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Publication numberUS3539112 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateNov 10, 1970
Filing dateApr 16, 1969
Priority dateApr 16, 1969
Publication numberUS 3539112 A, US 3539112A, US-A-3539112, US3539112 A, US3539112A
InventorsThompson William S
Original AssigneeElkhart Brass Mfg Co
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Fire hose nozzle with automatic volume adjustment
US 3539112 A
Abstract  available in
Previous page
Next page
Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

United States Patent inventor William S. Thompson Elkhart, Indiana Appl. No. 816,582

Filed April 16, i969 Patented Nov. 10, 1970 Assignee Elkhart Brass Manufacturing (30., Inc.

Elkhart, Indiana a corporation of Indiana FIRE HOSE NOZZLE WITH AUTOMATIC VOLUME ADJUSTMENT 10 Claims, 6 Drawing Figs.

US. Cl 239/452, 239/459, 239/570 Int. Cl B05b l/32 Field of Search 239145 2,

,IIllll in; or

[56] References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 2,433,985 l/1948 Fodor 239/86X 3,244,376 4/1-966 Thompson 239/456X Primary Examiner-M. Henson Wood, Jr. Assistant ExaminerMichael Y. Mar Attorney-Oltsch and Knoblock ABSTRACT: A fire hose nozzle having a water way and a flaring discharge outlet confronted by a concentric valve head maintained in spaced water-pressure responsive relation to said outlet in a selected flow-regulating range by means o'fa spring located in a zone exteriorly of a tube defining the water way, said spring acting upon a spider carrying the valve head and slidable axially in the nozzle between a minimum-flow position abutting a stop and a maximum-flow position.

Patented Nov. 10, 1970 Sheet IIIII Iv w a Q INVEN'YIOR. WILL/AM s. THOMPSON wad/1W ATTOR/VE Y5 Patented Nov. 10, 1970 Sheet Q of2 I N VEN TOR. W/L L $4M 5. THOMPSON Mar WW- A TTORNE Y5 FIRE I-IOSE NOZZLE WITH AUTOMATIC VOULUME ADJUSTMENT This invention relates to improvements in fire hose nozzles and particularly to a fire hose nozzle with an automatic volume adjustment.

Fire hose nozzles are usually constructed to provide a predetermined or selected rate or volume of flow when water at a selected or a predetermined pressure is applied to the base or inlet end of the nozzle. The nozzle discharges the water, when in straight stream adjustment, in a selected range, reach or trajectory for which it is designed for firefighting purposes. Thus, fire hose nozzles commonly will have a trajectory or reach of from 100 feet to 300 feet when adjusted in straight stream position and when water at the pressure for which the nozzle is designed is supplied to the nozzle. Because of these characteristics, the range of variation of gallonage, volume or output through a nozzle of any particular design is rather limited, and also there is a limitation upon the range in variations in pressure under which a nozzle will operate effectively.

Actual conditions in fighting fires may involve wide ranges of a variation of water supply and effective water pressure. Thus, the nozzle may be one ofa group supplied from a common source of water under pressure through a Wye fitting, and the operating condition of each nozzle of the group may change greatly as additional nozzles are connected to the Wye fitting supplied from the common source. as by reduction of operating pressure at each nozzle of the group. Alternatively, the withdrawal or removal of a nozzle from the group will increase the operating pressure applied to all of the remaining nozzles of the group. In another situation, a single nozzle may be connected, as by a Siamese fitting, to a plurality of sources of water under pressure, and the functioning of the nozzle will be effected as the pressure of one or more of such sources supplying the Siamese fitting is increased or decreased. Thus, a decrease in applied pressure at a Siamese fitting will decrease the pressure effective at the nozzle with possible detriment to the functioning of the nozzle.

The effect of any substantial reduction of operating pressure at the base of the nozzle may be serious, in that the trajectory or reach of the nozzle may be sharply reduced so that it becomes totally ineffective for firefighting purposes. Thus, a nozzle designed to produce a reach of 200 feet when supplied with water under pressure in the range from 90 p.s.i. to 100 psi will have a reach as low as 30 to 40 feet when water is supplied thereto at a pressure of 20 p.s.i. This reduction of reach or trajectory is a serious handicap to a firefighter because it may endanger him and others of the crew working with him, some or all of whom may be depending upon the effectiveness of the streams of their respective nozzles to protect them from hazardous fire conditions.

It is a primary object of this invention to provide a nozzle whose gallonage or rate of discharge will vary automatically incident to variations in the pressure of water supplied thereto through adjustments which compensate for the variation in supply pressure without sacrifice of reach or trajectory of the nozzle.

A further object is to provide a fire hose nozzle havinga valve which is spring urged to a minimum volume discharge. U

position and which is shiftable in proportion to increases inapplied water pressure through a selected range to a predetermined maximum volume position.

A further object is to provide a spring-urged valve type nozzle wherein minimum obstruction to water flow through the water way through the nozzle occurs.

A further object is to provide a nozzle of this character having a spring controlling the position of a volume controlling valve and the size of a discharge orifice, and in which the spring is located in a static pressure area of the nozzle to minimize turbulence of the water stream flowing through the nozzle.

A further object is to provide a nozzle of this character which has arated maximum rate of output or gallonage and which will operate effectively to produce a firefighting stream of desired trajectory or reach when supplied with water at a rate and pressure substantially below the rate of flow and pressure required for the nozzle to function at maximum capacity.

A further object is to provide a nozzle of this character which has a variable orifice controlling valve member responding to water pressure passing through the nozzle and which controls output or discharge at a rate which will maintain effective reach of the firefighting stream being discharged.

A further object is to provide a nozzle of this character having spring urged means for varying the volume of discharge therefrom and which is provided with a stop insuring a minimum discharge orifice under all operating conditions.

A further object is to provide a fire nozzle whose rate of discharge varies with variations in the rate of supply of water under pressure and which has means for adjusting the pattern of discharge between straight stream setting and wide angle fog setting to insure desired reach in the straight stream setting and an effective dispersion of water in small particles in the fog setting.

Other objects will be apparent from the following specification;

In the drawings.

FIG. I is a view of one embodiment of the nozzle in side 1 elevation.

FIG. 2 is an axial sectional view of the nozzle.

FIG. 3 is a transverse sectional view of the nozzle taken along line 3-3 of FIG. 2.

FIG. 4 is a fragmentary axial sectional view of the nozzle when operating at a higher pressure and in a different pattern setting than illustrated in FIG. 2.

FIG. 5 is an axial sectional view of another embodiment of the invention.

FIG. 6. is a transverse sectional view taken along line 6-6 of FIG. 5.

My improved nozzle utilizes a tubular body having a discharge opening adjacent which is positioned the head of a valve mounted upon a spider slidable in the body and normally urged by a coilspring against a stop which positions the valve head at a selected minimum clearance position relative to the discharge opening, said spring being housed in an annular chamber at static pressure and defined in part by an inner tubular member.

. One embodiment of the invention is illustrated in FIGS. 1 to 4. In this construction the nozzle has an elongated tubular body 10 having a reduced diameter end portion 12 defining an annular shoulder 14 in its bore against which may abut a ring or washer 16. Body 10 preferably has an enlarged or thickened part 18 adjacent the reduced diameter end portion 12 and defining a shoulder 20 exteriorly and circumferentially thereof which may be abutted by a resilient ring 22 encircling the tube. An annular fitting 24 rotatably encircles the reduced diameter end portion 12 and is retained against axial movement by any suitable means, such as spherical members 26 received in complementary circumferential grooves formed in the inner surface of the fitting 24 and the outer surface of the reduced diameter end portion 12. A resilient annular washer 28 is seated in the fitting 24 abutting the end of the reduced diameter end portion 12. At its outer end the interior of the fitting 24 is screw threaded at 30 to receivethe threaded end portion 32 of a coupling 34 mounted upon the end of a flexible water hose 36 or upon an aerial platform or ladder, a water tower, a monitor, a fire boat or other mounting means. While the construction above described is preferable for nozzles of large capacity or rating, it will be understood that hand-held nozzles may be equipped with shut off means which may be of any type well known in the art or which may be of the volumeregulating type.

At the end of tubular body 10 opposite the reduced end portion 12, the body 10 preferably has an interior thread by which is anchored the threaded tubular portion 40 of a discharge ring which includes an enlarged annular part 42 having a conical mouth 44 and an enlarged cylindrical outer surface interrupted by a circumferential groove which mounts a resilient annular sealing ring or member 46, such as an O-ring. Part 42 has an annular external shoulder or seat portion adjacent threaded tubular part 40 which is preferably encircled by a resilient annular member 48. The threaded tubular portion 40 preferably has interior screw threads at which is threadedly secured the forward end of a stream-defining tube 50 extending therefrom in the direction of the reduced diameter portion I2 and preferably having an inner diameter substantially equal to or only slightly less than the inner diameter of the part 12. The outer surface of the tube 50 has clearance with and is concentric to the inner surface of the tube 10 to provide an annular chamber within which is received a coil spring 52. The leading or discharge end of the tube 50 may be beveled at 54 at its inner surface.

A spider having a central part 60 and radial legs 62 has a snug sliding fit in the body l0. The legs 62 of the spider normally bear against the washer 16 and against a ring or washer 64 which is engaged by one end of the coil spring 52. The opposite end of the coil spring 52 bears against the end of the tubular portion 40 of the discharge ring. The inner diameter of the washer 64 is greater than the outer diameter of the streamdefining tube 50. The spider legs 62 may be notched at 66 at a position to accommodate entry of the end of the tube 50 therein when the spider is displaced toward the right from the FIG. 2 position to a predetermined extent. It will be understood that the notches 66 are optional and their use depends upon the length of the tube 50 and the amount of clearance between the same and the spider in the normal position of the parts, and at the maximum position of the parts. Thus, as illustrated in FIG. 4, the spider legs need not be notched and may constitute means for determining a limit position of movement of the spider axially in the tube 10 when the spider legs engage the end of the tube 50.

Tube I has external screw threads 70 intermediate its length which mesh with internal screw threads of the tubular part 72 ofa stream-pattern defining member, sleeve or cuff 74 which has an inner diameter providing for sliding telescopic fit upon the discharge ring 42 of the nozzle. The member 72, 74 preferably has an internal shoulder 76 engageable with the resilient annular member 48 in the foremost limit position thereof, as illustrated in FIG. 2, which defines a straightstream pattern of discharge from the nozzle. The tubular part 72 is of such a length relative to the length of the tube that it may be adjusted to a wide angle fog position, as illustrated in FIG. 4, that is a position retracted relative to the discharge ring 42, as illustrated at FIG. 4. In this position, part 72 abuts resilient ring 22 and permits a pattern of discharge determined in part by the conical mouth 44 of the discharge ring 42. It will be understood that the stream pattern member 74 may be provided with longitudinally projecting teeth (not shown) at its outer end in the manner well known in the art, which teeth project into the path of the wide angle discharge for the purpose of breaking up the water being discharged into small particles or droplets.

The central portion 60 of the spider has an axial bore therein which receives a reduced part 80 of a valve stem 82 which extends axially forwardly from the spider and carries the valve head or disk 84. The reduced stem part 80 is screw threaded and mounts a retaining nut 86 for removably securing the valve stem in fixed relation to the spider 60-62. The valve stem is of such length that a predetermined minimum clearance occurs between the valve disk 84 and the discharge orifice 4454 when the spider 6062 is positioned'in fully retracted position engaging the stop defined by annular shoulder 14 and/or ring 16. The valve disk 84 is of larger diameter than the smallest part of discharge orifice 44-54 to insure deflection of the stream radially as guided by surface 44 when it passes said valve disk.

In the embodiment of the invention illustrated in FIGS. 5 and 6, parts similar to those in the embodiment shown in FIG. 1 are identified by the same reference numerals. In this construction, the stream-defining tube 50 extends full length of the cavity in the nozzle between the annular shoulder 14 and the discharge ring 42, and is provided with slots 51 in which the legs 62 of the shiftable spider fit slidably. The slots 51 are of such length as to accommodate predetermined axial shifting of the spider between predetermined minimum and maximum flow rate settings of the nozzle, with the foremost ends of said slots 51 defining the maximum flow rate setting or spacing of the valve head 84 relative to the discharge orifice 44 of the discharge ring 42. By this means, the tube 50 defines and guides the stream or flow passing through the nozzle body so as to minimize turbulence. At the same time, water can enter the chamber receiving the spring 52, but the water in that chamber is at static pressure.

Another characteristic of the construction shown in FIGS. 5 and 6 is the elongation of the discharge ring 42 to such a length as to accommodate the formation in its exterior cylindrical surface of two or more circumferential grooves 90 spaced longitudinally and adapted to receive a positioning sphere or plunger 92 carried by the stream pattern member 74 and urged radially inwardly by a spring 94. By this arrangement, the operator is enabled to determine by feel the positioning of the stream pattern member 74 at selected positions, such as straight-stream position, narrow-angle fog position, and wide-angle fog position, incident to rotation of the streampattern member 74 to advance or retract it by the action of the screw thread 70 and the meshing internal screw threads of the member 74,

Another variation in the FIG. 5 construction, wherein the exterior diameter of the tube 10 is substantially uniform, is the mounting upon the tubular part 72 of the stream pattern member of a retainer ring 96 projecting from the rear end of part 72 and confining a resilient ring 98 and an abutment ring 100. This arrangement serves both to limit the forward position of the stream pattern member 74 in straight-stream position illustrated in FIG. 5, and to insure against wedging of the stream pattern member in straight-stream position in a manner which would make difficult a rapid change of the setting of the stream pattern member during use of the nozzle.

Another characteristic of the FIG. 5 construction is the formation of an annular groove in the external surface of threaded tubular part 40 to accommodate a resilient sealing ring 102 sealing the fit between tube 10 and part 40. Also, an abutment ring 104 may be mounted in an external groove in member 42 rearwardly of the rearmost circumferential groove 90 and engageable with internal annular shoulder 76 of the stream pattern member when the stream pattern member 74 has been fully withdrawn to its wide-angle fog position. Other differences in shape, configuration and proportion will be apparent and are characteristic elements of design accommodating the nozzle to different flow rates or other characteristics of use.

The characteristics of the coil spring 52 are of great importance. One important characteristic is the use of a spring having its opposite ends displaced substantially 180 circumferentially. The spring ends are tapered as defined by end surfaces which are substantially parallel and lie in planes substantially perpendicular to the axis of the spring coils so as to provide flat face engagement at one end thereof with the end of the part 40 and at the other end thereof with abutment ring 64. The coil spring is formed of noncorrosive metal, such as stainless steel or beryllium copper, and is of such resilience as to provide a predetermined extent of flexing thereof progressively through a predetermined range of total applied pressure of liquid flowing through the nozzle. As illustrative of a spring suitable for use in a nozzle having a rated capacity of 1,000

g.p.m. at an operating pressure of psi. at the base or inlet of the nozzle, in which a travel of the valve disk in the order of three-eighths inch is to be provided between maximum flow rate setting and minimum flow rate setting, and in which the clearance space between the outer diameter of tube 50 and the inner diameter of body to receive the spring is one-half inch or more; a spring may be formed of stainless steel wire, SAE No. 30302, whose wire diameter is .406 inches, which has a total of 6% coils, whose inner diameter is 3.2 inches, and whose over all length is 5% inches. The spring ends are ground to lie in planes within 2 of perpendicular to the axis of the coil.

The operating characteristics of the nozzle of the construction shown in FIG. 5 and having the spring described above, were as follows when the rate of supply and the supply pressure of water applied to the base of the nozzle varied: The nozzle discharged at the rate of 1,000 g.p.m. with an applied pressure at 102 psi. at its maximum discharge. As the supply of water reduced, the discharge rate reduced proportionately without detriment to the effective pressure required for the operative trajectory or reach of the stream for firefighting purposes. Thus, at reduced input, the following measurements were made: 900 g.p.m. output at 102 p.s.i.; 800 g.p.m. output at 101.5 p.s.i.; 700 g.p.m. at l0l p.s.i.', 600 g.p.m. at I00 p.s.i.; 500 g.p.m. at 99 p.s.i.; 400 g.p.m. at 97 p.s.i.; 300 g.p.m. at 92 p.s.i.; 260 g.p.m. at 85 p.s.i.; 250 g.p.m. at 80 p.s.i.

The foregoing results are characteristic of nozzles of this construction and occur as a result of the discharge modulating reaction of a spring under compression occuring in the range between maximum rated output and minimum operative output having an effective firefighting reach. In this regard, the position of the valve disk 84 relative to the discharge orifice 44 responds to the total pressure applied by the water stream tending to move the valve disk against the restraining action of the coil spring. Thus, at maximum setting, the valve disk 84 is spaced at a maximum distance from the orifice or mouth 44 to permit flow of maximum volume. As the rate at which water is supplied to the nozzle reduces in volume and/or pressure, the effective force acting upon the valve head 84 reduces proportionately, and the spring 52 expands or lengthens proportionately to move the spider toward the inlet and to move the valve head 84 toward the mouth 44. in this way, a wide range of volume adjustment of discharge of the nozzle, all at firefighting trajectory or reach, occurs. This is of great importance for the safety of the nozzle operator and assurance that sudden changes of available water supply or pressure will not stop discharge of water of effective reach from the nozzle so as to force withdrawal of the nozzleman from the fire.

It will be understood that the example herein given is illus' trative and that the combination and arrangement of parts described and shown herein may be applied in nozzles of different rated capacities, such as nozzles of a rated capacity of 100 g.p.m. or even less, or nozzles of the jumbo-type whose rated capacity is substantially greater than 1,000 g.p.m. No substantial variation in construction is required, and only normal design calculations attending design of nozzles of different capacities is required, together with calculation of the characteristics required in the spring of each size of nozzle.

The provision of a spring having X one-half convolutions and tapered ends providing abutment surfaces perpendicular to the axis of the spring coil is important to insure that the force exerted'by the spring longitudinally at all radii thereof is substantially equal. This action insures that the spider will shift freely and without tendency to bind, and also insures that the valve disk or head 84 will be maintained in a centered position relative to the discharge'orifice 44 under all operating conditions.

It will be apparent that this nozzle is the equivalent to a combination of a nozzle and an automatic pressure-regulator valve or relief valve, in that the nozzle alone insures that a pressure will exist adequate to provide a water stream which is effective for firefighting purposes, that is, which will have a predetermined minimum reach. In this particular, the nozzle is a to be distinguished from conventional nozzles which are of the constant orifice or set adjustment type in which a reduction of pressure below that for which the nozzle is set or is designed will cause a discharge within only a few feet of the nozzle and inadequate for firefightingpurposes. An important consideration of the construction is that the nozzle is provided with a stop which insures that the valve head will never engage the discharge opening so that even at low operating pressures the nozzle can operate effectively at its minimum rated firefighting capacity. Also, it is important that the nozzle having these characteristics can also provide for adjustment of the stream pattern between a straight-stream setting and a wideangle fog setting, and is effective in all settings regardless of the rate of discharge. Also of importance in the capability of the nozzle to maintain the desired reach of the discharged stream is the fact that the spring is not located in the waterway and, hence, does not produce turbulence in the waterway which would result in loss of pressure.

While the preferred embodiments of the invention have been described, it will be understood that the changes in the construction may be made as well understood in the art.


l. A fire hose nozzle comprising:

a tubular body having a pair of longitudinally spaced abutments therein and a flaring discharge mouth;

a tube within and concentric with said body defining an annular chamber therearound and a waterway therein;

a pressure-responsive valve assembly shiftable in said body and including a carrier element shiftable axially in said body between a position defined by one of said abutments and a second position, and a valve head confronting, concentric with and spacedfrom said flaring mouth and of a diameter greater than the smallest diameter of said mouth; and

a noncorrosive coil spring in said annular chamber with one end thereof acting on said carrier and its other end engaging one of said'abutments and exerting resistance to compression proportioned to variations in pressure of liquid supplied to the nozzle.

2. A fire hose nozzle as defined in claim 1, wherein said carrier element is a spider slidable axially in said body and mounting a longitudinal stem carrying said valve head.

3. A fire hose nozzle as defined in claim 1, wherein said carrier element is a spider shiftable axially in said body, and wherein a washer is interposed between said spider and said spring.

4. A fire hose nozzle as defined in claim 1, wherein said coil spring has its oppositeends displaced substantially and tapered to provide end abutment surfaces substantially perpendicular to the axis of the spring.

5. A fire hose nozzle as defined in claim 1, wherein said carrier is a spider slidable in said body, and said tube-defines a stop to limit pressure-responsive movement of said valve assembly outwardly relative to said mouth.

6. A fire hose nozzle as defined in claim 1, wherein said carrier is a spider slidable in said body and having laterally projecting legs, and said tube has slots in which said spider legs are freely shiftable.

7. A fire hose nozzle as defined in claim 1, wherein said carrier is a spider normally spaced from one end of said tube and slidable in said body, said spider having laterally projecting legs notched in register with said tube end to accommodate movement of the spider a selected distance into said tube in response to applied water pressure.

'8. A fire hose nozzle as defined in claim 1, and a stream-pattern-defining annular member mounted adjustably on the body at its discharge end for movement between predetermined limits. i

9. A fire hose nozzle comprising:

a tubular body having an inlet end and a flaring discharge mouth;

a pressure-responsive valve assembly shiftable in said body between predetermined limit positions and including. a valve head confronting, concentric with and spaced from said mouth in all positions of said assembly;

a tubular member within and concentric with said body and defining therein a waterway extending to said mouth and of said valve assembly toward the other abutment. 10. A fire hose nozzle as defined in claim 9, wherein said coil spring has tapered ends and a selected number of convolutions plus one-half convolution.

Referenced by
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U.S. Classification239/452, 239/459, 239/570
International ClassificationA62C31/00, A62C31/02, B05B1/00, B05B1/12
Cooperative ClassificationB05B1/12, A62C31/02
European ClassificationB05B1/12, A62C31/02