US 353940 A
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
' 2 Sheets-Sheet 1.
' H. V. HAYES.
TELEPHONE APPARATUS FOR DIVERS.
Patented Dec. 7, 1886.
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(No Modei.) 2 sheets-sheet 2.
' H. v. HAYES. TELEPHONE APPARATUS FORDIVERS.
No. 353,940. Patented Dec. 7. 1886.
. 'is a specification.
UNITED STATES PATENT Orrrcn.
TELEPHONE APPARATUS Poesy/ens.
srncrrtca'rron forming part of Letters Patents'No. 353,940, dated December '7, 18 86.
Application filed July), 1886. Serial No. 206.924; tblomodel.)
To aZZ whom it. may concern:
.Be it known that I, HAMMOND rsron HAYES, residing atlCambridge, in the county .of Middlesex and State of Mussachusettsmave invented certain Improvements in-"Telephoiie Apparatus for Divers, of which the following My invention relates to the application of electric. telephones-to the outfit ot'divers, so
that oral communication can at all times be maintained between a diver when underwater and his associate upon the land. Heret-ofore, andprior to my inventiomso far as I am aware, all attempts toiestablish telephonic communication under such circumstances have been of ntative charac'ter, and have only attained a artial degree of success."
The object of this inve vices which shall combine a high standard of efficiency 'in operation with perfect reliability,
considerable permanency, and extreme sim- -stituting my'inven-tion, which consists incombining the divers helmet with telephones connected by an electric circuit with'a corresponding telephone eutfit'to be stationed upon the.
It further consists in attaching to the inside of the helmet transmitting and receiving telephones the connecting-wire entering through a stuffing-box; in combining with the landtelephon'es a belt and portable battery-box, whereby the instruments and necessary appliances can be comfortably and conveniently wornby an attendant, and in including the telephone-instruments all in a battery-circuit, whereby asingle battery located upon the'shore is enabled to energize the complete circuit.
In the drawings by which the invention is illustrated, and which. formapart of this specification. Figure 1 is a perspective yiew of thefland outfit, consisting of thevattendants belt, the battery-box and battery supported thereby, and a combined transmitting and receiving telephone resting in a hook or clip ntion is to provide- ,tclephonic communication by the use of deupon the shore communicating with the diver." Fig'. 3 is a'diagram of the electrical connec- 'tions and the arrangement in circuit of the several appliances, and Fig. 4 -is ad'etail showing in section the coupling or stutfing-box by which the conducting-wire enters the divers, helmet. Fig. 5illustrates means of c0mmuui-' cation between two or more divers under wa 6c ter. Figs; 6 to 14, inclusive. are views of certain details or modifications, as hereinafter more particularly set forth.
.I have-ascertained by actual experiment that it is quite possible to exchange messages between adiverv'and his attendant intelligibly by the use of magneto-telephones exclusively; It is, however, not convenient, by reason of -the noise made by the escaping air and the consequent necessity of temporarily closing the air-valve, which engages'the diversatten- 'tion. and'compelshim to hold the air-valve close with his hand or by lying on "his back when communicating with the person on shore.
I prefer, therefore, to provide both the diver andhis attendant with a battery-transmitter, which enables the words. to be reproduced, loud'lyand distinctly-1 Moreover, since it is requisite that the diver should not have his freedom of movement hampered or restrained 8c in the slightest degree, and since divers. as a I class, strenuously vobject to anything which tends to such interference, it has not been found advisable to provide abattery and induction-coil for each transmitter in the usual manner, since such a provision would ob-' viously necessitateone of twoconditions. both objectionablei. e in the-first case thediver i; would have to be encumbered with the additlon of these appliances; or, on the other hand, 0, additional wires would be required to connect this telephones with battery and ind notion-coil on the shore. Ihaqe'tlierefore adoptedthe expedient of using a transmitter which is adapted for use in connection with a battery in the main circuit-such a one, for example,
as the now well-known Hunniugs transmitter--aud I connect in practice thetrnnsmit- 'ters and'receiversboth over and under water in circuit with a voltaic battery carried, as i hereinafter described, by the attendant upon the shore.- It will be of-course understoodthereon. Fig. 2 is adrawing representing the i that to obtain the best results from this plan divers telephones in circuit,and an attendan I the receiving-telephones must be wound with wire of low resistance, so that the current of the battery shall not be impaired in, strength.
In Fig. 1 the shore appliances are representcd comprising a belt, 1, to be worn by the attendant, to'which is attached a box or case, 2, preferably of leather, inclosing the battery, the cover 4 of which can be secured by a lock, or in any desired way; Wires 15 and 16 are shown leading from this battery-box down tp the divcrs apparatus, and other wires, 13 and 14, lead from the battery-boxto the transmitter 8 and receiver 7, through the circuit-clos,
ing key 9, supporting-bar 6, and wire 12. The
key-anvil a is in electrical connection with the mass of granulated carbon is inclosed between two conducting-plates included in the line-cir- 'cuit,'while the receiving-telephone 7 is preferably constructedsubstantially upon the plan elaborated'and described in Letters Patent issued June 8, 1886, to.E. .,T."Gilliland. No. 343,449, in which 'acast iron cup, formingth'e diaphragm-seat, incloses a soft-iron magnetcore surroundcd'by an electromagnetic helix included, by means of screw-posts 10, in the line-circuit. I am 'noflhoweyer, restricted to the use of these special'instruments, since, es-
- pecially at the land-station, anysuitable tele- .phones may be employed without departingfrom the spirit of my invention.
Fig. 2 shows the method of using the divers telephones. The attendant upon the shore is represented as being in the act of: using the combination-instrumeut A, which, by means, ofthe double conductor 0, is united electrically t0, binding-screws fixed upon or within the battery-case 2, which the said attendant carries at his belt -1.
The main wires 15 and 16 are, for convenience, twisted round the air-tube T, which is led into the helmet H of the diver D, the main wire 15 (which is of course carefully insulated) being also'condu'ctcd into the helmet through the coupling or appliance 17, (shown in Fig. 4,) in which H represents the side of the helmet and 15 the main wire which ends on the inside of the said helmet in the terminal 21. The conducting-wire 23 of the covered conductor 15 isinsulatcd from the helmet by the non-conducting bushing 24, this'being inclosed in the socket 19, upon which rests the compressing-piece 22 and the gland 18,- any suit; able packing being included in the space between the compressor andthe bushing. The receiver 7 and transmitter 8, affixed within the helmet, are brought into the circuit by a wire lending from-the terminal 21 through thought desirable.
ment-say the receiver--to the metal of the helmet, to which it is finally attached, and
which thus serves as the earth-plate, being surrounded on all sides by the water. But one wire, 15, passing down to the diver, is abso- 'lutely essential, as the circuit on the land side can readily be completed by means of a short wire leading to a plate let down into the water, or an earth-plate; but for convenience I employ a bare wire-16, to form-the returncircuit, which may be twisted with the main wire round thepipe or tube T, and which may continue as far into the water as may be In some cases it will be found advantageous to carry it completely to' the helmet. H, or even to attach it thereto, in
which ca'sethe resistance is reduced to a minimum. The battery which I have used consists of two or three cells made of rubber,with zinc andpcarbon for the elements ina sal-ammoniac solution, the form of carbon being that of a hollow cylinder surrounding the. zinc.
' Fig. 3 shows in diagram the arrangement of circuits. From one pole of the battery 3 the wire 15 leads down through thestufiing-box 17 to the transmitter-8, receiver 7, within the helmet H, and then' to the substance of the helmet. and the surrounding water, returnwire 16, te'leph'ones'7 and 8 on thetland, then by wire 11 to'the circuit-closing key 9, anvil a, and by the wire 14 to the other pole of the battery.
v In the operation of this instrummt.,.i,t.ha attendant wishes to speak with-the diver, he takes theinstrument from the hook at his side, and in grasping it presses a key, thus closing the. batterycircuit. The diver can clearly hear anything that is said, even if his car he wishes to speak, he pulls the life-line L, and the attendant, taking up his instruments to not against the receiving-telephone; The key is depressed, maintaining the circuit closed as long ast'ne conversation lasts. If the diver listen, depresses the key, and in so doing throws on the battery,so that the diverhas the power to state his wishes.
Itwill be observed that one pole of the battcry3 is marked z, to indicate the zincelement, and that one terminal of the telephone is also marked with the same letter. The
purpose of this is to indicate that the receiving-telephon'es should in all cases be so-connected'up that'the battery eurrent passing through their helices willtcnd to strengthen,
instead of to weaken, their initial andpermanent ma netism,
provided for in practice by marking one of the terminals of the telephone with some easily-.
understood mark, to indicate that pole of the battery which should be connected with the saidterminal. Bymarkingagiventerminal-- z, for example--itwill beuni't'ormly understood that the telephone must be so connected in circuit that the wire leading from thezinc element is to be united to that terminal.
It will also be understood that, although in and that this can readily be! the foregoingdescription I have referred uniformly to the attendant and his telephones as being upon the land, my invention includes of course the same elements if located upon a ship or boat, as shown in Fig. 5.
v. In carryingout my invention I contemplate also its use between two or more divers while under water, as illustrated in Fig. 5. In this case I place the battery in a hermeticallysealed case, 60, attached to the person of one or of each of the divers by means of a belt,- 7 or otherwise, and the circuit-wires may enter communicating with the interior thereof by nent part of the said life-line.
I do not limit myself to any special means of running the wire between the attendant and the diver. Thus in Fig. 6 the wire 15 is shown as twisted around the life-line L, and in Figs. 7 and 8 it is shown as forming a compo In Fig. 9 vthe wire 15 is shown as separate from both the life-line L and the tube T, and in Figs. 10 and 11 it is shown as inclosed in the air-tube.
,Other modifications may be made without departing from the spirit of the invention.
Having now described my invention and its operation, I claim-- 1. A system of telephonic communication for vdivers use, comprising two or more helo mets, a transmitting and a receiving telephone for each helmet, an independent transmitter and receiver above the water, a battery in a hermetically-closed case supported by the diver, and an electric circuit including said telephones and battery, substantially as described.
2. A system of telephonic communication for divers use, comprising a divers helmet, transmitting and receiving telephones supported thereby, an independent transmitting and receiving telephone for use on shore, and a connecting circuit having one or both terminals in the metal of the helmet, substantially as described. 4
3. The combination of the belt, the combination-telephone and supportinghook therefor carried by-said belt. and the battery and case also carried by said belt, substantially as described.
In testimony whereof I have signed my name to this specification, in the presence of two subscribing witnesses, this 30th day of June, 1886.
HAMMOND VINTON HAYES. Witnesses:
Tnos. D. LOOKWOOD, GEO. WILLIs PIERCE.