US 3538909 A
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United States Patent  Inventors Gordon Joseph a  References Cited 3374 Nesta Drive 95118 and UNITED STATES PATENTS Ray Gene Williams, 3518 Julio Ave. 95124,
1,718,859 6/1929 l-lanawalt 126/121 both of San Jose, California 1,987,252 l/1935 Cage 126/121 816975 2 223 763 1211940 l-l 126/121 [221 2 821 975 2/1958 Tit? 126/120 [45 Patented Novrlfl, 1970 I FOREIGN PATENTS 237,019 8/1959 Australia 126/121 Primary ExaminerCharles J. Myhre PRE FAB "REPLACE LINER Attorneyl.esl1e N. Hansen 8 Claims, 7 Drawing Figs.
ABSTRACT: A unitary fireplace liner and cooling adjuncts  US. 126/120 for the firebox providing gauge lines for exterior building con-  int. Cl.'. F24b 1/18 struction resulting in peripheral air circulation, ventilation and  Field ofSearch 126/120, stack exhausting thereof as well as exterior cold air inlets 121 therefor.
S I I t 26 24 '9 l I i I :3 5 I .Z (I I /2 I 18/ I t ,f I 43 I 1 /I 2" l I I (7 4B 45 I I 42' 2O 1 I a I 0' Il Patented Nov. 10, 1970 Sheet 1 01'2 dionoouJosspH [MIGUES BWRAYGEN EWILLIAMS v IN ENTORS:
TheirAirorney BACKGROUND The present invention relates to a fireplace lining and more particularly to a prefabricated lining adapted to be built in to the structure of a building.
Prefabricated fireplace linings have heretofore been designed to minimize the time and labor of a brick mason having the particular skill required to build a fireplace on the job. An example of prior known factory built fireplace structures is shown and described in US. Pat. No. 2,821,975 which issued to Thulman Feb. 4, 1958. While the Thulman structure is a free standing unit adapted to be placed in an edifice for concealment within building walls and decorative facial treatment it is on the order of a stove or furnace requiring an outer shell. Moreover, the foregoing structure entails the use of built-in refractory, material as a. lining for the firebox of the unit. This results in a relatively cumbersome structure requiring sub-assembly elements which must be joined on the job by a trade other than the ordinary brick mason or carpenter.
THE PRESENT INVENTION It is an object of the present invention to provide a complete prefabricated fireplace liner which after placement on the job can be concealed by normal masonry construction.
It is another object of the present invention to provide a fireplace liner which is simple in construction and so constructcd as to lend itself to integrated usesge with the building construction to thereby minimize the labor and cost of building a fireplace on the job.
It is a further object to provide such a prefabricated liner with gauging accoutrements by which a common brick mason can lay brick about the liner such as to provide the air gaps necessary to insulation. In this connection the air gaps thus distance above the open bottom and below the lintel edge 17 of the fireplace opening 0. The upper edge 21 of the forwardly slanting portion 20 terminates a distance inwardly from the rearwardly slanting upper plate 18 comparable to the size of the flue required to provide a restrictive throat or opening 46 leading to the flue opening above. The upper edge 21 of the portion 20 extends between and is sealingly welded to the diverging side walls 13 and 14 and defines a horizontal break line L at each side wall whence the latter tilt convergingly as inwardly slanting top walls 22 and 23 which terminate at the plane of the upper edge 19 of the upper plate 18. These inwardly slanting top walls 22-23 are sealingly welded to the upper plate. 18 and have their upper edges 24 and 25, respectively, spaced from each other a distance comparable to a standard flue size for the firebox 11 thus formed. In this manner the upper edges 19, 24 and '25 form a U-shaped open upper end 26 on the fireplace liner 10 adapted to direct fumes, smoke and the like into a stack or flue S in a manner now to be explained. I x
A back plate conforming to the back wall 12 is secured in spaced relation to the latter by cross straps 30' at four corners thereof by welding. This provides a narrow air space A between the back wall'12 and back plate 30 while the latter establishes a vertical barrier or line against which an outside wall 31 is constructed on the job.
The back plate 30 is slightly greater in width than the back wall 12 by about a brick width. Thus the side edges 32 and 33 of the back plate 30 provide gauge lines in spaced relation to created provide a cooling effect between the liner and the line 3-3 therein;
FIG. 4 is an enlarged fragmentary detail section of the throat portion of FIG. 2;
FIG. 5 is a perspective view of the fireplace liner of FIGS. 1 through 3 as seen from the back and one side thereof.
FIG. 6 is a view similar to that of FIG. 2 with the liner embodied in masonry and building construction; and
FIG. 7 is a plan view similar to that of FIG. 3 embodied in building construction.
Referring to the drawing a prefabricated fireplace liner generally designated 10 is shown as comprising a unitary structure of sheet metal in the form of a fire box 11 having an open bottom defined by a back wall 12, and outwardly diverging side walls 13 and 14 extending to an open front. The width of the firebox opening 0 of the fireplace is defined by forward flanges 15-16, extending outwardly of the side walls 13 and 14, respectively. These flanges 15-16 in conjunction with the lower edge 17 of an upper plate 18 form a fireplaceopening O suited to the size of the firebox 11 The lower edge 17 of the upper plate thus establishes the lintel line for the fireplace opening 0. W
The upper plate 18 is tilted rearwardly and has an upper edge 19 which terminates in spaced relation to the plane of the back wall 12 and above the same. The spacing is, substantially that of a standard flue size for the. particular firebox thus formed. The backwall 12 of the firebox 11 has a forwardly slanting portion 20 which breaks forwardly a predetermined the back vertical corners 34-35 of the firebox 11. The outer edges of the forward flanges 15-16 of the side walls 13 and 14, respectively, likewise establish vertical gauge lines adjacent the open side of the fireplace.
Referring to FIGS. 6 and 7 a foundation or base 27 is first prepared on which a slab of cement 28 has been poured. Suitable firebrick 29 is closely laid in cement mortar with fireclay on the slab 28 forming the floor for the firebox 11 of the fireplace liner l0.
The fireplace liner 10 is placed upon the firebrick floor 29 n about the liner 10. As best seen in FIGS. 6 and 7 courses of brick are laid in planes established by the back plate 30 and according to the vertical gauge or guide lines established by the side edges32-33 of the back plate as well as the outer edges of the forward flanges 15-16. This creates suitable air spaces 36 and 37 between the diverging side walls 13 and 14 of the fire box 11 and the adjacent courses of brick 38 and 39, respectively, laid up according to the aforementioned guide lines on the liner 10.
In connection with the foregoing it should be noted that each of the diverging side walls 13 and 14 of the liner 10 has a louver opening40 and 41, respectively, formed therethrough within a brick width of the forward flanges 15 and 16. These louver openings 40-41 are approximately one brick width above the floor 29 and each is about one brick width high. The louvers 40-41 are formed by a U-shaped cut through the respective side wall, the bight of such out being closest to the forward flange 15 or 16. The louvers 40-41 pressed inwardly the side walls along a brake line established at the inner ends of the U-shaped cut defining the louvers. In this manner each louver 40-41 provides a deflector against direct heat from the firebox entering the air spaces 36 and 37 while allowing air incoming to the firebox via the opening 0 to enter the spaces 36 and 37. This causes sufficient circulation of air in the spaces 36 and 37 to dissipate the extreme heat radiating from the diverging side walls. 15' and 16. These spaces 36 and 37 are in communication with the air space A between the back plate 30 and the back wall 12 of the firebox 11 whereby the air entering via the'louvers 40-41 circulates, through the respective spaces 36 and 37 and into the space A where the heated air can rise up into the stack end of the liner 10.
The upper end of the air space A includes a slanted duct A defined by a forwardly slanting extension 42 formed integrally with the back plate 30. This forwardly slanting extension 42 terminates in an upper edge 42 at approximately the level of the linted edge 17 and in a zone behind the balance of the forwardly slanting upper portion 20 of the back wall 12 of the firebox 11. As best seen in FIG. 6 the upper edge 21 of the forwardly slanting portion 20 is disposed approximately midway between the upper plate 18 and a rockwool insulation barrier lining 43 built-in to the outside wall 31. The space ahead of the edge 21 forms the restrictive throat 45 of the fireplace while the space behind the edge 21 forms the smoke box 46 for the fireplace.
The restrictive opening formed by the throat 45 is controlled by a damper 47 hingedly connected to the upper edge 21 of the portion 20 in a conventional manner, there being a suitable handle 47' on the damper 47 whereby the latter can be manually adjusted.
The smoke box 46 of a fireplace is that zone wherein downdrafts of cold air descending from the stack S upon becoming heated are diverted forwardly and upwardly as it merges with the hot smoke and fumes which rise from the firebox 11 via the throat 46. The fireplace liner of the present invention is provided with a shelflike deflector 48 just above the upper edge 42' of the forwardly slanting extension 42 or open upper end of the slanted duct A formed thereby. The shelflike deflector 48 is welded to the slanting upper portion 20 and extends therefrom only sufficiently to cover the open upper end of the duct A whereby the heated air rising therethrough merges with the heated cold air return in the smoke box 47 for ascension therewith on out via the stack S.
Referring again to FIG. 6 it will be noted that additional cold air can be admitted to the narrow back space A for cooling effect on the back wall 12 of the firebox 11. Such additional cold air enters the back space A at the bottom via a slot 50 formed in the floor 29 and through the slab 27. The slot 50 is in communication with a lateral opening 51 through the outside wall 31 and covered by a suitable door 52 having the usual adjustable air inlet closure members thereon.
The exterior motif of the fireplace, its mantel and facade may be of any design according to the desires and likes of the owner or builder. FIGS. 6 and 7 are examples. Suffice it to say that suitable load bearing columns 53 and 54 may be constructed in conjunction with the courses of brick 38 and 39 adjacent the side walls and 16 of the liner 10 as illustrated in FIG. 7. These columns 53 and 54 when filled with cement having the necessary reinforcing rods R extending up through the brick work provide a foundation for the stack S which taperingly merges into a size for the particular flue lining selected.
Having thus described our new fireplace liner in specific detail it will be appreciated that the latter provides a prefabricated fireplace base which is uniformly constructed for operation and use requiring less on the job labor and material.
1. In a prefabricated fireplace adapted to be built into and concealed within conventional building construction such as brick masonry and upon a like foundation case having a firebrick floor; a unitary fireplace liner comprising:
a. a back wall having side walls divergingly extending therefrom to provide an open bottomed firebox adapted to be set upon such firebrick floor;
b. a rearwardly slanting front wall secured to said side walls and having its lower edge disposed a predetermined distance above the open bottom of said firebox dependent upon the distance between the forward edges of said sidewalls and cooperating therewith to form a fireplace opening;
c. said backwall having a forwardly'slanting portion commencing at a level above the floor and below said lower edge and terminating above said lower edge substantially midway between said rearwardly slanting front wall and the plane of said backwall to provide a smoke throat adjacent said rearwardly slantln front walld. said side walls being slante inwardly from the level of said throat and having their upper ends cooperating with the upper end of said rearwardly slanting front wall to provide a U-shaped stack outlet conforming to a flue size suitable for said firebox; e. a back plate mounted in spaced relation to said backwall for providing a narrow air space therebetween and to establish a line for the construction of an outside wall for such fireplace and the outside wall of a stack at the U- shaped stack outlet; said back plate having its side edges extending laterally beyond the back comers of said firebox and cooperating with the forward edges of said side walls for establishing a line for the construction of stack supporting columns joined to the said outside wall on each side on said firebox to thereby create air spaces on each side of the latter communicating with said narrow air space; and
g. a forwardly slanting upper portion on said back plate parallel to the upper portion of said back wall and conforming to the spaced relation of the latter relative to said back plate for discharging heated air into a smoke chamber formed between said throat and the outside wall of the stack.
2. The fireplace liner in accordance with that of claim 1 including a shelflike deflector extending rearwardly from the forwardly slanting portion of said back wall in spaced relation to the upper end of the forwardly slanting portion of said back plate a distance conforming to the spaced relation of the latter relative to the forwardly slanting portion of said back wall whereby heated air rising therethrough merges with cold air return in the smoke chamber.
3. The fireplace liner in accordance with that of claim 1 including: a louver opening in each of said diverging side walls adjacent the forward edges thereof for admitting cold air into the air space on each side of said firebox.
4. The fireplace liner in accordance with that of claim 3 in which each of said louver openings is disposed a brick width from the forward edge of each of said side walls.
5. The fireplace liner in accordance with that of claim 4 in which each of said louver openings is disposed approximately one brick width above the firebrick floor.
6. The fireplace liner in accordance with that of claim 5 including a shelfiike deflector extending rearwardly from the forwardly slanting portion of said back wall in spaced relation to the upper end of the forwardly slanting portion of said back plate a distance conforming to the spaced relation of the latter relative to the forwardly slanting portion of said back wall whereby heated air rising therethrough merges with cold air return in the smoke chamber.
7. The fireplace liner in accordance with that of claim 6 in which: a cold air inlet formed through the outside wall has communication with the open bottom of said narrow air space between said back wall and back plate of said liner for admitting therebetween cold air from exteriorly of the building construction.
8. The fireplace liner in accordance with that of claim 1 in which:
a. a cold air inlet formed through the outside wall has communication with the open bottom of said narrow air space between said back wall and back plate of said liner for admitting therebetween cold air from exteriorly of the building construction; and
b. a louver opening in each of said diverging side walls adjacent the forward edges thereof for admitting cold air into the air space on each side of said firebox.