus producing a neutral position of the ball-shaped magnet between said two positions.
References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 2,802,078 8/1957 Martin 335-280 X 3,356,948 12/1967 Zerfass 335153 BERNARD A. GILHEANY, Primary Examiner R. N. ENVALL, 111., Assistant Examiner .U.S. Cl. X.R.
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|U.S. Classification||335/153, 335/207, 335/280|