US 3536001 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
United States Patent Inventor Albert G. Bodine 7877 Woodley Ave., Van Nuys, California 91406 Aug. 11, 1969 Continuation-impart of Ser. No. 543,258, Aug. 18, 1966, now Pat. No. 3,460,486, dated Aug. 12, 1969.
Patented Oct. 27, 1970 Appl. No. Filed METHOD FOR SONIC PROPUISION 10 Claims, 8 Drawing figs.
US. Cl. 100/41; 37/80; [00/176: 198/218; 259/99 Int. Cl. B301) ll/22  Field of Search 259/99; 100/41,176:60/(lnquired): l98/2l8: 37/80  References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 3,033,543 5/1962 Bodine 37/80UX 3,269,039 8/1966 Bodine 37/80UX 3,284,010 11/1966 Bodine 100/41UX Primary ExaminerBilly J. Wilhite Attorney-Sokolski and Wohlgemuth ABSTRACT: An elastic member is resonantly vibrated at a sonic frequency in gyratory vibration mode. Material to be propelled is biased against a tractive surface of the vibratory member in a manner such that the vibratory component tangent to the surface of the vibratory member acts to propel the material.
Patented Oct. 27, 1970 Sheet VEN TOR.
ALBERT G. BODI NE SOKOLS K? 8 WOHLGEMUTH ATTORNEYS Patented Oct. 27, 1970 Sheet FIG.5
ALBERT G. BODINE SOKOLSKI 8 WOHLGE MUTH ATTORN EYS Patented Oct. 27, 1970 Sheet lnllllnllln INVENTOR.
ALBERT G. SWINE FIG.7A
SOKOLSKI 8 WOHLGEMUTH ATTORNEYS This application is a continuation in part of my US. Pat. application Ser. No. 543,258, filed Aug. 18, 1966, now US. Pat. No. 3,460,486, which was issued Aug. 12, 1969.
This invention relates to a sonic method for propelling material and more particularly, to the use of an elastic member which is resonantly vibrated in a gyratory mode for applying a propulsive force to material biased thereagainst.
In my copending application, Ser. No. 543,258, of which this application is a continuation in part, a technique is described for improving the traction between a locomotive wheel and the track on which it rides by using sonic energy to attain more intimate contact between these two members. It has been found that the sonic energy not only increases the traction but also applies a propulsive force at the contact surface which can be useful in certain applications where the propulsion of certain types of materials is required. This application is concerned with implementing this sorric technique so that not only tractive friction is obtained between a drive member and material or an element to be driven, but also a propulsive force which will cause the movement of such material or elements in operations such as the propelling of material handling pallets, the handling of metal bars, wooden boards and the like, the propelling of liquids, the propelling of members through a compacting device, etc.
In these various types of operations, mechanical drive units of one type or another have been utilized in the past. These units are somewhat intricate and expensive in their construction, and often do not have the capability of as accurately controlling the propelling operation as to be desired. The method of this invention lends itself to highly accurate control and involves relatively simple implementations as compared with many prior art propulsion techniques.
It is therefore, the principal object of this invention to provide an improved propulsion method whereby sonic energy is utilized to implement the propulsion.
Other objects of this invention will become apparent from the following description taken in connection with the accompanying drawings of which:
FIG. 1 is a perspective view illustrating the use of the method of the invention for propelling a plank member such as a pallet;
FIG. 2 is a perspective view illustrating the utilization of the technique of the invention for providing rotary drive to a member;
FIG. 3 is a perspective view illustrating the utilization of the technique of the invention for simultaneously propelling and compressing an elongated member;
FIG. 4 illustrates the utilization of the method of this invention for propelling a board member or the like;
FIG. 5 illustrates the utilization of the method of this invention for propelling a liquid as in a fluid mixing operation;
FIG. 6 illustrates the utilization of the method of this invention for making a ditch; and
FIGS. 7 and 7A illustrate the utilization of the method of the invention in the compaction or extrusion of material.
Briefly described, the method of the invention involves the application of a rotating force to an elastic member so as to set up a gyratory vibration which may be resonant, in this column whereby a surface thereof describes a rotary closed loop vibration. Material to be propelled is biased against this vibrational surface and is subjected to a propulsive force in a direction defined by the points of frequency between the material and this surface. Actually the point of frequency becomes a phase of frequency, the length of which is determined by the bias which invades" the rotary cycle.
It has been found most helpful in analyzing the method of this invention to analogize the acoustically vibrating circuit utilized to an equivalent electrical circuit. This sort of approach to analysis is well known to those skilled in the art and is described, for example, in Chapter 2 of Sonics by l-lueter and Bolt, published in 1955 by John Wiley and Sons. In making such an analogy, force F is equated with electrical voltage E, velocity of vibration u is equated with electrical current 4, mechanical compliance C, is equated with electrical capacitance C,, mass M is equated with electrical inductance 'L, mechanical resistance (friction) R,, is equated with electrical resistance R and mechanical impedance Z,,, is equated with electrical impedance 2,.
Thus, it can be shown that if a member is elastically vibrated by means of an acoustical sinusoidal force F, sinwt (to being equal to 211' times the frequency of vibration), that Where wM is equal to condition exists,
ponents wM and cancelling each other out. Under such a resonant condition, velocity of vibration u is at a maximum, power factor is unity, and energy is more efficiently delivered to a load to which the resonant system may be coupled.
It is important to note the significance of the attainment of high acoustical Q in the resonant system being driven, to increase the efficiency of the vibration thereof and to provide a maximum amount of power. As for an equivalent electrical circuit, the Q of an acoustically vibrating circuit is defined as the sharpness of resonance thereof and is indicative of the ratio of the energy stored in each vibration cycle to the energy used in each such cycle. 0" is mathematically equated to the ratio used in each such cycle. 0" is mathematically equated to the ratio between 00M and R,,,. Thus, the effective 0" 0f the vibrating circuit can be maximized to make for highly efficient, high-amplitude vibration by minimizing the effect of friction in the circuit and/or maximizing the effect of mass in such circuit.
In considering the significance of the parameters described in connection with equation l it should be kept in mind that the total effective resistance, mass, and compliance in the acoustically vibrating circuit are represented in the equation and that these parameters may be distributed throughout the system rather than being lumped in any one component or portion thereof.
It is also to be noted that orbiting-mass oscillators are utilized in the implementation of the invention that automatically adjust their output frequency and phase to maintain resonance with changes in the characteristics of the load. Thus. in the face of changes in the effective mass and compliance presented by the load with changes in the conditions of the work material as it is sonically excited, the system automatically is maintained in optimum resonant operation by virtue of the lock-in characteristic of applicants unique orbitingmass oscillators. Furthermore in this connection the orbitingmass oscillator automatically changes not only its frequency but its phase angle and therefore its power factor with changes in the resistive impedance load, to assure optimum efficiency of operation at all times. The vibrational output from such or biting-mass oscillators also tends to be constrained by the resonator to be generated along a controlled predetermined coherent path to provide maximum output along a desired axis.
Referring now to FIG. 1, the use of the method of the invention for propelling a plank member such as, for example, in moving cargo pallets around is illustrated. Orbiting mass oscillator 11 which may be of the type illustrated in FIG. 7 of my US. Pat. No. 3,416,632, is rotatably driven by means of motor 12 at a frequency such as to cause gyratory resonant elastic vibration of bar member 15 with standing waves being set up in the bar as indicated by graph lines 17. Plank member 18 which as already noted may comprise the base of a pallet is mixing and shearing is desired as in the resiliently biased downwardly against the surface of the bar member by means of elastomeric member 19 which may be of rubber and which is held against the Surface of plank 18 by means of arm 22.
Motor 12 is rotated in the direction indicated by arrow 25.
This produces a gyratory vibration of bar member 15 which' can be resolved into two orthogonal components, one of these components as indicated by arrow 28 being parallel to the surface of plank l8 and the other component as indicated by arrow 29 being normal thereto. The vibrational component indicated by arrow 28 is applied to plank 18 during its phase of tangency or contact with bar 15, thus imparting a propulsive force to the plank. The length of time that the plank receives energy in direction 28 is determined by the bias of member 19 and therefore the amount of motion also in direction 29. It is important that the plank does not stay in contact throughout the stroke 29, however, because this would nullify propulsion. The direction of propulsion of course can be reversed by reversing the direction of motor 12.
Referring now to FIG. 2, the utilization of the method of this invention for imparting a rotational drive to an element is illustrated. The oscillator and motor for this embodiment may be the same as that illustrated in FIG. 1 and therefore are not shown again here. Bar member 15 is resonantly vibrated in gyratory mode in the same manner as the corresponding bar member of FIG. 1. Rotatably supported on bar member 15 is a roller member 35. Typically the hole in roller member is sufficiently small to assure impact with bar member 15, which interference can be further aided by gravity. This roller member rotatably driven in the direction indicated by arrow 36 in response to gyratory excitation of bar member 15 in the direction indicated by arrows 38. Roller member 35 is thus rotatably driven. This roller member may be used for such applications as rotary drive, squeezing, rolling applications and the like.
Referring now to FIG. 3, another embodiment of the method of the invention is illustrated, this technique being suitable for simultaneously propelling and applying a compressive force to material, as for example in a rolling or sizing operation. Oscillator units 40 and 41 are driven in opposite directions as indicated by arrows 43 and 42, such rotational drive being provided by motor 45 through the intermediary of gear box 46. Resonant bars 47 and 48 are resonantly vibrated in a gyratory mode as indicated by arrows 50 and 51, respectively, with standing wave patterns being set up as represented by graph lines 53. A bar member 56 having a slightly greater thickness than the separation between the resonant bars is propelled between the resonant bars in the direction indicated by arrow 60, the bar member 56 thus being rolled or squeezed as it is propelled by virtue of die vibrational energy imparted to the member at the interface between it and the resonant bars. The bias force here, to cause the necessary propulsion invasion of the rotary excursion of the resonant bars, comes about from the squeezing action.
It is to be noted that in the embodiment of FIG. 3, the sonic energy is applied to member 56 from the resonant bars acting in unison, in view of the opposite gyratory motion imparted to each. This type of action is particularly effective where squeezing action is desired simultaneous with the propulsion.
Referring now to FIG. 4, another application of the technique of the invention is illustrated. In this particular embodiment only a single resonator member 71 is utilized with the member 72 to be propelled being moved through bars 73 and 74 in the direction indicated by arrow 75. In this embodiment member 72 is gripped by serrations 73a formed in jaw member 73. The propulsive force is generated by means of I oscillator which is driven by shaft 78 in the direction indicated by arrow 79. It is to be noted that in this embodiment only a single one of the jaw members 73 is vibrationally excited with a gyratory force pattern as indicated by arrows 80. Jaw member 74 remains stationary. This results in a shearing force which is particularly useful in applications where blending of rubber; or
in clad welding of sheets, where shearing friction is desired.
Referring now to FIG. 5, another application of the method of the invention is illustrated, in this instance as utilized for the mixing of a liquid. The liquid to be mixed in contained Within container 91. Immersed in the liquid with their surfaces opposing each other are a pair of jaw members 92 and 93. Attached to each of the jaw members is a resonant bar member 94 and 95, respectively. Resonant bar member 94 is resonantly vibrated in a gyratory mode as indicated by arrows 104 by means of oscillator 96, while bar member 95 is resonantly vibrated in a gyratory mode as indicated by arrows by means of oscillator 97. The oscillators are driven in opposite directions as indicated by arrows 98 and 99. A similar drive system to that shown in FIG. 3 may be utilized for driving shafts 98 and 99 in the desired manner, thru gear box 106 from motor thru shaft 100. A gyratory force propels the liquid between the jaws as indicated by arrows 103 to provide a high level mixing action thereto, the device operating for example as a colloid mill. It is to be noted that the hydrostatic pressure of the liquid provides a biasing force between the jaws and the liquid, so that again the liquid picks up a portion of the rotary cycle. The method of FIG. 5 thus can be used for various types of mixing, blending and homogenizing. It is to be noted that the sonic energy can provide additional incidental elfects, such as those afforded by sonic cavitation.
Referring now to FIG. 6, the utilization of the method of this invention for making a ditch is illustrated. In this instance the resonant bar members 11 1 and 112 are vibrated in a gyratory mode as indicated by arrows 114 and 115, respectively. Such gyratory excitations achieved by means of oscillators 117 and 118 which are rotatably driven by motor not shown, (same as FIG. 3) in the directions indicated by arrows 120 and 121. respectively. The resonantly excited bars 111 and 112 are separated by means of separator member 116 and are propelled through the ground in the direction indicated by arrow 123 to perform the ditch making operation.
Referring now to FIGS. 7 and FIG. 7a, the utilization of the method of this invention for compacting materials such as cattle feed, salvage material, trash, etc., is illustrated. In this instance the resonant bar members and 131 are resonantly vibrated by means of oscillators 133 and 134, respectively The oscillators are driven in the directions indicated by arrows 137 and 138 to produce resonant gyratory vibration as in- 1 dicated by arrows I40 and 141, respectively. Bar members 130 and 131 are attached to associated jaw members 143 and 144. These jaw members are both tapered as illustrated in FIG. 70.
Material to be compacted is placed in between the jaw members and is simultaneously propelled and squeezed through the jaws in the direction indicated by arrow 152, the compacted material being exited from the bottom of the jaws. Thus, the compaction operation is achieved in a highly efficient manner.
It is to be noted that in each instance the elastic bar members are vibrated in a closed loop vibration which may be either circular or elliptical and which may provide a resonant standing wave vibration of the bar members, this affording very high level of vibrational energy. It is further to be recognized that a holding force is utilized which holds the element to be; propelled against the resonant system which force is preferably adjusted so that the holding action is only provided during the portion of the vibrational cycle during which the vibratory component is in the desired direction of propulsion.
- The method of this invention thus provides a simple highly effective technique for utilizing sonic energy for propelling material and members, this end result being achieved by elastically vibrating bar members in a gyratory mode and transferring a component of this vibrational energy to the surface of the material or element to be propelled at the interface therebetween.
1. A method for propelling an element comprising the steps of:
vibrationally driving an elastic member in a gyratory mode of vibration;
biasing material to be propelled against a surface of said vibrating member; and
adjusting the tangential interface between the elastic member and the material to be propelled so it is in the plane of the desired propulsion.
2. The method of claim 1 wherein the frequency of vibration is adjusted to cause resonant vibration of said elastic member.
3. The method of claim 1 wherein said elastic member is in the form of a longitudinal bar.
4. The method of claim 1 wherein said material is resiliently biased against said vibrating member.
5. The method of claim 1 wherein a pair of said elastic members are vibrationally driven in phase opposition, said material being simultaneously propelled and compressed between said i bar members. i
j 6. The method of claim 5 wherein said bar members each have a tapered jaw attached thereto, the material being passed through said jaws to achieve compaction thereof.
7. The method of claim 1 wherein said material comprises a roller member gravity biased against said elastic member.
8. The method of claim 1 wherein the biasing is provided by means of a tractive surface spaced from said elastic member by a distance slightly less than the thickness of the material.
9. The method of claim 1 wherein said material comprises a liquid, and a pair of said elastic members are driven in phase opposition to likewise drive a pair of jaw members, the liquid being propelled between said jaw members.
10. The method of claim 1 wherein a pair of said elastic members are driven in phase opposition and said members are biased against earthen material to form a ditch therein.