|Publication number||US3536912 A|
|Publication date||Oct 27, 1970|
|Filing date||Aug 31, 1966|
|Priority date||Sep 16, 1965|
|Publication number||US 3536912 A, US 3536912A, US-A-3536912, US3536912 A, US3536912A|
|Inventors||Kastner Fritz, Speck Werner|
|Original Assignee||Siemens Ag|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (3), Referenced by (3), Classifications (8)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
0t.z7,-1970 I WS K EIY'AL v 3,536,912
SUPPORT-DEVICE FOR THE CRYSTAL OF AN X-RAY SPECTROMETER Filed Aug. 3l,' 1965 r 2 Sheets-Sheet 1 Fig.1
'IINVENTOVRS wxwia ",QAT'TYS.
w. SPECK E AL 3,536,912
Oct. 27, 1970 SUPPORT-DEVICE FOR THE CRYSTAL OF AN X-RAY SPECTROMETER I z 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 Filed Aug 51, 1966 Y 12 n v I IL I i 13a H Imp lla l I m v v VENTQRS I Werner Spec/ United States Patent 3,536,912 SUPPORT-DEVICE FOR THE CRYSTAL OF AN X-RAY SPECTROMETER Werner Speck, Bietigheim, and Fritz Kastner, Karlsruhe,
Germany, assignors to Siemens Aktiengesellschaft,
Munich, Germany, a corporation of Germany Filed Aug. 31, 1966, Ser. No. 576,444 Claims priority, applicatigrgl ggrmany, Sept. 16, 1965,
Int. (:1. (26111 23/20 US. Cl. 250-515 Claims ABSTRACT OF THE DISCLOSURE As is well known, the crystals in X-ray spectrometers are relatively sensitive so that they can be easily damaged and consequently an exchange of the crystal freqeuntly is required. The various individual examinations also require different crystals. In known supporting devices for the crystals in X-ray spectrometers, the crystal exchange requires a new adjustment of the crystal, which is undesirable for the reason that it has to be undertaken by the user of the X-ray spectrometer who often is not experienced in such operations. This is correspondingly true with regard to the support of curved monochromatic crystals, as well as samples.
The invention is directed to a supporting device, particularly for the support of the crystal of an X-ray spectrometer and solves the problem of creating a supporting device which avoids the necessity of an adjustment in the spectrometer. A device, according to the invention, which solves this problem is characterized in that the crystal is rigidly mounted, in customary manner, in a first mounting whic hin turn is inserted in a second mounting in an adjustable manner in such a way that its ranges of reflection of the X-rays have a definable position in relation to the base of the second mounting, remote from the mounted crystal, and that in the spectrometer a crystal holder, with a support table for the receiving and mounting of the base of the second mounting, is provided which occupies a predetermined position with respect to the sample and the detectors of the spectrometer. As a result of these features, an adjustment is obtained of all parts relative to the rotation axis of the spectrometer.
In the supporting device, according to the invention, all of the adjustment processes may be completed by the manufacturer of the instrument at the factory. For example, the crystal mounted in customary manner can be adjusted in the second mounting in a device at the factory relative to the base of the second mounting remote from the crystal, and the support table of the crystal holder in the X-ray spectrometer is likewise completely adjusted by the manufacturer with regard to its position, i.e., with regard to its position as well as with regard to its inclination relative to the sample and to the detectors of the spectrometer, and also for example, to the counting tubes.
Consequently, while the crystal is rigidly cemented in a known manner into the first mounting or is glued into such mounting or rigidly attached to such mounting in another manner, the crystal so mounted is supported in the second mounting in an adjustable manner. This may be accomplished by the feature that adiustment screws and cooperaice.
ble springs are provided. Expediently, these elements are disposed in bores in peripheral portions of the first mounting. Consequently, the first mounting laterally surrounds the crystal, with its edge portions appropriately constructed with sufiicient width to accommodate the adjusting screws and cooperable springs.
The base of the second mounting remote from the mounted crystal and the supporting table on the crystal holder must be brought into a specific position relative to each other, and in a preferred form of the invention this is accomplished in such a manner that the base of the second mounting remote from the mounted crystals, which forms the reference plane for the adjustment of the crystal within its mounting, and/or the supporting table of the crystal holder which presents a defined position relative to the elements of the spectrometer, is provided with magnets and that the other cooperable member consists of a paramagnetic material. In the magnetic retention of the second mounting and crystal on the supporting table of the crystal holder, the magnets may be flush with the respective plane of the table, whereby the entire table actually defines the supporting plane. However, it is also possible to let the magnets extend outwardly from the actual table plane, in which case the magnets can be held by means of adjusting screws which serve for the adjustment of the supporting plane, i.e., of the base of the second mounting.
Since the magnetic attraction is effective primarily in the direction of the lines of the magnetic field, it will be as a rule desirable to provide lateral stops in the support plane for the second mounting and the associated mounted crystals;
Often there is the desire or requirement to be able to selectively bring any of several crystals into operating position. The supporting device according to the invention meets this requirement if the crystal holder contains as crystal changer several supporting tables in a drum-like assembly or turret which is so arranged that it may rotate about the axis of its shaft, which may be connected to suitable drive means. The turret can be so adjusted at the factory that all support planes, when swung into operating position, possess the specific required position relative to the sample and to the detectors of the spectrometer.
If the instrument involved is an X-ray spectrometer with detectors that may be swung around an axis, this axis expediently is at least approximately perpendicular to the direction of the axis of the drum or turret of the crystal holder, since in this case play in the operating position of the individual crystals with respect to the ability of reproducing the analysis, does not have such a pronounced effect.
In order to control which crystal is in the operating position and whether the swinging motion has been completed, cam means for the operation of contacts may be associated with the turret, which are disposed in suitable circuits for maintaining the turret in position.
In the following the invention is explained in geater detail by means of the example of construction illustrated in the figures, wherein like reference characters indicate like or corresponding parts, and in which:
FIG. 1 is a top plan view of a crystal setting embodying the invention;
FIG. 2 is an end elevation of the structure illustrated in FIG. 1 with a portion broken away to show the details thereof;
FIG. 3 is a side view of a crystal holder, constructed as a crystal changer; and
FIG. 4 is a front view of the structure of FIG. 3 with portions broken away to show the details thereof.
Referring to FIGS. 1 and 2, the reference numeral 1 designates the crystal which is rigidly held, in known manner. in a first mounting 3, for example, by gluing or cementing, the glue recesses or bores 2 being provided for the purpose. The crystal so mounted is now assembled in a second mounting 4 in an adjustable manner. In order to obtain the desired adjustability, the mounted crystal is not rigidly disposed in the second setting, but is adjustably retained by means of adjusting screws 5 and cooperable compression springs 6 in a more or less suspended manner within the second mounting 4. As is apparent from the to pview of FIG. 1, three adjusting screws 5 are provided in this embodiment to avoid static uncertainties. As particularly illustrated in the front view of FIG. 2, partially shown in section, the adjusting screws 5 and the compression springs 6 are disposed in the longitudinally extending peripheral portions of the first mounting which have been appropriately constructed with a corresponding width sufficient to accommodate bores in which the respective springs are retained, the screws 5 being threaded into the bottom 7 of the second mounting 4.
The parts 5 and 6 serve for the adjustment of the ranges of the crystal 1 reflecting the X-rays to bring them into a defined position relative to the base member 8 of the second mounting 4 disposed at the side of the setting 1 remote from the mounted crystal. This base cooperates with supporting means at the crystal holder in the spectrometer, said supporting means likewise being adjustable relative to the sample and to the detectors of the spectrometer, which adjustment would be factory-set.
An example of construction for a sample holder in the form of a changer, according to the invention, is illustrated in FIGS. 3 and 4. The crystal 1 is not illustrated in FIG. 4 in order to clearly disclose a supporting table 10 therefor. Such support table carries permanent magnets 11 which serve for the retention of the second mounting 4 (see FIGS. 1 and 2) carrying the mounted crystal. In accordance therewith, at least the bottom 7 of the second mounting 4 is constructed of a paramagnetic material. In the crystal holder illustrated in FIGS. 3 and 4, the magnets 11 extend outwardly from the plane of the supporting table 10, and accordingly define the actual support plane for the base member 8 of the second crystal mounting 4. In order to provide the possibility of a simple adjustment for such magnets, they may be retained in operative position on the table 10 by means of screws. Accordingly, in FIG. 4 the adjusting screws 12 illustrated are associated with those permanent magnets attached to the support table which is opposite to the visible support table 10 in the installation represented in FIGS. 3 and 4.
In order to provide security against a lateral sliding of the crystal mountings, retained only by magnetic force, rigid stops or catches 13 and 13a and resilient catches 14 are attached to the individual supporting tables. In this construction the rigid catches 13 serve simultaneously for the operating of contact means 15 which are operatively disposed in mounting circuits, and enable the determination as to whether the crystal has swung into operating position, i.e., to determine whether the swinging motion thereof is completed.
As already mentioned several times, the installation illustrated in FIGS. 3 and 4 is a crystal changer with several crystals. The illustrated crystal holder may be supplied with four crystals of which in FIG. 3 only one designated by the numeral 1 is schematically illustrated. The supporting tables for the reception of the crystal, of which only the one designated by the numeral 10 is visible, in FIG. 3, are combined in a drum-like manner by oppositely disposed pairs. This drum-like configuration or turret may be rotated around the axis of the turret shaft 16 by means of gearing comprising the respective gears 17 to 21 and the coupling 22 by means of a motor (not shown). In order to retain the axis of the rotating shaft 16 and the supporting table 10 rotatable therewith into operating position, in a defined position relative to the sample and to the detectors of the spectrometer, a special bearing for the rotatable shaft 16 is provided, whereby the bearing play is as small as possible, the shaft 16 being urged into the recess 24 of the bearing block 25 by means of a spring 23. The axis of the shaft 16 is perpendicular to the direction of the pivotal axis 26 of the spectrometer.
The invention is not limited to the examples of construction illustrated in the figures. For example, the crystal holder may be constructed for the reception of only a single crystal or for the reception of more than four crystals. A different number of adjusting screws and cooperable springs for the support of the mounted crystal in the second mounting may be employed, without departing from the principle, according to the invention, of the adjustment of the crystal relative to a plane formed by its mounting on the one hand, and of the creation of a support table having a defined position relative to the sample and to the detectors at the crystal holder in the X-ray spectrometer on the other hand, as well as the fact that these tWo structures can be assembled without requiring any subsequent adjustment. The invention obviously may also be utilized in connection with the support of monochromatic crystals and samples.
Changes may be made within the scope and spirit of the appended claims which define what is believed to be new and desired to have protected by Letters Patent.
1. In combination, a spectrometer having a crystal holder supporting table associated therewith, the said supporting table having a set position relative to the position of the sample to be examined by the spectrometer and to the detectors of the spectrometer, and a crystal supporting device comprising a first mounting member in which a spectrometer crystal is adhesively retained, a second mounting member having a base surface thereon, said first mounting member inserted in said second mounting member in a defined position whereby the ranges of refiection of X-rays by said crystal have a defined position relative to the said base of the said second mounting member, said first member adjustably retained in said second member so as to allow movement of said first member with respect to said second member to obtain said defined position and said second member adapted to be retained against the said crystal holder supporting table in a preset position relative to the supporting table and base surface.
2. The apparatus of claim 1 wherein the said first member is adjustably retained in the said second member by means of compressible springs entrapped between the said two members and adjustable screws connecting the said two members adapted to force the said two members together against the contra-acting force of the said springs.
3. The apparatus of claim 2 wherein the adjustable screws and compressible springs are disposed in bores located in peripheral portions of the first mounting member.
4. The apparatus of claim 1 wherein cooperable magnetic means are provided in association with the said crystal holder supporting table and the said second mounting for retaining the said second mounting and table in assembled relation by magnetic attraction.
5. An assembly according to claim 4 wherein said cooperable magnetic means provided on the supporting table and second mounting member comprise magnets carried by one cooperable with a paramagnetic portion of the other.
6. An assembly according to claim 5 wherein said magnets extend outwardly from the plane of their supporting member and are retained in operative position by means of adjusting screws.
7. An assembly according to claim 1 wherein the said crystal holder supporting table is in the form of a crystal changer containing a plurality of individual crystal supporting tables in a turret arrangement, and drive means operatively connected to the turret by means of which it may be rotated about its axis to sequentially present individual supporting tables at an operating position with respect to the other elements of the spectrometer.
8. An apparatus according to claim 7 wherein the spectrometer is equipped with detectors which may be swung around an axis and in which the turret arrangement is rotatable about an axis extending substantially perpendicular to the direction of the rotational axis of said detectors.
9. The apparatus according to claim 8 including lateral catches carried by the individual supporting tables for positioning the second mounting members thereon.
10. The apparatus according to claim 9 including cam means on the turret arranged to operate contacts in a monitoring circuit for indicating the position of the turret arrangement.
References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 2,540,821 2/1951 Harker 250-5115 3,124,681 3/1964 Zingaro 25051.5 3,177,360 4/1965 Hague et a1. 25051.5
OTHER REFERENCES Micro X-Ray Diffraction Camera for Studies of Orientation Textures and Single Microcrystals, J. E. Glas,
10 Journal of Scientific Instruments, v01. 39, 1962, pp. 60-
ARCHIE R. BORCHELT, Primary Examiner C. E. CHURCH, Assistant Examiner
|Cited Patent||Filing date||Publication date||Applicant||Title|
|US2540821 *||Apr 19, 1949||Feb 6, 1951||Gen Electric||X-ray spectrometer|
|US3124681 *||Mar 16, 1961||Mar 10, 1964||Philips Electronics a Pharmaceutical Industries Corp||Zingaro|
|US3177360 *||Sep 14, 1962||Apr 6, 1965||Norton Co||Diffractometer with a rotatable support to hold plural samples for automatic analysis of crystalline material|
|Citing Patent||Filing date||Publication date||Applicant||Title|
|US4151418 *||Aug 17, 1977||Apr 24, 1979||Bausch & Lomb, Inc.||Multiple crystal holder assembly for wavelength dispersive X-ray spectrometers|
|US4278883 *||Dec 27, 1979||Jul 14, 1981||The United States Of America As Represented By The Secretary Of The Interior||Sample mount for X-ray diffraction|
|US4641329 *||Apr 23, 1985||Feb 3, 1987||The United States Of America As Represented By The United States Department Of Energy||Fixture for supporting and aligning a sample to be analyzed in an X-ray diffraction apparatus|
|U.S. Classification||378/85, 378/79, 976/DIG.431|
|International Classification||G21K1/00, G21K1/06|
|Cooperative Classification||G21K1/06, G21K2201/062|