Search Images Maps Play YouTube News Gmail Drive More »
Sign in
Screen reader users: click this link for accessible mode. Accessible mode has the same essential features but works better with your reader.

Patents

  1. Advanced Patent Search
Publication numberUS3538864 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateNov 10, 1970
Filing dateAug 26, 1968
Priority dateAug 26, 1968
Publication numberUS 3538864 A, US 3538864A, US-A-3538864, US3538864 A, US3538864A
InventorsSegrist William W
Original AssigneeNo Flame Process Inc
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Calcination cremator
US 3538864 A
Abstract  available in
Images(5)
Previous page
Next page
Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

United States Patent Inventor William W. Segrest Maitland, Florida Appl. No. 755,038

Filed Aug. 26,1968

Patented Nov. 10, 1970 Assignee By mesne assignments, to No Flame Process, Inc., Miami, Florida. a corporation of Florida CALCINATION CREMATOR 7 Claims, 9 Drawing Figs.

U.S. Cl 1 10/3 Int. Cl F23g 1/00 Field of Search 1 10/3, 8

[56] References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 3,136,273 6/1964 Blesch etal 110/3 FOREIGN PATENTS 503,805 7/1930 Germany 110/3 Primary Examiner Edward G. Favors Attorney Flehr, Hohback, Test, Albritton and Herbert ABSTRACT: Calcination cremator having means forming a calcinating and cremating chamber, means forming a chamber for creating hot gases and means forming a mixing chamber and in which burner means is provided in the calcinating and cremating chamber and additional burner means is provided in the means for forming a chamber for creating hot gases and control means for controlling the first named and additional bnrner means to determine whether calcination or cremation will take place,

Patented Nov. 10,1970 3,538,864

Sheet 1 of 5 F i g.

INVENTOR. William W Segr'es! BY 55.4%, W mg Attorneys Patented Nov.- 10, 1970 9 3,538,864

Sheet 2 of 5 g ill! I INVENTOR. F I g. 2 V 7 William WSegresf 4% MAM Attorneys Patented Nov. 10, 1970 Sheet INVENTOR. William W Segresf Y 1%,

ztorneys Patented Nov. 10, 1970 3,538,864

- Sheet 4 of5 INVENTOR.

William W Segresf WW MfiM Attorneys Patented Nov, 10, 1970 l 3,538,864

Sheet 5 of5 LL 7 I 1 INVENTOR. William W Segrest Attorneys CALCINATION CREMATOR BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION In US. Pat. No. 3,l36,273, there is disclosed a calcination retort of the type which has heretofore been provided. However, it has been found that such calcination retorts do have some disadvantages. Such calcination retorts are generally quite expensive and are relatively costly to install. In addition, they have required substantial periods of time to cool down after calcination has been completed. There is, therefore, a need for a new and improved retort which can be utilized for either calcination or cremation.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION AND OBJECTS The calcination cremator consists of a casing. Means is provided which forms a calcinating and cremating chamber within the casing and has an opening therein adapted to receive a casket containing the body to be calcinated or cremated. A door is provided for closing the opening. Burner means is mounted on the calcinating and cremating chamber. Means is provided which forms a generating chamber in the casing for hot gases and burner means is mounted in the chamber for creating hot gases. Means is also provided in the casing which permits the hot gases created in the generating chamber to pass into the calcinating and cremating chamber. Means is provided which forms a mixing chamber below the calcinating and cremating chamber for receiving gases which are driven off from the casket and the body. Burner means is mounted in the mixing chamber for combusting the volatiles driven off in the calcinating and cremating chamber. Means is provided which establishes communication between the calcinating and cremating chamber and the mixing chamber. A settling chamber is provided for receiving gases from the mixing chamber. Stack means is provided for exhausting gases from the settling chamber. Means is-provided for introducing cooling air through the casing and for inducing cooling air through the stack means. Control means is provided for controlling theburner means on said calcinating and cremating chamber, said generating chamber and said mixing chamber for selecting whether calcination or cremation shall take place in the calcinating and cremating chamber.

In general, it is an object of the present invention to provide a calcination cremator which can be utilized either for calcination or cremation and which contains features which make possible relatively high speed cremation and calcination.

Another object of the invention is to provide a calcination cremator of the above character which has a low cost of operation.

Another object of the invention is to provide a calcination cremator of the above character which can be supplied as a complete unit requiring no field assembly.

Another object of the invention is to provide a calcination cremator of the above character which has a relatively high resistance to heat absorption and, therefore, cools down rapidly.

Another object of the invention is to provide a calcination cremator of the above character which utilizes vertically positioning burner means to facilitate cremation.

Additional objects and features of the invention will appear from the following description in which the preferred embodiment is set forth in detail in conjunction with the accompanying drawing.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWING FIG. 1 is a front elevational view of a calcination cremator incorporating the present invention.

FIG. 2 is a side elevational view of the calcination cremator shown in FIG. 1.

FIG. 3 is a rear elevational view of the calcination cremator shown in FIG. 1.

FIG. 4 is a top plan view of the calcination cremator shown in FIG. 1.

FIG. 5 is a cross-sectional view taken along the line 5-5 of FIG. 6 showing various details of construction of the calcination cremator.

LII

FIG. 6 is a cross-sectional view taken along the line 6-6 of FIG. 5.

FIG. 7 is a cross-sectional view taken along the line 7-7 of FIG. 5.

FIG. 8 is an isometric view with certain parts broken away of the calcination cremator shown in FIGS. l7.

FIG. 9 is a semischematic illustration of the calcination cremator showing the flow of gases in the calcination cremator.

DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENT The calcination cremator shown in the drawings consists of a casing 11 which is formed by a rigid framework 12 covered with removable metal panels 13. Within the casing 11 there is provided means for forming a calcinating and cremating chamber 16, a pair of generating chambers 17 and 18 provided generally on opposite sides of the calcinating and cremating chamber and a mixing chamber 19 and a settling chamber 21 provided beneath the calcinating and cremating chamber 16. These chambers are formed by bricks formed of a refractory material. Preferably, it is desirable to use a refractory material which is of a low density type because it stores little heat and becomes hot rapidly on the surface and, therefore, also cools rapidly. One type of refractory material found to be particularly satisfactory is No. M-26 manufactured and sold by the Kaiser Refractory Division of Kaiser Steel.

The calcinating and cremating chamber 16 is provided with a large front opening 23 which is adapted to be closed by a large door 24 formed of a refractory brick. The casing is provided with a pair of metal doors 26 (see FIG. 1) which permits access to the large door 24 so that the casket containing the body can be readily inserted into the calcinating and cremating chamber. The chamber 16 is formed by a pair of side walls 27 and 28 and an arched roof 29. The chamber 16 is also formed with a floor 31 and an end wall 32. An opening 33 is provided in the end wall and is normally closed by a removable clean-out door 34. As can be seen particularly from FIG. 7, the calcinating and cremating chamber 16 is disposed near the top and equidistant between the sides of the casing 11.

The generating chambers 17 and 18 are disposed on opposite sides of the calcinating and cremating chamber 16 and are provided with side walls 36 and 37, a bottom wall 38, a top wall 39 and a pair of end walls 41 and 42. Burner means in the form ofa burner 44 is mounted in each of the end walls 41 and is provided for supplying heated gases to the chambers 17 and 18.

Means is provided for supplying the heated gases from the generating chambers 17 and 18 to the chamber 16 and consists of vertical ducts 46 which extend upwardly in the front end of the furnace (see FIG. 5) and which are in communication with passages 47 provided in the side walls 27 and 28 of the calcinating and cremating chamber 16. The heated gases introduced into the calcinating and cremating chamber 16 move rearwardly and then are exhausted downwardly through an opening 51 provided in the bottom wall or floor 31 into the mixing chamber 19. The mixing chamber 19 and the settling chamber 21 are formed side by side below the calcinating and cremating chamber 16 and are each provided with a bottom wall 52, a side wall 53 and a common side wall 54. The top wall is the bottom wall 31 of the calcinating and cremating chamber 16. The chamber 19 is provided with an end wall 56 in which burner means in the form of a burner 57 is mounted. An inlet 58 is provided in the end wall 56 and is provided for introducing additional air into the chamber 19 as hereinafter described.

Gases flow from the mixing chamber 19 into a settling chamber 21 through a plurality of openings or ports 61 provided in the common side wall 54. The gases then pass rearry material. Access to this breeching section 62 can be obtained through an extension 63 on which is mounted a removable access plate 64.

Burner means in the form of a pair of burners 66 and 67 is provided for the calcinating and cremating chamber. The burners 66 and 67 are mounted in spaced-apart positions generally equidistant between the sides of the chamber 16 on the arched roof 29 as shown in FIGS. 6 and 8 so that the flames from the burners are directed downwardly in a vertical direction into the calcinating and cremating chamber 16.

Means is provided for moving an envelope of cooling air through the casing 11 and consists of a large blower 71 driven by a motor 72. The blower is connected by ducting 73 to cause atmospheric air to be drawn through lowered openings 74 into the space between the casing 11 and the refractory brick which is utilized for forming the chambers 16, 17, I8, 19 and 21 so that an envelope of cooling air moves over the refractory brick and cools the exterior surfaces. Much of this air circulating within the casing 11 is then subsequently forced through the burners as hereinafter described to supply the necessary oxygen for combustion. Other portions of the air circulating in the casing are forced into stack means 76 by a blower 77 driven by a motor 78 to induce a draft therein and to cool the gases passing from the stack means. The stack means '76 is mounted upon the breeching section 62 and includes a truncated cone-shaped portion 76a which provides a Venturilike section for receiving the gases from the breeching section 62 and for introducing them into the stack means 76 through a Venturilike passage 79. The Venturilike portion 76a also forms in the stack an annular passage 81 which receives forced air from the blower 77 to introduce a ring of air under pressure into the stream of hot gases passing from the breeching section 62 to cool the hot gases as hereinafter explained.

Means is provided for reinjecting certain of the air from the stack means 76 and includes piping 84 connected into the stack means '76 and which is connected into the mixing section 19 at the inlet 53 as shown schematically in FIG. 9. A manually controlled damper $6 is provided in the piping $45 for controlling the amount of air introduced into the inlet 58. Means is provided for controlling the draft within the stack means 76 and consists of a pair of dampers (see FIG. 8) for controlling the amount of air introduced into the breeching section extension 63.

Means is provided for providing substantially automatic control of the calcination cremator and includes a master control panel 94 which is mounted for pivotal movement about a vertical hinge pin 96 so that it can be moved to an out of the way position when it is desired to maintain or repair the calcinating cremator. As is well known to those skilled in the art, the master control panel includes electrical meters and controls (see FIG. 3) and a junction box 95 which are utilized for mixing the gases and for controlling the operation of the burners and also for controlling the operation of the blowers for circulating the air. As is well known to those skilled in the art, such a master control panel includes means for starting and controlling the flow of fuel and air to the burners and for monitoring the temperatures within the chambers. Such means also includes means for automatically controlling the operation of the blowers 71 and "77. In addition, other minor controls are provided which will not be described in detail.

The construction of the calcinating cremator is ofa unitized type which can be preassembled in the factory and shipped to the desired location for immediate installation. A plurality of lifting hooks 96 are provided so that the entire calcination cremator can be lifted as a unit for installation in the desired location.

Operation of the calcinating cremator may now be briefly described as follows. Let it be assumed that his desired to carry out a calcination operation, that is, cremating a body without flame. The body to be cremated together with the casket in which the body is disposed is inserted through the large door 24 into the calcinating and cremating chamber 16.

The calcinating cremator is then operated to place the calcinating cremator in the calcinating mode of operation. Either one or both the burners 44 are placed in operation to generate heated gases within the chambers 17 and iii. if more rapid calcination is desired, both burners 44 and both chambers 1.7 and 18 can be utilized. The ratio of air to fuel for the burners d4 is controlled so that substantially all the oxygen in the air is utilized in combusting the fuel which is supplied to the burners Thus, there is produced in the chambers 17 and 18 heated gases which have insufficient oxygen to support flame. These heated gases are introduced through the vertical ducts 46 into the passages 47 into one end of the calcinating and cremating chamber 16 and travel rapidly rearwardly over the casket within the chamber 16 to incinerate or calcinate the casket and the body therein.

These heated gases within the chamber 16 rapidly cause the production of moisture and volatiles in the chamber to reduce the contents in the chamber 16 to a mineral ash. As pointed out, the oxygen content of the heated gases entering the chamber 16 is insufficient to support flame and for that reason no visible flame rises from the chamber contents being cremated. As the heated gases, the vapors and other volatiles driven off within the chamber 16 pass rearwardly and are discharged downwardly through the opening 51. in the bottom wall or floor 31 of the chamber 1.6 and enter into the mixing chamber 19. As these volatiles or vapors pass into the chamber 19, they sweep past the flame from the burner 57 which is also in operation. These vapors and volatiles are also thoroughly mixed with a substantial quantity of excess preheated air which is introduced frorn the piping 84 in the vicinity of the burner 57. This causes ingnition and combustion of the volatiles and vapors as they enter into the chamber 19 and cause these gases to be raised to an elevated temperature so that all obnoxious odors are destroyed before the gases pass from the mixing chamber 1Q. These gases, after they have been heated and thoroughly mixed, pass through a plurality of openings 61 into the settling chamber 21. The settling chamber 21 is provided to permit the heavier particles within the heated gases, such as any ashes and the like, to settle to the bottom of the chamber and to prevent pollution of the air.

The hot gases then enter the breeching section 62 and the Venturilike portion 76a of the stack means 76 so that a substantial upward draft is created. The amount of the draft is automatically controlled by the dampers 88. As the heated gases are exiting upwardly through the stack means 76, they are blended with a ring of cooling air from the blower 77 so that the temperatures of the gases are reduced to levels which are suitable for exhaustion through conventional chimneys and the like without use of expensive refractories. Thus, for example, the temperature of the heated gases can be reduced from approximately 700F. to temperatures such as 570F.

During the time that the calcination retort is operating, air is continuously being circulated by the large blower 13 through the casing 11 to cool the refractory brick which makes up the chambers 16, I7, 18, 19 and 21. As explained previously, this air in passing through the casing 11 is preheated and then is introduced through the burners which are in operation. Other portions of this air are introduced into the stack means by the blower 77 as hereinbefore described.

Within a predetermined period of time as, for example, three and one-half hours, the calcination operation is completed and the burners are turned off. Within a very short time as, for example, 20 minutes, the cremator has cooled down sufficiently to permit the ashes remaining in the calcinating and cremating chamber R6 to be removed and to permit the cremator to be again charged for the next operation.

If it is desired to carry out cremation instead of calcination with the cremator, the automatic control means is operated in the cremation mode. In this mode, the two burners 66 and 67 on top of the arched roof 29 are placed in operation to send flames directly downwardly onto the casket to cause rapid cremation of the same as, for example, within one and one-half hours. After this has been completed, the burners are again shut off and the cremator is cooled down to permit the ashes to be removed.

, From the foregoing, it can be seen that when the cremator is either being used for calcination or cremation, the heated gases from the calcinating and cremating chamber 16 pass underneath the floor or bottom wall forming the chamber 31 so that the bottom wall is heated. Thus, in effect, there are two passes of the gases with respect to the calcinating and cremating chamber first through the calcinating and cremating chamber, and then underneath the floor or bottom wall of the calcinating and cremating chamber to heat the same. The calcinating cremator, therefore, makes very efficient use of the heat which is produced and still volatizes all the volatiles and vapors passing from the calcinating and cremating chamber 116. In addition, any large particles settle therefrom and the heated gasses are cooled sufficiently so that they can be discharged through a conventional stack without any difficulty.

In operation of the cremator, there is an envelope of moving air passing around the refractory material which takes the heat away from the outside of the refractory material and prevents the entire cremator from becoming excessively hot during its operation. In addition, some of the heat which is absorbed by the moving air is utilized by introducing it through the burners to thereby reduce fuel costs.

From the foregoing, it can be seen that the calcinating cremator has many advantages. For example, the calcinating cremator is a complete unit and can be installed as a complete unit. It is merely necessary to provide an extension from the stack means 76 or to connect the stack to a conventional chimney. The cremator is constructed in such a manner that it can be completed in the factory and moved to the site for installation. Cooling is provided for the refractory material to cool the refractory material without deterioration of the refractory material when the cremation or calcination has been completed. The cremator has the feature that it can be utilized for either calcination or cremation and can complete either operation at a relatively low cost and in relatively short periods of time.

lclaim:

1. In a calcination cremator, a casing, means forming a calcination and cremating chamber within the casing and having an opening therein adapted to receive a casket with a body therein, a door for closing said opening, burner means mounted on the calcinating and cremating chamber for introducing heated gases into the calcinating and cremating chamber, means forming a generating chamber in said casing for creating hot gases, burner means mounted on said generating chamber for creating heated gases in said generating chamber, means in said casing forming means permitting the hot gases created within the cremating chamber to pass into the calcinating and cremating chamber, means forming a mixing chamber which is disposed below the calcinating and cremating chamber, said calcinating and cremating chamber having an opening therein in communication with the mixing chamber whereby the heated gases and the volatiles and vapors are driven off from the casket and body as they are reduced to a mineral ash and pass into the mixing chamber, means mounted on said mixing chamber for combusting the volatiles as they are introduced into the mixing chamber, means for receiving the gases from the mixing chamber and for exhausting the same to the atmosphere, and control means for controlling the burner means on the generating chamber and the burner means on the mixing chamber for selecting whether calcination or cremation will take place, said means for exhausting the gases from the mixing chamber to the atmosphere including stack means which has a Venturilike passage therein and means for introducing a ring of cooling air into the stack about the gases as they pass through the Venturilike section to intermix with and cool the heated gases.

2. A calcination cremator as in claim 1 wherein said means for exhausting the gases to the atmosphere also includes means forming a settling chamber within the casing, means establishing communication between the mixing chamber and the settling chamber and for connecting the settling chamber to the stack means whereby said heated gases pass from the mixing chamber and into the settling chamber to permit any large particles in the gases to settle out in the settling chamber.

3. In a calcination cremator, a casing, means forming a calcination and cremating chamber within the casing and having an opening therein adapted to receive a casket with a body therein, a door for closing said opening, burner means mounted on the calcinating and cremating chamber for introducing heated gases into the calcinating and cremating chamber, means forming a generating chamber in said casing for creating hot gases, burner means mounted on said generating chamber for creating heated gases in said generating chamber, means in said casing forming means permitting the hot gases created within the cremating chamber to pass into the calcinating and cremating chamber, means forming a mixing chamber which is disposed below the calcinating and cremating chamber, said calcinating and cremating chamber having an opening therein in communication with the mixing chamber whereby the heated gases and the volatiles and vapors are driven off from the casket and body as they are reduced to a mineral ash and pass into the mixing chamber, means mounted on said mixing chamber for combusting the volatiles as they are introduced into the mixing chamber, means for receiving the gases from the mixing chamber and for exhausting the same to the atmosphere, control means for controlling the burner means on the calcinating and cremating chamber, the burner means on the generating chamber and the burner means on the mixing chamber for selecting whether calcination or cremation will take place, and means for moving an envelope of cooling air through the casing which surrounds the means forming the calcinating and cremating chamber, the generating chamber, and the mixing chamber to cool the same.

4. A calcination cremator as in claim 1 together with blower means for moving a cooling envelope of air through the casing and surrounding the calcinating and cremating chamber, the generating chamber and the mixing chamber and wherein said means for introducing a ring of cooling air into the stack means includes additional blower means for removing at least a portion of the'air from within the casing utilized for cooling the chambers and for introducing the same into the stack means.

5. ln a calcination cremator, a casing, means forming a calcination and cremating chamber within the casing and having an opening therein adapted to receive a casket with a body therein, a door for closing said opening, burner means mounted on the calcinating and cremating chamber for introducing heated gases into the calcinating and cremating chamber, means forming a generating chamber in said casing for creating hot gases, burner means mounted on said generating chamber for creating heated gases in said generating chamber, means in said casing forming means permitting the hot gasses created within the cremating chamber to pass into the calcinating and cremating chamber, means forming a mixing chamber which is disposed below the calcinating and cremating chamber, said calcinating and cremating chamber having an opening therein in communication with the mixing chamber whereby the heated gases and the volatiles and vapors are driven off from the casket and body as they are reduced to a mineral ash and pass into the mixing chamber, means mounted on said mixing chamber for combusting the volatiles as they are introduced into the mixing chamber, means for receiving the gases from the mixing chamber and for exhausting the same to the atmosphere, control means for controlling the burner means on the calcinating and cremating chamber, the burner means on the generating chamber and the burner means on the mixing chamber for selecting whether calcination or cremation will take place, said means for exhausting the gases from the mixing chamber to the at mosphere including stack means which has a venturilike passage therein and means for introducing a ring of cooling air into the stack about the gases as they pass through the venturilike section to intermix with and cool the heated gases, and means for moving some of the heated gases from the means for receiving the heated gases and introducing them into the mixing chamber to enhance the combustion of the volatiles in the heated gases.

6. In a calcination cremator, a casing, means forming a calcinating and cremating chamber within the casing and having an opening therein adapted to receive a casket with a body therein, a door for closing said opening, burner means mounted on the calcinating and cremating chamber for in troducing heated gases into the calcinating and cremating chamber, means forming a generating chamber in said casing for creating hot gases, burner means mounted on said generating chamber for creating heated gases in said generating chamber, means in said casing forming means permitting the hot gases created within the generating chamber to pass into the calcinating and cremating chamber, means forming a mixing chamber which is disposed below the calcinating and cremating chamber, said calcinating and cremating chamber having an opening therein in communication with the mixing chamber whereby the heated gases and the volatiles and vapors are driven off from the casket and body as they are reduced to a mineral ash and pass into the mixing chamber, burner means mounted on said mixing chamber for combusting the volatiles as they are introduced into the mixing chamber, means for receiving the gases from the mixing chamber and for exhausting the same to the atmosphere, and control means for controlling the burner means on the calcinating and cremating chamber, the burner means on the generating chamber and the burner means on the mixing chamber for selecting whether calcination or cremation will take place, said means forming said calcinating and cremating chamber including a roof, said burner means mounted on said calcinating and cremating chamber being mounted on said roof so that the hot gases discharging therefrom are directed vertically down into the calcinating and cremating chamber.

7. in a calcinating cremator, a casing, means forming at ca]- cinating and cremating chamber within the casing and having an opening therein adapted to receive a casket with a body therein, a door for closing said opening, burner means mounted on the calcinating and cremating chamber for introducing heated gases into the calcinating and cremating chamber, means forming a generating chamber in said casing for creating hot gases, burner means mounted on said generating chamber for creating heated gases in said generating chamber, means in said casing forming means permitting the hot gases created within the generating chamber to pass into the calcinating and cremating chamber, means forming a mixing chamber which is disposed below the calcinating and cremating chamber, said calcinating and cremating chamber having an opening therein-in communication with the mixing chamber whereby the heated gases and the volatiles and vapors are driven off from the casket and body as they are reduced to a mineral ash and pass into the mixing chamber, burner means mounted on said mixing chamber for combusting the volatiles as they are introduced into the mixing chamber, means for receiving the gases from the mixing chamber and for exhausting the same to the atmosphere, and control means for controlling the burner means on the calcinating and cremating chamber, the burner means on the generating chamber and the burner means on the mixing chamber for selecting whether calcination or cremation will take place, said means for introducing the heated gases from a generating chamber into the calcinating and cremating chamber being located at one end of the calcinating and cremating chamber, the opening establishing communication between the calcinating and cremating chamber and the mixing chamber being located at the other end of the calcinating and cremating chamber so that the heated gases pass over the casket and then sweep under the floor of the calcinating and cremating chamber to supply heat to the floor of the calcinating and cremating chamber.

Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US3874310 *Jul 10, 1973Apr 1, 1975Tabo Ind AbCrematory oven
US4321878 *Jul 7, 1980Mar 30, 1982Segrest William WSecondary hearth crematory
US5014630 *Mar 29, 1990May 14, 1991Steve LookerCremator
US5095826 *May 4, 1989Mar 17, 1992Gavle Forsaljnings AbIncinerator
Classifications
U.S. Classification110/194
International ClassificationF23G1/00
Cooperative ClassificationF23G1/00
European ClassificationF23G1/00